Photo of G. Mike Makrigiorgos,   PhD

G. Mike Makrigiorgos, PhD

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Phone: (617) 525-7122
Fax: (617) 582-6037

G. Mike Makrigiorgos, PhD

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute


  • Professor, Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School
  • Director of Medical Physics and Biophysics Division, Radiation Oncology, Brigham And Women's Hospital


Research Abstract

* Development of DNA technologies for assessing the impact of rare mutations in cancer management

* Development and detection of patient specific biomarkers for cancer prognosis and individual response to therapy. Detection of rare mutations in blood and other bodily fluids

* Develoopment of nano-technology-based approaches to improving the therapeutic ratio in radiation therapy


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  • Ladas I, Fitarelli-Kiehl M, Song C, Adalsteinsson VA, Parsons HA, Lin NU, Wagle N, Makrigiorgos GM. Multiplexed Elimination of Wild-Type DNA and High-Resolution Melting Prior to Targeted Resequencing of Liquid Biopsies. Clin Chem 2017. PubMed
  • van de Ven AL, Tangutoori S, Baldwin P, Qiao J, Gharagouzloo C, Seitzer N, Clohessy JG, Makrigiorgos GM, Cormack R, Pandolfi PP, Sridhar S. Nanoformulation of Olaparib Amplifies PARP Inhibition and Sensitizes PTEN/TP53-Deficient Prostate Cancer to Radiation. Mol Cancer Ther 2017; 16:1279-1289. PubMed
  • Rios Velazquez E, Parmar C, Liu Y, Coroller TP, Cruz G, Stringfield O, Ye Z, Makrigiorgos M, Fennessy F, Mak RH, Gillies R, Quackenbush J, Aerts HJWL. Somatic Mutations Drive Distinct Imaging Phenotypes in Lung Cancer. Cancer Res 2017. PubMed
  • Liu Y, Song C, Ladas I, Fitarelli-Kiehl M, Makrigiorgos GM. Methylation-sensitive enrichment of minor DNA alleles using a double-strand DNA-specific nuclease. Nucleic Acids Res 2016. PubMed
  • Detappe A, Kunjachan S, Sancey L, Motto-Ros V, Biancur D, Drane P, Guieze R, Makrigiorgos GM, Tillement O, Langer R, Berbeco R. Advanced multimodal nanoparticles delay tumor progression with clinical radiation therapy. J Control Release 2016; 238:103-13. PubMed
  • Song C, Liu Y, Fontana R, Makrigiorgos A, Mamon H, Kulke MH, Makrigiorgos GM. Elimination of unaltered DNA in mixed clinical samples via nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment. Nucleic Acids Res 2016. PubMed
  • Herter-Sprie GS, Koyama S, Korideck H, Hai J, Deng J, Li YY, Buczkowski KA, Grant AK, Ullas S, Rhee K, Cavanaugh JD, Neupane NP, Christensen CL, Herter JM, Makrigiorgos GM, Hodi FS, Freeman GJ, Dranoff G, Hammerman PS, Kimmelman AC, Wong KK. Synergy of radiotherapy and PD-1 blockade in Kras-mutant lung cancer. JCI Insight 2016; 1:e87415. PubMed
  • Ngwa W, Ngoma T, Zietman A, Mayr N, Elzawawy A, Winningham TA, Balogun O, Enwerem-Bromson N, Ntizimira C, Olopade OI, Oluwole D, Odedina F, Williams M, Flanigan J, Asana L, Ngwa K, Avery S, Pollard JM, Roland T, Funwi-Gabga N, Mbarika V, Hardenbergh P, Winkfield K, Pipman Y, Stefan C, Ngoma M, Mohammed S, Katz M, Erno S, Moni J, Fitzgerald T, Tonlaar N, Efstathiou J, Gierga D, Ayo C, Knaul F, Gospodarowicz M, Makrigiorgos GM, Nguyen PL. Closing the Cancer Divide Through Ubuntu: Information and Communication Technology-Powered Models for Global Radiation Oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016; 94:440-9. PubMed
  • Duquette M, Sadow PM, Husain A, Sims JN, Antonello ZA, Fischer AH, Song C, Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Makrigiorgos GM, Kurebayashi J, Nose V, Van Hummelen P, Bronson RT, Vinco M, Giordano TJ, Dias-Santagata D, Pandolfi PP, Nucera C. Metastasis-associated MCL1 and P16 copy number alterations dictate resistance to vemurafenib in a BRAFV600E patient-derived papillary thyroid carcinoma preclinical model. 2015. PubMed
  • Kunjachan S, Detappe A, Kumar R, Ireland T, Cameron L, Biancur DE, Motto-Ros V, Sancey L, Sridhar S, Makrigiorgos GM, Berbeco RI. Nanoparticle Mediated Tumor Vascular Disruption: A Novel Strategy in Radiation Therapy. Nano Lett 2015; 15:7488-96. PubMed
  • Song C, Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Bejar R, Ebert BL, Makrigiorgos GM. DMSO Increases Mutation Scanning Detection Sensitivity of High-Resolution Melting in Clinical Samples. Clin Chem 2015; 61:1354-62. PubMed
  • Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Paweletz C, Song C, Oxnard GR, Mamon H, Jänne PA, Makrigiorgos GM. Enhanced ratio of signals enables digital mutation scanning for rare allele detection. J Mol Diagn 2015. PubMed
  • Kumar R, Belz J, Markovic S, Jadhav T, Fowle W, Niedre M, Cormack R, Makrigiorgos MG, Sridhar S. Nanoparticle-based brachytherapy spacers for delivery of localized combined chemoradiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015; 91:393-400. PubMed
  • Sinha N, Cifter G, Sajo E, Kumar R, Sridhar S, Nguyen PL, Cormack RA, Makrigiorgos GM, Ngwa W. Brachytherapy application with in situ dose painting administered by gold nanoparticle eluters. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015; 91:385-92. PubMed
  • Altundal Y, Cifter G, Detappe A, Sajo E, Tsiamas P, Zygmanski P, Berbeco R, Cormack RA, Makrigiorgos M, Ngwa W. New potential for enhancing concomitant chemoradiotherapy with FDA approved concentrations of cisplatin via the photoelectric effect. 2015; 31:25-30. PubMed
  • Luchette M, Korideck H, Makrigiorgos M, Tillement O, Berbeco R. Radiation dose enhancement of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles on HeLa cells. 2014. PubMed
  • Murphy DM, Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Makrigiorgos GM. Enriching mutant sequences by modulating the denaturation time during PCR. Clin Chem 2014. PubMed
  • Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Milbury CA, Karatza E, Chen CC, Makrigiorgos GM, Merewood A. COLD-PCR amplification of bisulfite-converted DNA allows the enrichment and sequencing of rare un-methylated genomic regions. PLoS ONE 2014; 9:e94103. PubMed
  • Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Milbury CA, Guha M, Makrigiorgos GM. COLD-PCR enriches low-level variant DNA sequences and increases the sensitivity of genetic testing. Methods Mol Biol 2013; 1102:623-39. PubMed
  • Herter-Sprie GS, Korideck H, Christensen CL, Herter JM, Rhee K, Berbeco RI, Bennett DG, Akbay EA, Kozono D, Mak RH, Mike Makrigiorgos G, Kimmelman AC, Wong KK. Image-guided radiotherapy platform using single nodule conditional lung cancer mouse models. Nat Commun 2014; 5:5870. PubMed
  • Kumar R, Korideck H, Ngwa W, Berbeco RI, Makrigiorgos GM, Sridhar S. Third generation gold nanoplatform optimized for radiation therapy. Transl Cancer Res 2014. PubMed
  • Kumar R, Kulkarni A, Nabulsi J, Nagesha DK, Cormack R, Makrigiorgos MG, Sridhar S. Facile Synthesis of PEGylated PLGA Nanoparticles Encapsulating Doxorubicin and its In Vitro Evaluation as Potent Drug Delivery Vehicle. Drug Deliv Transl Res 2015; 3:299-308. PubMed
  • Detappe A, Tsiamas P, Ngwa W, Zygmanski P, Makrigiorgos M, Berbeco R. The effect of flattening filter free delivery on endothelial dose enhancement with gold nanoparticles. Med Phys 2013; 40:031706. PubMed
  • Tsiamas P, Liu B, Cifter F, Ngwa WF, Berbeco RI, Kappas C, Theodorou K, Marcus K, Makrigiorgos MG, Sajo E, Zygmanski P. Impact of beam quality on megavoltage radiotherapy treatment techniques utilizing gold nanoparticles for dose enhancement. Phys Med Biol 2013; 58:451-64. PubMed
  • Zygmanski P, Hoegele W, Tsiamas P, Cifter F, Ngwa W, Berbeco R, Makrigiorgos M, Sajo E. A stochastic model of cell survival for high-Z nanoparticle radiotherapy. Med Phys 2013; 40:024102. PubMed
  • Guha M, Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Liu P, Mamon H, Makrigiorgos GM. Differential strand separation at critical temperature: a minimally disruptive enrichment method for low-abundance unknown DNA mutations. Nucleic Acids Res 2013; 41:e50. PubMed
  • Ngwa W, Korideck H, Kassis AI, Kumar R, Sridhar S, Makrigiorgos GM, Cormack RA. In vitro radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles during continuous low-dose-rate gamma irradiation with I-125 brachytherapy seeds. 2012. PubMed
  • Guha M, Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Makrigiorgos GM. DISSECT Method Using PNA-LNA Clamp Improves Detection of EGFR T790m Mutation. PLoS ONE 2013; 8:e67782. PubMed
  • Berbeco RI, Korideck H, Ngwa W, Kumar R, Patel J, Sridhar S, Johnson S, Price BD, Kimmelman A, Makrigiorgos GM. DNA damage enhancement from gold nanoparticles for clinical MV photon beams. Radiat Res 2012. PubMed
  • Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Liu P, Milbury CA, Guha M, Brisci A, Cremonesi L, Ferrari M, Mamon H, Makrigiorgos GM. Temperature-tolerant COLD-PCR reduces temperature stringency and enables robust mutation enrichment. Clin Chem 2012; 58:1130-8. PubMed
  • Castellanos-Rizaldos E, Milbury CA, Makrigiorgos GM. Enrichment of mutations in multiple DNA sequences using COLD-PCR in emulsion. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e51362. PubMed
  • Li J, Jänne PA, Makrigiorgos GM. Biotinylated probe isolation of targeted gene region improves detection of T790M epidermal growth factor receptor mutation via peptide nucleic acid-enriched real-time PCR. Clin Chem 2011. PubMed
  • Milbury CA, Chen CC, Mamon H, Liu P, Santagata S, Makrigiorgos GM. Multiplex amplification coupled with COLD-PCR and high resolution melting enables identification of low-abundance mutations in cancer samples with low DNA content. J Mol Diagn 2011; 13:220-32. PubMed
  • Milbury CA, Li J, Liu P, Makrigiorgos GM. COLD-PCR: improving the sensitivity of molecular diagnostics assays. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2011; 11:159-69. PubMed
  • Berbeco RI, Ngwa W, Makrigiorgos GM. Localized Dose Enhancement to Tumor Blood Vessel Endothelial Cells via Megavoltage X-rays and Targeted Gold Nanoparticles: New Potential for External Beam Radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010. PubMed
  • Ngwa W, Makrigiorgos GM, Berbeco RI. Applying gold nanoparticles as tumor-vascular disrupting agents during brachytherapy: estimation of endothelial dose enhancement. Phys Med Biol 2010; 55:6533-48. PubMed
  • Nagesha DK, Tada DB, Stambaugh CK, Gultepe E, Jost E, Levy CO, Cormack R, Makrigiorgos GM, Sridhar S. Radiosensitizer-eluting nanocoatings on gold fiducials for biological in-situ image-guided radio therapy (BIS-IGRT). Phys Med Biol 2010; 55:6039-52. PubMed
  • Milbury CA, Li J, Makrigiorgos GM. Ice-COLD-PCR enables rapid amplification and robust enrichment for low-abundance unknown DNA mutations. Nucleic Acids Res 2010. PubMed
  • Zerilli F, Bonanno C, Shehi E, Amicarelli G, Adlerstein D, Makrigiorgos GM. Methylation-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detecting hypermethylated DNA in simplex and multiplex formats. Clin Chem 2010; 56:1287-96. PubMed
  • Tada DB, Singh S, Nagesha D, Jost E, Levy CO, Gultepe E, Cormack R, Makrigiorgos GM, Sridhar S. Chitosan film containing poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles: a platform for localized dual-drug release. 2010; 27:1738-45. PubMed
  • Zhu X, Palmer MR, Makrigiorgos GM, Kassis AI. Solid-tumor radionuclide therapy dosimetry: new paradigms in view of tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis. Med Phys 2010; 37:2974-84. PubMed
  • Cormack RA, Sridhar S, Suh WW, D'Amico AV, Makrigiorgos GM. Biological in situ dose painting for image-guided radiation therapy using drug-loaded implantable devices. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010; 76:615-23. PubMed
  • Li J, Makrigiorgos GM. s-RT-MELT: a novel technology for mutation screening. Methods Mol Biol 2010; 653:207-19. PubMed
  • Milbury CA, Li J, Makrigiorgos GM. COLD-PCR-enhanced high-resolution melting enables rapid and selective identification of low-level unknown mutations. Clin Chem 2009; 55:2130-43. PubMed
  • Li J, Milbury CA, Li C, Makrigiorgos GM. Two-round coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR)-based sanger sequencing identifies a novel spectrum of low-level mutations in lung adenocarcinoma. Hum Mutat 2009; 30:1583-90. PubMed
  • Li J, Makrigiorgos GM. COLD-PCR: a new platform for highly improved mutation detection in cancer and genetic testing. Biochem Soc Trans 2009; 37:427-32. PubMed
  • Milbury CA, Li J, Makrigiorgos GM. PCR-based methods for the enrichment of minority alleles and mutations. Clin Chem 2009; 55:632-40. PubMed
  • Li J,Wang L,Janne PA,Makrigiorgos GM. Coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR increases mutation-detection selectivity of TaqMan-based real-time PCR. Clin Chem 2009; 55:748-56. PubMed
  • Chin DW,Treister N,Friedland B,Cormack RA,Tishler RB,Makrigiorgos GM,Court LE. Effect of dental restorations and prostheses on radiotherapy dose distribution: a Monte Carlo study. J Appl Clin Med Phys 2009; 10:2853. PubMed
  • Lang JE, Magbanua MJ, Scott JH, Makrigiorgos GM, Wang G, Federman S, Esserman LJ, Park JW, Haqq CM. A comparison of RNA amplification techniques at sub-nanogram input concentration. BMC Genomics 2009; 10:326. PubMed
  • Mamon H,Hader C,Li J,Wang L,Kulke M,Amicarelli G,Shehi E,Adlerstein D,Roper K,Killion L,Hooshmand S,Makrigiorgos GM. Preferential amplification of apoptotic DNA from plasma: potential for enhancing detection of minor DNA alterations in circulating DNA. Clin Chem 2008; 54:1582-4. PubMed
  • Li J, Wang L, Mamon H, Kulke MH, Berbeco R, Makrigiorgos GM. Replacing PCR with COLD-PCR enriches variant DNA sequences and redefines the sensitivity of genetic testing. Nat Med 2008; 14:579-84. PubMed
  • Bonanno C, Shehi E, Adlerstein D, Makrigiorgos GM. MS-FLAG, a novel real-time signal generation method for methylation-specific PCR. Clin Chem 2007; 53:2119-27. PubMed
  • Wang F, Wang L, Briggs C, Sicinska E, Gaston SM, Mamon H, Kulke MH, Zamponi R, Loda M, Maher E, Ogino S, Fuchs CS, Li J, Hader C, Makrigiorgos GM. DNA degradation test predicts success in whole-genome amplification from diverse clinical samples. J Mol Diagn 2007; 9:441-51. PubMed
  • Xiang HF, Song JS, Chin DW, Cormack RA, Tishler RB, Makrigiorgos GM, Court LE, Chin LM. Build-up and surface dose measurements on phantoms using micro-MOSFET in 6 and 10 MV x-ray beams and comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations. Med Phys 2007; 34:1266-73. PubMed
  • Amicarelli G, Shehi E, Makrigiorgos GM, Adlerstein D. FLAG assay as a novel method for real-time signal generation during PCR: application to detection and genotyping of KRAS codon 12 mutations. Nucleic Acids Res 2007; 35:e131. PubMed
  • Li J, Berbeco R, Distel RJ, J. s-RT-MELT for rapid mutation scanning using enzymatic selection and real time DNA-melting: new potential for multiplex genetic analysis. Nucleic Acids Res 2007; 35:e84. PubMed
  • Li J, Makrigiorgos GM. Anti-primer quenching-based real-time PCR for simplex or multiplex DNA quantification and single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Nat Protoc 2007; 2:50-8. PubMed
  • Amicarelli G, Adlerstein D, Shehi E, Wang F, Makrigiorgos GM. Genotype-specific signal generation based on digestion of 3-way DNA junctions: application to KRAS variation detection. Clin Chem 2006; 52:1855-63. PubMed
  • Roy K, Wang L, Makrigiorgos GM, Price BD. Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 344:821-6. PubMed
  • Ogino S, Kawasaki T, Brahmandam M, Cantor M, Kirkner GJ, Spiegelman D, Makrigiorgos GM, Weisenberger DJ, Laird PW, Loda M, Fuchs CS. Precision and Performance Characteristics of Bisulfite Conversion and Real-Time PCR (MethyLight) for Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis. J Mol Diagn 2006; 8:209-217. PubMed
  • Li J, Wang F, Mamon H, Kulke MH, Harris L, Maher E, Wang L, Makrigiorgos GM. Antiprimer quenching-based real-time PCR and its application to the analysis of clinical cancer samples. Clin Chem 2006; 52:624-33. PubMed
  • Li J, Harris L, Mamon H, Kulke MH, Liu WH, Zhu P, Mike Makrigiorgos G. Whole genome amplification of plasma-circulating DNA enables expanded screening for allelic imbalance in plasma. J Mol Diagn 2006; 8:22-30. PubMed
  • Wang G, Maher E, Brennan C, Chin L, Leo C, Kaur M, Zhu P, Rook M, Wolfe JL, Makrigiorgos GM. DNA amplification method tolerant to sample degradation. Genome Res 2004; 14:2357-66. PubMed
  • Chen S, Wang G, Makrigiorgos GM, Price BD. Stable siRNA-mediated silencing of ATM alters the transcriptional profile of HeLa cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 317:1037-44. PubMed
  • Wang G, Brennan C, Rook M, Wolfe JL, Leo C, Chin L, Pan H, Liu WH, Price B, Makrigiorgos GM. Balanced-PCR amplification allows unbiased identification of genomic copy changes in minute cell and tissue samples. Nucleic Acids Res 2004; 32:e76. PubMed
  • Makrigiorgos GM, Chakrabarti S, Zhang Y, Kaur M, Price BD. A PCR-based amplification method retaining the quantitative difference between two complex genomes. Nat Biotechnol 2002; 20:936-9. PubMed
  • Kaur M, Zhang Y, Liu WH, Tetradis S, Price BD, Makrigiorgos GM. Ligation of a primer at a mutation: a method to detect low level mutations in DNA. Mutagenesis 2002; 17:365-74. PubMed
  • Zhang Y, Kaur M, Price BD, Tetradis S, Makrigiorgos GM. An amplification and ligation-based method to scan for unknown mutations in DNA. Hum Mutat 2002; 20:139-47. PubMed