Judy Lieberman, MD, PhD

Boston Children's Hospital

Boston Children's Hospital
Phone: (617) 713-8600
Fax: (617) 713-8621


Judy Lieberman, MD, PhD

Boston Children's Hospital


  • Professor, Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
  • Chair, PCMM, Boston Children's Hospital


Research Abstract

The Lieberman laboratory studies cytotoxic T lymphocytes, key cells in the immune defense against viral infection and cancer, and their role in antiviral immunity.

A major focus of the Lieberman laboratory is studying the molecular pathways used by CTLs to induce cell death. Granzyme A, the most abundant CTL death-inducing protease, induces a novel form of programmed cell death. Many tumors and viruses resistant to the classical pathway of cell death are sensitive to this pathway. The Lieberman laboratory has identified several novel protein substrates of granzyme A and has recently worked out the molecular basis for DNA destruction in this pathway.

Other work centers on understanding how the function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes is regulated. Her laboratory is particularly interested in characterizing the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS, and why it does not ultimately control the virus. They have found that although there are a large number of HIV-specific T cells in HIV-infected individuals, their function is significantly compromised in vivo. Knowledge gained from laboratory studies is used to develop and test in small clinical studies immune-based therapeutic and preventive strategies to treat HIV-infection. Currently her laboratory is working to develop an oral HIV vaccine using a Listeria monocytogenes vector.

Her interest in HIV led to recent work to harness RNA interference (RNAi) as a therapeutic tool. Her laboratory was able to harness this ancient antiviral defense mechanism, originally described in plants and worms, but more recently in mammalian cells, to suppress HIV infection. She was the first to demonstrate in an animal model that RNAi could be used to protect animals from disease. Her laboratory is currently actively working on translating RNAi for therapeutic use for HIV and cancer.

More recently they have been studying how miRNAs regulate cell differentiation and cancer. A recent paper from the Lieberman laboratory identified the miRNA let-7 as a master regulator of stemness of breast cancer stem cells. They are currently working to define the pathways by which let-7 and other miRNAs regulate self-renewal, differentiation, cell division, metastasis and chemosensitivity. They are also working to translate these findings into approaches for cancer therapy.


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  • O'Day E, Le MT, Imai S, Tan SM, Kirchner R, Arthanari H, Hofmann O, Wagner G, Lieberman J. An RNA-binding Protein, Lin28, Recognizes and Remodels G-quartets in the MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs It Regulates. J Biol Chem 2015; 290:17909-22. PubMed
  • Lieberman J. Manipulating the in vivo immune response by targeted gene knockdown. Curr Opin Immunol 2015; 35:63-72. PubMed
  • Thomas MP, Liu X, Whangbo J, McCrossan G, Sanborn KB, Basar E, Walch M, Lieberman J. Apoptosis Triggers Specific, Rapid, and Global mRNA Decay with 3' Uridylated Intermediates Degraded by DIS3L2. Cell Rep 2015; 11:1079-89. PubMed
  • Luo ML, Gong C, Chen CH, Hu H, Huang P, Zheng M, Yao Y, Wei S, Wulf G, Lieberman J, Zhou XZ, Song E, Lu KP. The Rab2A GTPase Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Tumorigenesis via Erk Signaling Activation. Cell Rep 2015. PubMed
  • Navarro F, Lieberman J. miR-34 and p53: New Insights into a Complex Functional Relationship. PLoS ONE 2015; 10:e0132767. PubMed
  • Dotiwala F, Fellay I, Filgueira L, Martinvalet D, Lieberman J, Walch M. A High Yield and Cost-efficient Expression System of Human Granzymes in Mammalian Cells. 2015. PubMed
  • Sharei A, Trifonova R, Jhunjhunwala S, Hartoularos GC, Eyerman AT, Lytton-Jean A, Angin M, Sharma S, Poceviciute R, Mao S, Heimann M, Liu S, Talkar T, Khan OF, Addo M, von Andrian UH, Anderson DG, Langer R, Lieberman J, Jensen KF. Ex vivo cytosolic delivery of functional macromolecules to immune cells. PLoS ONE 2015; 10:e0118803. PubMed
  • Le MT, Hamar P, Guo C, Basar E, Perdigão-Henriques R, Balaj L, Lieberman J. miR-200-containing extracellular vesicles promote breast cancer cell metastasis. J Clin Invest 2014; 124:5109-28. PubMed
  • Tan SM, Kirchner R, Jin J, Hofmann O, McReynolds L, Hide W, Lieberman J. Sequencing of captive target transcripts identifies the network of regulated genes and functions of primate-specific miR-522. Cell Rep 2014; 8:1225-39. PubMed
  • Tay Y, Tan SM, Karreth FA, Lieberman J, Pandolfi PP. Characterization of dual PTEN and p53-targeting microRNAs identifies microRNA-638/Dnm2 as a two-hit oncogenic locus. Cell Rep 2014; 8:714-22. PubMed
  • Luo ML, Gong C, Chen CH, Lee DY, Hu H, Huang P, Yao Y, Guo W, Reinhardt F, Wulf G, Lieberman J, Zhou XZ, Song E, Lu KP. Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Acts Downstream of miR200c to Promote Cancer Stem-like Cell Traits in Breast Cancer. Cancer Res 2014. PubMed
  • Thomas MP, Whangbo J, McCrossan G, Deutsch AJ, Martinod K, Walch M, Lieberman J. Leukocyte Protease Binding to Nucleic Acids Promotes Nuclear Localization and Cleavage of Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins. J Immunol 2014. PubMed
  • Thiery J, Lieberman J. Perforin: a key pore-forming protein for immune control of viruses and cancer. Subcell. Biochem. 2014; 80:197-220. PubMed
  • Tuli A, Thiery J, James AM, Michelet X, Sharma M, Garg S, Sanborn KB, Orange JS, Lieberman J, Brenner MB. Arf-like GTPase Arl8b regulates lytic granule polarization and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Mol Biol Cell 2013; 24:3721-35. PubMed
  • Petrocca F, Altschuler G, Tan SM, Mendillo ML, Yan H, Jerry DJ, Kung AL, Hide W, Ince TA, Lieberman J. A genome-wide siRNA screen identifies proteasome addiction as a vulnerability of basal-like triple-negative breast cancer cells. Cancer Cell 2013; 24:182-96. PubMed
  • Thomas MP, Lieberman J. Live or let die: posttranscriptional gene regulation in cell stress and cell death. Immunol Rev 2013; 253:237-52. PubMed
  • Huang L, Jin J, Deighan P, Kiner E, McReynolds L, Lieberman J. Efficient and specific gene knockdown by small interfering RNAs produced in bacteria. Nat Biotechnol 2013; 31:350-6. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Slack F, Pandolfi PP, Chinnaiyan A, Agami R, Mendell JT. Noncoding RNAs and cancer. Cell 2013; 153:9-10. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Sarnow P. Micromanaging Hepatitis C Virus. N Engl J Med 2013. PubMed
  • Lee MN, Roy M, Ong SE, Mertins P, Villani AC, Li W, Dotiwala F, Sen J, Doench JG, Orzalli MH, Kramnik I, Knipe DM, Lieberman J, Carr SA, Hacohen N. Identification of regulators of the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA and retroviral infection by an integrative approach. Nat Immunol 2013; 14:179-85. PubMed
  • Yan N, Lieberman J. SAMHD1 does it again, now in resting T cells. Nat Med 2012; 18:1611-2. PubMed
  • Petrocca F, Lieberman J. Promise and challenge of RNA interference-based therapy for cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29:747-54. PubMed
  • Thomas M, Lieberman J, Lal A. Desperately seeking microRNA targets. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2010; 17:1169-74. PubMed
  • Navarro F, Lieberman J. Small RNAs guide hematopoietic cell differentiation and function. J Immunol 2010; 184:5939-47. PubMed
  • Thiery J, Walch M, Jensen DK, Martinvalet D, Lieberman J. Isolation of cytotoxic T cell and NK granules and purification of their effector proteins. Curr Protoc Cell Biol 2010; Chapter 3:Unit3.37. PubMed
  • Lieberman J. Granzyme A activates another way to die. Immunol Rev 2010; 235:93-104. PubMed
  • Lieberman J. Anatomy of a murder: how cytotoxic T cells and NK cells are activated, develop, and eliminate their targets. Immunol Rev 2010; 235:5-9. PubMed
  • Thiery J, Keefe D, Saffarian S, Martinvalet D, Walch M, Boucrot E, Kirchhausen T, Lieberman J. Perforin activates clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis, which is required for plasma membrane repair and delivery of granzyme B for granzyme-mediated apoptosis. Blood 2010; 115:1582-93. PubMed
  • Chan MC, Hilyard AC, Wu C, Davis BN, Hill NS, Lal A, Lieberman J, Lagna G, Hata A. Molecular basis for antagonism between PDGF and the TGFbeta family of signalling pathways by control of miR-24 expression. EMBO J 2010; 29:559-73. PubMed
  • Lieberman J. Micromanaging cancer. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:1500-1. PubMed
  • Lal A, Navarro F, Maher CA, Maliszewski LE, Yan N, O'Day E, Chowdhury D, Dykxhoorn DM, Tsai P, Hofmann O, Becker KG, Gorospe M, Hide W, Lieberman J. miR-24 Inhibits cell proliferation by targeting E2F2, MYC, and other cell-cycle genes via binding to "seedless" 3'UTR microRNA recognition elements. Mol Cell 2009; 35:610-25. PubMed
  • Navarro F, Gutman D, Meire E, Cáceres M, Rigoutsos I, Bentwich Z, Lieberman J. miR-34a contributes to megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells independently of p53. Blood 2009; 114:2181-92. PubMed
  • Ahmed F, Friend S, George TC, Barteneva N, Lieberman J. Numbers matter: quantitative and dynamic analysis of the formation of an immunological synapse using imaging flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 2009; 347:79-86. PubMed
  • Zhu P, Martinvalet D, Chowdhury D, Zhang D, Schlesinger A, Lieberman J. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte protease granzyme A cleaves and inactivates poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1. Blood 2009; 114:1205-16. PubMed
  • Petrocca F, Lieberman J. Micromanipulating cancer: microRNA-based therapeutics? RNA Biol 2009; 6:335-40. PubMed
  • Lal A,Pan Y,Navarro F,Dykxhoorn DM,Moreau L,Meire E,Bentwich Z,Lieberman J,Chowdhury D. miR-24-mediated downregulation of H2AX suppresses DNA repair in terminally differentiated blood cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2009; 16:492-8. PubMed
  • Yan N,Cherepanov P,Daigle JE,Engelman A,Lieberman J. The SET complex acts as a barrier to autointegration of HIV-1. PLoS Pathog 2009; 5:e1000327. PubMed
  • Wu Y,Navarro F,Lal A,Basar E,Pandey RK,Manoharan M,Feng Y,Lee SJ,Lieberman J,Palliser D. Durable protection from Herpes Simplex Virus-2 transmission following intravaginal application of siRNAs targeting both a viral and host gene. Cell Host Microbe 2009; 5:84-94. PubMed
  • Dykxhoorn DM, Wu Y, Xie H, Yu F, Lal A, Petrocca F, Martinvalet D, Song E, Lim B, Lieberman J. miR-200 enhances mouse breast cancer cell colonization to form distant metastases. PLoS ONE 2009; 4:e7181. PubMed
  • Petrocca F,Lieberman J. Chapter 4 micromanagers of immune cell fate and function. Adv Immunol 2009; 102:227-44. PubMed
  • Shun MC,Botbol Y,Li X,Di Nunzio F,Daigle JE,Yan N,Lieberman J,Lavigne M,Engelman A. Identification and characterization of PWWP domain residues critical for LEDGF/p75 chromatin binding and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity. J Virol 2008; 82:11555-67. PubMed
  • Petrocca F,Lieberman J. RIG-ing an antitumor response. Nat Med 2008; 14:1152-3. PubMed
  • Chowdhury D, Xu X, Zhong X, Ahmed F, Zhong J, Liao J, Dykxhoorn DM, Weinstock DM, Pfeifer GP, Lieberman J. A PP4-phosphatase complex dephosphorylates gamma-H2AX generated during DNA replication. Mol Cell 2008; 31:33-46. PubMed
  • Martinvalet D,Dykxhoorn DM,Ferrini R,Lieberman J. Granzyme A cleaves a mitochondrial complex I protein to initiate caspase-independent cell death. Cell 2008; 133:681-92. PubMed
  • Brass AL, Dykxhoorn DM, Benita Y, Yan N, Engelman A, Xavier RJ, Lieberman J, Elledge SJ. Identification of host proteins required for HIV infection through a functional genomic screen. Science 2008; 319:921-6. PubMed
  • Dykxhoorn DM, Chowdhury D, Lieberman J. RNA interference and cancer: endogenous pathways and therapeutic approaches. Adv Exp Med Biol 2008; 615:299-329. PubMed
  • Chowdhury D, Lieberman J. Death by a thousand cuts: granzyme pathways of programmed cell death. Annu Rev Immunol 2008; 26:389-420. PubMed
  • Yu F, Yao H, Zhu P, Zhang X, Pan Q, Gong C, Huang Y, Hu X, Su F, Lieberman J, Song E. let-7 regulates self renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells. Cell 2007; 131:1109-23. PubMed
  • Jiang S, Rasmussen RA, Nolan KM, Frankel FR, Lieberman J, McClure HM, Williams KM, Babu US, Raybourne RB, Strobert E, Ruprecht RM. Live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes expressing HIV Gag: immunogenicity in rhesus monkeys. Vaccine 2007; 25:7470-9. PubMed
  • Lee-Kirsch MA, Gong M, Chowdhury D, Senenko L, Engel K, Lee YA, de Silva U, Bailey SL, Witte T, Vyse TJ, Kere J, Pfeiffer C, Harvey S, Wong A, Koskenmies S, Hummel O, Rohde K, Schmidt RE, Dominiczak AF, Gahr M, Hollis T, Perrino FW, Lieberman J, Hubner N. Mutations in the gene encoding the 3'-5' DNA exonuclease TREX1 are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Genet 2007; 39:1065-7. PubMed
  • Glodek AM, Le Y, Dykxhoorn DM, Park SY, Mostoslavsky G, Mulligan R, Lieberman J, Beggs HE, Honczarenko M, Silberstein LE. Focal adhesion kinase is required for CXCL12-induced chemotactic and pro-adhesive responses in hematopoietic precursor cells. Leukemia 2007; 21:1723-32. PubMed
  • Pipkin ME, Lieberman J. Delivering the kiss of death: progress on understanding how perforin works. Curr Opin Immunol 2007; 19:301-8. PubMed
  • de Fougerolles A, Vornlocher HP, Maraganore J, Lieberman J. Interfering with disease: a progress report on siRNA-based therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2007; 6:443-53. PubMed
  • Chowdhury D, Beresford PJ, Zhu P, Zhang D, Sung JS, Demple B, Perrino FW, Lieberman J. The exonuclease TREX1 is in the SET complex and acts in concert with NM23-H1 to degrade DNA during granzyme A-mediated cell death. Mol Cell 2006; 23:133-42. PubMed
  • Keogh MC, Kim JA, Downey M, Fillingham J, Chowdhury D, Harrison JC, Onishi M, Datta N, Galicia S, Emili A, Lieberman J, Shen X, Buratowski S, Haber JE, Durocher D, Greenblatt JF, Krogan NJ. A phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates gammaH2AX regulates DNA damage checkpoint recovery. Nature 2005; 439:497-501. PubMed
  • Palliser D, Chowdhury D, Wang QY, Lee SJ, Bronson RT, Knipe DM, Lieberman J. An siRNA-based microbicide protects mice from lethal herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Nature 2005; 439:89-94. PubMed
  • Keefe D, Shi L, Feske S, Massol R, Navarro F, Kirchhausen T, Lieberman J. Perforin triggers a plasma membrane-repair response that facilitates CTL induction of apoptosis. Immunity 2005; 23:249-62. PubMed
  • Lee SK, Dykxhoorn DM, Kumar P, Ranjbar S, Song E, Maliszewski LE, Fran. Lentiviral delivery of short hairpin RNAs protects CD4 T cells from multiple clades and primary isolates of HIV. Blood 2005; 106:818-26. PubMed
  • Feng H, Zhang D, Palliser D, Zhu P, Cai S, Schlesinger A, Maliszewski L, Lieberman J. Listeria-infected myeloid dendritic cells produce IFN-beta, priming T cell activation. J Immunol 2005; 175:421-32. PubMed
  • Song E, Zhu P, Lee SK, Chowdhury D, Kussman S, Dykxhoorn DM, Feng Y, Palliser D, Weiner DB, Shankar P, Marasco WA, Lieberman J. Antibody mediated in vivo delivery of small interfering RNAs via cell-surface receptors. Nat Biotechnol 2005; 23:709-17. PubMed
  • Liu L, Xu Z, Fuhlbrigge RC, Pe. Vaccinia virus induces strong immunoregulatory cytokine production in healthy human epidermal keratinocytes: a novel strategy for immune evasion. J Virol 2005; 79:7363-70. PubMed
  • Shi L, Keefe D, Durand E, Feng H, Zhang D, Lieberman J. Granzyme B binds to target cells mostly by charge and must be added at the same time as perforin to trigger apoptosis. J Immunol 2005; 174:5456-61. PubMed
  • Shankar P, Manjunath N, Lieberman J. The prospect of silencing disease using RNA interference. JAMA 2005; 293:1367-73. PubMed
  • Martinvalet D, Zhu P, Lieberman J. Granzyme A induces caspase-independent mitochondrial damage, a required first step for apoptosis. Immunity 2005; 22:355-70. PubMed
  • Xue Y, Johnson JS, Ornelles DA, Lieberman J, Engel DA. Adenovirus protein VII functions throughout early phase and interacts with cellular proteins SET and pp32. J Virol 2005; 79:2474-83. PubMed
  • Dykxhoorn DM, Lieberman J. The silent revolution: RNA interference as basic biology, research tool, and therapeutic. Annu Rev Med 2005; 56:401-23. PubMed
  • Fran. Cross-Clade CD8 T-Cell Responses to HIVIIIB and Chinese B' and C/B' Viruses in North American and Chinese HIV-Seropositive Donors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 37:1435-1444. PubMed
  • Hamar P, Song E, K. Small interfering RNA targeting Fas protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101:14883-8. PubMed
  • Ince MN, Harnisch B, Xu Z, Lee SK, Lange C, Moretta L, Lederman M, Lieberman J. Increased expression of the natural killer cell inhibitory receptor CD85j/ILT2 on antigen-specific effector CD8 T cells and its impact on CD8 T-cell function. Immunology 2004; 112:531-42. PubMed
  • Lieberman J. Tracking the killers: how should we measure CD8 T cells in HIV infection? AIDS 2004; 18:1489-93. PubMed
  • Lange CG, Xu Z, Patterson BK, Medvik K, Harnisch B, Asaad R, Valdez H, Lee SJ, Landay A, Lieberman J, Lederman MM. Proliferation responses to HIVp24 during antiretroviral therapy do not reflect improved immune phenotype or function. AIDS 2004; 18:605-13. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Fan Z. Nuclear war: the granzyme A-bomb. Curr Opin Immunol 2003; 15:553-9. PubMed
  • De Groot AS, Jesdale B, Martin W, Saint Aubin C, Sbai H, Bosma A, Lieberman J, Skowron G, Mansourati F, Mayer KH. Mapping cross-clade HIV-1 vaccine epitopes using a bioinformatics approach. Vaccine 2003; 21:4486-504. PubMed
  • Wan J, Martinvalet D, Ji X, Lois C, Kaech SM, Von Andrian UH, Lieberman J, Ahmed R, Manjunath N. The Bcl-2 family pro-apoptotic molecule, BNIP3 regulates activation-induced cell death of effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunology 2003; 110:10-7. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Song E, Lee SK, Shankar P. Interfering with disease: opportunities and roadblocks to harnessing RNA interference. Trends Mol Med 2003; 9:397-403. PubMed
  • Song E, Lee SK, Dykxhoorn DM, Novina C, Zhang D, Crawford K, Cerny J, Sharp PA, Lieberman J, Manjunath N, Shankar P. Sustained small interfering RNA-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibition in primary macrophages. J Virol 2003; 77:7174-81. PubMed
  • Kushner N, Zhang D, Touzjian N, Essex M, Lieberman J, Lu Y. A fragment of anthrax lethal factor delivers proteins to the cytosol without requiring protective antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100:6652-7. PubMed
  • Lieberman J. The ABCs of granule-mediated cytotoxicity: new weapons in the arsenal. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3:361-70. PubMed
  • Gu X, Laouar A, Wan J, Daheshia M, Lieberman J, Yokoyama WM, Katz HR, Manjunath N. The gp49B1 inhibitory receptor regulates the IFN-gamma responses of T cells and NK cells. J Immunol 2003; 170:4095-101. PubMed
  • Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Oh DY, Zhang D, Lieberman J. Tumor suppressor NM23-H1 is a granzyme A-activated DNase during CTL-mediated apoptosis, and the nucleosome assembly protein SET is its inhibitor. Cell 2003; 112:659-72. PubMed
  • Song E, Lee SK, Wang J, Ince N, Ouyang N, Min J, Chen J, Shankar P, Lieberman J. RNA interference targeting Fas protects mice from fulminant hepatitis. Nat Med 2003; 9:347-51. PubMed
  • Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Zhang D, Xu Z, Novina CD, Yoshida A, Pommier Y, Lieberman J. Cleaving the oxidative repair protein Ape1 enhances cell death mediated by granzyme A. Nat Immunol 2003; 4:145-53. PubMed
  • Geiben-Lynn R, Kursar M, Brown NV, Addo MM, Shau H, Lieberman J, Luster AD, Walker BD. HIV-1 antiviral activity of recombinant natural killer cell enhancing factors, NKEF-A and NKEF-B, members of the peroxiredoxin family. J Biol Chem 2002; 278:1569-74. PubMed
  • Zhang D, Shankar P, Xu Z, Harnisch B, Chen G, Lange C, Lee SJ, Valdez H, Lederman MM, Lieberman J. Most antiviral CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection do not express high levels of perforin and are not directly cytotoxic. Blood 2002; 101:226-35. PubMed
  • Lee SK, Xu Z, Lieberman J, Shankar P. The functional CD8 T cell response to HIV becomes type-specific in progressive disease. J Clin Invest 2002; 110:1339-47. PubMed
  • Lieberman J. Defying death--HIV mutation to evade cytotoxic T lymphocytes. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:1203-4. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Manjunath N, Shankar P. Avoiding the kiss of death: how HIV and other chronic viruses survive. Curr Opin Immunol 2002; 14:478-86. PubMed
  • Novina CD, Murray MF, Dykxhoorn DM, Beresford PJ, Riess J, Lee SK, Collman RG, Lieberman J, Shankar P, Sharp PA. siRNA-directed inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Nat Med 2002; 8:681-6. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Frankel FR. Engineered Listeria monocytogenes as an AIDS vaccine. Vaccine 2002; 20:2007-10. PubMed
  • Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Zhang D, Lieberman J. HMG2 interacts with the nucleosome assembly protein SET and is a target of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A. Mol Cell Biol 2002; 22:2810-20. PubMed
  • Beresford PJ, Zhang D, Oh DY, Fan Z, Greer EL, Russo ML, Jaju M, Lieberman J. Granzyme A activates an endoplasmic reticulum-associated caspase-independent nuclease to induce single-stranded DNA nicks. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:43285-93. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Shankar P, Manjunath N, Andersson J. Dressed to kill? A review of why antiviral CD8 T lymphocytes fail to prevent progressive immunodeficiency in HIV-1 infection. Blood 2001; 98:1667-77. PubMed
  • Manjunath N, Shankar P, Wan J, Weninger W, Crowley MA, Hieshima K, Springer TA, Fan X, Shen H, Lieberman J, von Andrian UH. Effector differentiation is not prerequisite for generation of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 2001; 108:871-8. PubMed
  • Chen G, Shankar P, Lange C, Valdez H, Skolnik PR, Wu L, Manjunath N, Lieberman J. CD8 T cells specific for human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus lack molecules for homing to lymphoid sites of infection. Blood 2001; 98:156-64. PubMed
  • Sharif-Askari E, Alam A, Rh. Direct cleavage of the human DNA fragmentation factor-45 by granzyme B induces caspase-activated DNase release and DNA fragmentation. EMBO J 2001; 20:3101-13. PubMed
  • Zhang D, Beresford PJ, Greenberg AH, Lieberman J. Granzymes A and B directly cleave lamins and disrupt the nuclear lamina during granule-mediated cytolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98:5746-51. PubMed
  • Zhang D, Pasternack MS, Beresford PJ, Wagner L, Greenberg AH, Lieberman J. Induction of rapid histone degradation by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte protease Granzyme A. J Biol Chem 2000; 276:3683-90. PubMed
  • Friedman RS, Frankel FR, Xu Z, Lieberman J. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8 T-cell responses by Listeria monocytogenes and a hyperattenuated Listeria strain engineered to express HIV antigens. J Virol 2000; 74:9987-93. PubMed
  • Shankar P, Russo M, Harnisch B, Patterson M, Skolnik P, Lieberman J. Impaired function of circulating HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 2000; 96:3094-101. PubMed
  • Trimble LA, Shankar P, Patterson M, Daily JP, Lieberman J. Human immunodeficiency virus-specific circulating CD8 T lymphocytes have down-modulated CD3zeta and CD28, key signaling molecules for T-cell activation. J Virol 2000; 74:7320-30. PubMed
  • Trimble LA, Kam LW, Friedman RS, Xu Z, Lieberman J. CD3zeta and CD28 down-modulation on CD8 T cells during viral infection. Blood 2000; 96:1021-9. PubMed
  • Lu Y, Friedman R, Kushner N, Doling A, Thomas L, Touzjian N, Starnbach M, Lieberman J. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97:8027-32. PubMed
  • Mackewicz CE, Lieberman J, Froelich C, Levy JA. HIV virions and HIV infection in vitro are unaffected by human granzymes A and B. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2000; 16:367-72. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Sharp PA. Harnessing RNA interference for therapy: the silent treatment. JAMA 2015; 313:1207-8. PubMed
  • Hata A, Lieberman J. Dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis and gene silencing in cancer. Sci Signal 2015; 8:re3. PubMed
  • Lori F, Jessen H, Lieberman J, Finzi D, Rosenberg E, Tinelli C, Walker B, Siliciano RF, Lisziewicz J. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with hydroxyurea, didanosine, and a protease inhibitor before seroconversion is associated with normalized immune parameters and limited viral reservoir. J Infect Dis 1999; 180:1827-32. PubMed
  • Manjunath N, Shankar P, Stockton B, Dubey PD, Lieberman J, von Andrian UH. A transgenic mouse model to analyze CD8(+) effector T cell differentiation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96:13932-7. PubMed
  • Shankar P, Xu Z, Lieberman J. Viral-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes lyse human immunodeficiency virus-infected primary T lymphocytes by the granule exocytosis pathway. Blood 1999; 94:3084-93. PubMed
  • Lori F, Rosenberg E, Lieberman J, Foli A, Maserati R, Seminari E, Alberici F, Walker B, Lisziewicz J. Hydroxyurea and didanosine long-term treatment prevents HIV breakthrough and normalizes immune parameters. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1999; 15:1333-8. PubMed
  • Andersson J, Behbahani H, Lieberman J, Connick E, Landay A, Patterson B, S. Perforin is not co-expressed with granzyme A within cytotoxic granules in CD8 T lymphocytes present in lymphoid tissue during chronic HIV infection. AIDS 1999; 13:1295-303. PubMed
  • Lieberman J, Trimble LA, Friedman RS, Lisziewicz J, Lori F, Shankar P, Jessen H. Expansion of CD57 and CD62L-CD45RA+ CD8 T lymphocytes correlates with reduced viral plasma RNA after primary HIV infection. AIDS 1999; 13:891-9. PubMed
  • Trimble LA, Xu Z, Lieberman J. Clonal expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes is regulated by late exposure to serum to prevent apoptosis. J Immunol Methods 1999; 225:39-52. PubMed
  • Lisziewicz J, Rosenberg E, Lieberman J, Jessen H, Lopalco L, Siliciano R, Walker B, Lori F. Control of HIV despite the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:1683-4. PubMed
  • Lori F, Jessen H, Lieberman J, Clerici M, Tinelli C, Lisziewicz J. Immune restoration by combination of a cytostatic drug (hydroxyurea) and anti-HIV drugs (didanosine and indinavir). AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1999; 15:619-24. PubMed
  • Beresford PJ, Xia Z, Greenberg AH, Lieberman J. Granzyme A loading induces rapid cytolysis and a novel form of DNA damage independently of caspase activation. Immunity 1999; 10:585-94. PubMed
  • MacDonald G, Shi L, Vande Velde C, Lieberman J, Greenberg AH. Mitochondria-dependent and -independent regulation of Granzyme B-induced apoptosis. J Exp Med 1999; 189:131-44. PubMed
  • Shankar P, Sprang H, Lieberman J. Effective lysis of HIV-1-infected primary CD4+ T cells by a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone directed against a novel A2-restricted reverse-transcriptase epitope. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998; 19:111-20. PubMed
  • Beresford PJ, Jaju M, Friedman RS, Yoon MJ, Lieberman J. A role for heat shock protein 27 in CTL-mediated cell death. J Immunol 1998; 161:161-7. PubMed
  • Xia Z, Kam CM, Huang C, Powers JC, Mandle RJ, Stevens RL, Lieberman J. Expression and purification of enzymatically active recombinant granzyme B in a baculovirus system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 243:384-9. PubMed
  • Trimble LA, Lieberman J. Circulating CD8 T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have impaired function and downmodulate CD3 zeta, the signaling chain of the T-cell receptor complex. Blood 1998; 91:585-94. PubMed
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  • Decker LL, Shankar P, Khan G, Freeman RB, Dezube BJ, Lieberman J, Thorley-Lawson DA. The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is present as an intact latent genome in KS tissue but replicates in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of KS patients. J Exp Med 1996; 184:283-8. PubMed
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