Photo of Nancy Krieger,  PhD

Nancy Krieger, PhD

Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health

Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health
Phone: (617) 432-1571
Fax: (617) 432-3123


nkrieger@hsph.harvard.edu

Nancy Krieger, PhD

Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health

EDUCATIONAL TITLES

  • Professor, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health

DF/HCC PROGRAM AFFILIATION

Research Abstract

Nancy Krieger is Professor of Society, Human Development, and Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, Associate Director of the Harvard Center for Society and Health, and Co-Director of the HSPH Interdisciplinary Concentration on Women, Gender, and Health. She received her PhD in Epidemiology from the University of California at Berkeley in 1989. Dr. Krieger is a social epidemiologist, with a background in biochemistry, philosophy of science, and the history of public health, combined with 25 years of experience as an activist in issues involving social justice, science, and health. In 2004, she became one of the ISI highly cited scientists, a group comprising “less than one-half of one percent of all publishing researchers.” Dr. Krieger’s work focuses on three aspects of social inequalities in health: (a) etiologic studies on the determinants of health inequities, (b) methods for improving monitoring of social inequalities in health, and (c) development of theoretical frameworks, including ecosocial theory, to guide work on understanding and addressing health inequities, as informed by analysis of the history and politics of epidemiology and public health. Examples of her empirical work include: research on racism, discrimination and health, including blood pressure and birth outcomes; socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer; and research on appropriate measures of social class (individual, household, and neighborhood), especially for population-based monitoring of social inequalities in health and also for studying women, gender, class, and health. She is editor of Embodying Inequality: Epidemiologic Perspectives (Baywood Press, 2004) and co-editor, with Glen Margo, of AIDS: The Politics of Survival (Baywood Publishers, 1994), and, with Elizabeth Fee, of Women’s Health, Politics, and Power: Essays on Sex/Gender, Medicine, and Public Health (Baywood Publishers, 1994). In 1994 she co-founded, and still chairs, the Spirit of 1848 Caucus of the American Public Health Association, which is concerned with the links between social justice and public health.

Publications

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  • Johnson TP, Shariff-Marco S, Willis G, Cho YI, Breen N, Gee GC, Krieger N, Grant D, Alegria M, Mays VM, Williams DR, Landrine H, Liu B, Reeve BB, Takeuchi D, Ponce NA. Sources of Interactional Problems in a Survey of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination. Int J Public Opin Res 2015; 27:244-263. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Beckfield J, Kiang MV. 50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US-born Black and White Americans, 1959-2008. Int J Epidemiol 2014. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Kiang MV, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Beckfield J. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women. Am J Public Health 2014. PubMed
  • Krieger N. History, Biology, and Health Inequities: Emergent Embodied Phenotypes and the Illustrative Case of the Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor. Am J Public Health 2012. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD. Temporal trends in the black/white breast cancer case ratio for estrogen receptor status: disparities are historically contingent, not innate. Cancer Causes Control 2011; 22:511-4. PubMed
  • Sembajwe G, Quinn M, Kriebel D, Stoddard A, Krieger N, Barbeau E. The influence of sociodemographic characteristics on agreement between self-reports and expert exposure assessments. Am J Ind Med 2010; 53:1019-31. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Carney D, Lancaster K, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Banaji M. Combining Explicit and Implicit Measures of Racial Discrimination in Health Research. Am J Public Health 2010; 100:1485-92. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD. Decline in US Breast Cancer Rates After the Women's Health Initiative: Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Differentials. Am J Public Health 2010; 100:S132-S139. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Birn AE. Health reform battles in the USA. Lancet 2010; 375:1081; author reply 1081-2. PubMed
  • Okechukwu CA,Krieger N,Sorensen G,Li Y,Barbeau EM. MassBuilt: effectiveness of an apprenticeship site-based smoking cessation intervention for unionized building trades workers. Cancer Causes Control 2009; 20:887-94. PubMed
  • Shariff-Marco S, Gee GC, Breen N, Willis G, Reeve BB, Grant D, Ponce NA, Krieger N, Landrine H, Williams DR, Alegria M, Mays VM, Johnson TP, Brown ER. A mixed-methods approach to developing a self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination measure for use in multiethnic health surveys. Ethn Dis 2010; 19:447-53. PubMed
  • Beckfield J,Krieger N. Epi + demos + cracy: Linking Political Systems and Priorities to the Magnitude of Health Inequities--Evidence, Gaps, and a Research Agenda. Epidemiol Rev 2009; 31:152-77. PubMed
  • Krieger N,Chen JT,Ware JH,Kaddour A. Race/ethnicity and breast cancer estrogen receptor status: impact of class, missing data, and modeling assumptions. Cancer Causes Control 2008; 19:1305-18. PubMed
  • Chen JT,Coull BA,Waterman PD,Schwartz J,Krieger N. Methodologic implications of social inequalities for analyzing health disparities in large spatiotemporal data sets: an example using breast cancer incidence data (Northern and Southern California, 1988--2002). Stat Med 2008; 27:3957-83. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health 2008; 98:S20-5. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Hormone therapy and the rise and perhaps fall of US breast cancer incidence rates: critical reflections. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37:627-37. PubMed
  • Chae DH, Takeuchi DT, Barbeau EM, Bennett GG, Lindsey J, Krieger N. Unfair Treatment, Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Ethnic Identification, and Smoking Among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American Study. Am J Public Health 2008; 98:485-92. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Proximal, distal, and the politics of causation: what's level got to do with it? Am J Public Health 2008; 98:221-30. PubMed
  • Davey Smith G,Krieger N. Tackling health inequities. BMJ 2008; 337:a1526. PubMed
  • Bates LM, Acevedo-Garcia D, Alegr. Immigration and generational trends in body mass index and obesity in the United States: results of the National Latino and Asian American Survey, 2002-2003. Am J Public Health 2007; 98:70-7. PubMed
  • Rehkopf DH,Berkman LF,Coull B,Krieger N. The non-linear risk of mortality by income level in a healthy population: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mortality follow-up cohort, 1988-2001. BMC Public Health 2008; 8:383. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Commentary: ways of asking and ways of living: reflections on the 50th anniversary of Morris' ever-useful Uses of Epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36:1173-80. PubMed
  • Quinn MM, Sembajwe G, Stoddard AM, Kriebel D, Krieger N, Sorensen G, Hartman C, Naishadham D, Barbeau EM. Social disparities in the burden of occupational exposures: results of a cross-sectional study. Am J Ind Med 2007; 50:861-75. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. Epidemiology 2007; 18:658-63. PubMed
  • Barbeau EM, Hartman C, Quinn MM, Stoddard AM, Krieger N. Methods for recruiting white, black, and hispanic working-class women and men to a study of physical and social hazards at work: the United for Health study. Int J Health Serv 2007; 37:127-44. PubMed
  • Rehkopf DH, Haughton LT, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Krieger N. Monitoring socioeconomic disparities in death: comparing individual-level education and area-based socioeconomic measures. Am J Public Health 2006; 96:2135-8. PubMed
  • Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N. Comparing individual- and area-based socioeconomic measures for the surveillance of health disparities: A multilevel analysis of Massachusetts births, 1989-1991. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 164:823-34. PubMed
  • Melchior M, Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Krieger N, Zins M, Bonenfant S, Goldberg M. Lifelong socioeconomic trajectory and premature mortality (35-65 years) in France: findings from the GAZEL Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2006; 60:937-44. PubMed
  • Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Coull BA, Cohen B, Ostrem M, Krieger N. Mapping and measuring social disparities in premature mortality: the impact of census tract poverty within and across Boston neighborhoods, 1999-2001. J Urban Health 2006; 83:1063-84. PubMed
  • Krieger N. A century of census tracts: health & the body politic (1906-2006). J Urban Health 2006; 83:355-61. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Yin R, Coull BA. Race/ethnicity and changing US socioeconomic gradients in breast cancer incidence: California and Massachusetts, 1978-2002 (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17:217-26. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Waterman PD, Hartman C, Bates LM, Stoddard AM, Quinn MM, Sorensen G, Barbeau EM. Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination--a study of Black, Latino, and White low-income women and men workers in the United States. Int J Health Serv 2006; 36:51-85. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Stormy Weather: Race, Gene Expression, and the Science of Health Disparities. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:2155-60. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Smith K, Naishadham D, Hartman C, Barbeau EM. Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Soc Sci Med 2005; 61:1576-96. PubMed
  • Stoddard AM, Krieger N, Barbeau EM, Bennett GG, Fay ME, Sorensen G, Emmons K. Methods and baseline characteristics of two group-randomized trials with multiracial and multiethnic working-class samples. Prev Chronic Dis 2005; 2:A10. PubMed
  • Krieger N, L. Hormone replacement therapy, cancer, controversies, and women's health: historical, epidemiological, biological, clinical, and advocacy perspectives. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59:740-8. PubMed
  • Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors' ability to practice harm reduction: a qualitative study. Soc Sci Med 2005; 61:673-84. PubMed
  • Melchior M, Krieger N, Kawachi I, Berkman LF, Niedhammer I, Goldberg M. Work factors and occupational class disparities in sickness absence: findings from the GAZEL cohort study. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:1206-12. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull BA, Selby JV. Lifetime socioeconomic position and twins' health: an analysis of 308 pairs of United States women twins. PLoS Med 2005; 2:e162. PubMed
  • Melchior M, Goldberg M, Krieger N, Kawachi I, Menvielle G, Zins M, Berkman LF. Occupational class, occupational mobility and cancer incidence among middle-aged men and women: a prospective study of the French GAZEL cohort*. Cancer Causes Control 2005; 16:515-24. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Embodiment: a conceptual glossary for epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59:350-5. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Defining and investigating social disparities in cancer: critical issues. Cancer Causes Control 2005; 16:5-14. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Emmons KM, White KB. Cancer disparities: developing a multidisciplinary research agenda - preface. Cancer Causes Control 2005; 16:1-3. PubMed
  • Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N. Racial disparities in context: a multilevel analysis of neighborhood variations in poverty and excess mortality among black populations in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:260-5. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Painting a truer picture of US socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:312-23. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Barbeau EM, Soobader MJ. Class matters: U.S. versus U.K. measures of occupational disparities in access to health services and health status in the 2000 U.S. National Health Interview Survey. Int J Health Serv 2005; 35:213-36. PubMed
  • Mustillo S, Krieger N, Gunderson EP, Sidney S, McCreath H, Kiefe CI. Self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and Black-White differences in preterm and low-birthweight deliveries: the CARDIA Study. Am J Public Health 2004; 94:2125-31. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Data, "race," and politics: a commentary on the epidemiological significance of California's Proposition 54. J Epidemiol Community Health 2004; 58:632-3. PubMed
  • Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. Characterizing perceived police violence: implications for public health. Am J Public Health 2004; 94:1109-18. PubMed
  • Barbeau EM, Krieger N, Soobader MJ. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000. Am J Public Health 2004; 94:269-78. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Davey Smith G. "Bodies count," and body counts: social epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiol Rev 2004; 26:92-103. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Latin American social medicine: the quest for social justice and public health. Am J Public Health 2003; 93:1989-91. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Race/ethnicity, gender, and monitoring socioeconomic gradients in health: a comparison of area-based socioeconomic measures--the public health disparities geocoding project. Am J Public Health 2003; 93:1655-71. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Northridge M, Gruskin S, Quinn M, Kriebel D, Davey Smith G, Bassett M, Rehkopf DH, Miller C,. Assessing health impact assessment: multidisciplinary and international perspectives. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003; 57:659-62. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections--and why does it matter? Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32:652-7. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Place, space, and health: GIS and epidemiology. Epidemiology 2003; 14:384-5. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Postmenopausal hormone therapy. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:2363-4; author reply 2363. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV. Monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and violence: geocoding and choice of area-based socioeconomic measures--the public health disparities geocoding project (US). Public Health Rep 2003; 118:240-60. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Strong EF, Makosky C, Weuve J. Breast cancer, birth cohorts, and Epstein-Barr virus: methodological issues in exploring the "hygiene hypothesis" in relation to breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and stomach cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12:405-11. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Choosing area based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birth weight and childhood lead poisoning: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US). J Epidemiol Community Health 2003; 57:186-99. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health 2003; 93:194-9. PubMed
  • Wise LA, Krieger N, Zierler S, Harlow BL. Lifetime socioeconomic position in relation to onset of perimenopause. J Epidemiol Community Health 2002; 56:851-60. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Geocoding and monitoring of US socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: does the choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter?: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156:471-82. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Waterman P, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Zip code caveat: bias due to spatiotemporal mismatches between zip codes and US census-defined geographic areas--the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:1100-2. PubMed
  • Chen JT, Krieger N, Van Den Eeden SK, Quesenberry CP. Different slopes for different folks: socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in asthma and hay fever among 173,859 U.S. men and women. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110 Suppl 2:211-6. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Is breast cancer a disease of affluence, poverty, or both? The case of African American women. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:611-3. PubMed
  • Krieger N. A glossary for social epidemiology. Epidemiol Bull 2002; 23:7-11. PubMed
  • Allsworth JE, Zierler S, Krieger N, Harlow BL. Ovarian function in late reproductive years in relation to lifetime experiences of abuse. Epidemiology 2001; 12:676-81. PubMed
  • Krieger N. A glossary for social epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001; 55:693-700. PubMed
  • Wise LA, Zierler S, Krieger N, Harlow BL. Adult onset of major depressive disorder in relation to early life violent victimisation: a case-control study. Lancet 2001; 358:881-7. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Gruskin S. Frameworks matter: ecosocial and health and human rights perspectives on disparities in women's health--the case of tuberculosis. J Am Med Womens Assoc 2002; 56:137-42. PubMed
  • Krieger N. The ostrich, the albatross, and public health: an ecosocial perspective--or why an explicit focus on health consequences of discrimination and deprivation is vital for good science and public health practice. Public Health Rep 2002; 116:419-23. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Historical roots of social epidemiology: socioeconomic gradients in health and contextual analysis. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30:899-900. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Williams DR. Changing to the 2000 standard million: are declining racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health real progress or statistical illusion? Am J Public Health 2001; 91:1209-13. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30:668-77. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Waterman P, Lemieux K, Zierler S, Hogan JW. On the wrong side of the tracts? Evaluating the accuracy of geocoding in public health research. Am J Public Health 2001; 91:1114-6. PubMed
  • Rich-Edwards J, Krieger N, Majzoub J, Zierler S, Lieberman E, Gillman M. Maternal experiences of racism and violence as predictors of preterm birth: rationale and study design. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2001; 15 Suppl 2:124-35. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Selby JV. Class inequalities in women's health: combined impact of childhood and adult social class--a study of 630 US women. Public Health 2001; 115:175-85. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Commentary: Society, biology and the logic of social epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30:44-6. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Socioeconomic data in cancer registries. Am J Public Health 2001; 91:156-7. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Counting accountably: implications of the new approaches to classifying race/ethnicity in the 2000 census. Am J Public Health 2000; 90:1687-9. PubMed
  • Okechukwu C, Krieger N, Sorensen G, Li Y, Barbeau E. Testing hypothesized psychosocial mediators: lessons learned in the MassBUILT study 2010.
  • Okechukwu CA, Krieger N, Chen J, Sorensen G, Li Y, Barbeau EM. The association of workplace hazards and smoking in a U.S. multiethnic working-class population. Public Health Rep 2010; 125:225-33. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Epidemiology and social sciences: towards a critical reengagement in the 21st century. Epidemiol Rev 2000; 22:155-63. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Quesenberry C, Peng T, Horn-Ross P, Stewart S, Brown S, Swallen K, Guillermo T, Suh D, Alvarez-Martinez L, Ward F. Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1988-92 (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 10:525-37. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Selby JV. Comparing individual-based and household-based measures of social class to assess class inequalities in women's health: a methodological study of 684 US women. J Epidemiol Community Health 2000; 53:612-23. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Sidney S, Coakley E. Racial discrimination and skin color in the CARDIA study: implications for public health research. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Am J Public Health 1998; 88:1308-13. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Okamoto A, Selby JV. Adult female twins' recall of childhood social class and father's education: a validation study for public health research. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 147:704-8. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Ebel G. Can we monitor socioeconomic inequalities in health? A survey of U.S. health departments' data collection and reporting practices. Public Health Rep 2000; 112:481-91. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Zierler S. The need for epidemiologic theory. Epidemiology 1997; 8:212-4. PubMed
  • Krieger N, van den Eeden SK, Zava D, Okamoto A. Race/ethnicity, social class, and prevalence of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers: a study of white, black, and Asian women in the San Francisco bay area. Ethn Dis 1997; 7:137-49. PubMed
  • Zierler S, Krieger N. Reframing women's risk: social inequalities and HIV infection. Annu Rev Public Health 1997; 18:401-36. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annu Rev Public Health 1997; 18:341-78. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Sidney S. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA Study of young black and white adults. Am J Public Health 1996; 86:1370-8. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Inequality, diversity, and health: thoughts on "race/ethnicity" and "gender". J Am Med Womens Assoc 1996; 51:133-6. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Moss N. Accounting for the public's health: an introduction to selected papers from a U.S. conference on "measuring social inequalities in health". Int J Health Serv 1996; 26:383-90. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Zierler S. What explains the public's health?--A call for epidemiologic theory. Epidemiology 1996; 7:107-9. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Fee E. Measuring social inequalities in health in the United States: a historical review, 1900-1950. Int J Health Serv 1996; 26:391-418. PubMed
  • Hahn RA, Eaker ED, Barker ND, Teutsch SM, Sosniak WA, Krieger N. Poverty and death in the United States. Int J Health Serv 1996; 26:673-90. PubMed
  • Lee PR, Moss N, Krieger N. Measuring social inequalities in health. Report on the Conference of the National Institutes of Health. Public Health Rep 1995; 110:302-5. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Epidemiology and the web of causation: has anyone seen the spider? Soc Sci Med 1994; 39:887-903. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Wolff MS, Hiatt RA, Rivera M, Vogelman J, Orentreich N. Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black, and Asian women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86:589-99. PubMed
  • Krieger N, Fee E. Man-made medicine and women's health: the biopolitics of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. Int J Health Serv 1994; 24:265-83. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Overcoming the absence of socioeconomic data in medical records: validation and application of a census-based methodology. Am J Public Health 1992; 82:703-10. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Women and social class: a methodological study comparing individual, household, and census measures as predictors of black/white differences in reproductive history. J Epidemiol Community Health 1991; 45:35-42. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Social class and the black/white crossover in the age-specific incidence of breast cancer: a study linking census-derived data to population-based registry records. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 131:804-14. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure? Soc Sci Med 1990; 30:1273-81. PubMed
  • Krieger N. Exposure, susceptibility, and breast cancer risk: a hypothesis regarding exogenous carcinogens, breast tissue development, and social gradients, including black/white differences, in breast cancer incidence. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1989; 13:205-23. PubMed
  • Bassett MT, Krieger N. Social class and black-white differences in breast cancer survival. Am J Public Health 1986; 76:1400-3. PubMed
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