Photo of Rameen Beroukhim,  MD, PhD

Rameen Beroukhim, MD, PhD

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute


rameen_beroukhim@dfci.harvard.edu

Rameen Beroukhim, MD, PhD

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

EDUCATIONAL TITLES

  • Assistant Professor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • Assistant Professor, Medical Oncology and Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
  • Associate Member, Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
  • Attending Physician, Medicine, Brigham And Women's Hospital

DF/HCC PROGRAM AFFILIATION

Research Abstract

The Beroukhim laboratory focuses on understanding the somatic genetics of cancer, primarily in identifying alterations in chromosomal structure (including copy-number gains and losses and loss of heterozygosity) that contribute to tumor growth, and characterizing the biological effects of these alterations. The aims of these experiments are to understand the biological basis of the various cancer subtypes to guide development of therapeutics, and to develop prognostic and predictive markers to guide the application of those therapeutics.

Much of our effort focuses on developing computational methods with general applicability to the study of the somatic genetics of cancer. An example is the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets In Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm, a statistical technique that distinguishes chromosomal alterations that are likely to drive tumorigenesis from alterations that may result from random chance alone. We and our collaborators have used this approach across many thousands of cancers to identify novel oncogenes and tumor suppressors and to determine genetic interactions between them. We also have developed approaches to take advantage of vulnerabilities induced by copy-number changes, including through their effect on non-driver genes.

A separate focus of the lab has been understanding the genomics of brain cancers. We have multiple projects across adult and pediatric gliomas, meningiomas, brain metastases, and other tumor types.

Publications

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  • Bergthold G, Bandopadhayay P, Hoshida Y, Ramkissoon S, Ramkissoon L, Rich B, Maire CL, Paolella BR, Schumacher SE, Tabak B, Ferrer-Luna R, Ozek M, Sav A, Santagata S, Wen PY, Goumnerova LC, Ligon AH, Stiles C, Segal R, Golub T, Grill J, Ligon KL, Chan JA, Kieran MW, Beroukhim R. Expression profiles of 151 pediatric low-grade gliomas reveal molecular differences associated with location and histological subtype. 2015. PubMed
  • Ramkissoon SH, Bi WL, Schumacher SE, Ramkissoon LA, Haidar S, Knoff D, Dubuc A, Brown L, Burns M, Cryan JB, Abedalthagafi M, Kang YJ, Schultz N, Reardon DA, Lee EQ, Rinne ML, Norden AD, Nayak L, Ruland S, Doherty LM, LaFrankie DC, Horvath M, Aizer AA, Russo A, Arvold ND, Claus EB, Al-Mefty O, Johnson MD, Golby AJ, Dunn IF, Chiocca EA, Trippa L, Santagata S, Folkerth RD, Kantoff P, Rollins BJ, Lindeman NI, Wen PY, Ligon AH, Beroukhim R, Alexander BM, Ligon KL. Clinical implementation of integrated whole-genome copy number and mutation profiling for glioblastoma. 2015. PubMed
  • Norden AD, Ligon KL, Hammond SN, Muzikansky A, Reardon DA, Kaley TJ, Batchelor TT, Plotkin SR, Raizer JJ, Wong ET, Drappatz J, Lesser GJ, Haidar S, Beroukhim R, Lee EQ, Doherty L, Lafrankie D, Gaffey SC, Gerard M, Smith KH, McCluskey C, Phuphanich S, Wen PY. Phase II study of monthly pasireotide LAR (SOM230C) for recurrent or progressive meningioma. Neurology 2015; 84:280-6. PubMed
  • Berg A, Hoivik EA, Mjøs S, Holst F, Werner HM, Tangen IL, Taylor-Weiner A, Gibson WJ, Kusonmano K, Wik E, Trovik J, Halle MK, Øyan AM, Kalland KH, Cherniack AD, Beroukhim R, Stefansson I, Mills GB, Krakstad C, Salvesen HB. Molecular profiling of endometrial carcinoma precursor, primary and metastatic lesions suggests different targets for treatment in obese compared to non-obese patients. 2015; 6:1327-39. PubMed
  • Lee EQ, Reardon DA, Schiff D, Drappatz J, Muzikansky A, Grimm SA, Norden AD, Nayak L, Beroukhim R, Rinne ML, Chi AS, Batchelor TT, Hempfling K, McCluskey C, Smith KH, Gaffey SC, Wrigley B, Ligon KL, Raizer JJ, Wen PY. Phase II study of panobinostat in combination with bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma. 2015. PubMed
  • Baratta MG, Schinzel AC, Zwang Y, Bandopadhayay P, Bowman-Colin C, Kutt J, Curtis J, Piao H, Wong LC, Kung AL, Beroukhim R, Bradner JE, Drapkin R, Hahn WC, Liu JF, Livingston DM. An in-tumor genetic screen reveals that the BET bromodomain protein, BRD4, is a potential therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015; 112:232-7. PubMed
  • Majumder B, Baraneedharan U, Thiyagarajan S, Radhakrishnan P, Narasimhan H, Dhandapani M, Brijwani N, Pinto DD, Prasath A, Shanthappa BU, Thayakumar A, Surendran R, Babu GK, Shenoy AM, Kuriakose MA, Bergthold G, Horowitz P, Loda M, Beroukhim R, Agarwal S, Sengupta S, Sundaram M, Majumder PK. Predicting clinical response to anticancer drugs using an ex vivo platform that captures tumour heterogeneity. Nat Commun 2015; 6:6169. PubMed
  • Tang Y, Gholamin S, Schubert S, Willardson MI, Lee A, Bandopadhayay P, Bergthold G, Masoud S, Nguyen B, Vue N, Balansay B, Yu F, Oh S, Woo P, Chen S, Ponnuswami A, Monje M, Atwood SX, Whitson RJ, Mitra S, Cheshier SH, Qi J, Beroukhim R, Tang JY, Wechsler-Reya R, Oro AE, Link BA, Bradner JE, Cho YJ. Epigenetic targeting of Hedgehog pathway transcriptional output through BET bromodomain inhibition. Nat Med 2014; 20:732-40. PubMed
  • Gong Y, Zack TI, Morris LG, Lin K, Hukkelhoven E, Raheja R, Tan IL, Turcan S, Veeriah S, Meng S, Viale A, Schumacher SE, Palmedo P, Beroukhim R, Chan TA. Pan-cancer genetic analysis identifies PARK2 as a master regulator of G1/S cyclins. Nat Genet 2014; 46:588-94. PubMed
  • Kool M, Jones DT, Jäger N, Northcott PA, Pugh TJ, Hovestadt V, Piro RM, Esparza LA, Markant SL, Remke M, Milde T, Bourdeaut F, Ryzhova M, Sturm D, Pfaff E, Stark S, Hutter S, Seker-Cin H, Johann P, Bender S, Schmidt C, Rausch T, Shih D, Reimand J, Sieber L, Wittmann A, Linke L, Witt H, Weber UD, Zapatka M, König R, Beroukhim R, Bergthold G, van Sluis P, Volckmann R, Koster J, Versteeg R, Schmidt S, Wolf S, Lawerenz C, Bartholomae CC, von Kalle C, Unterberg A, Herold-Mende C, Hofer S, Kulozik AE, von Deimling A, Scheurlen W, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Hasselblatt M, Crawford JR, Grant GA, Jabado N, Perry A, Cowdrey C, Croul S, Zadeh G, Korbel JO, Doz F, Delattre O, Bader GD, McCabe MG, Collins VP, Kieran MW, Cho YJ, Pomeroy SL, Witt O, Brors B, Taylor MD, Schüller U, Korshunov A, Eils R, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Lichter P, Pfister SM, . Genome sequencing of SHH medulloblastoma predicts genotype-related response to smoothened inhibition. Cancer Cell 2014; 25:393-405. PubMed
  • Bandopadhayay P, Bergthold G, Nguyen B, Schubert S, Gholamin S, Tang Y, Bolin S, Schumacher SE, Zeid R, Masoud S, Yu F, Vue N, Gibson WJ, Paolella BR, Mitra SS, Cheshier SH, Qi J, Liu KW, Wechsler-Reya R, Weiss WA, Swartling FJ, Kieran MW, Bradner JE, Beroukhim R, Cho YJ. BET bromodomain inhibition of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 2014; 20:912-25. PubMed
  • Dunn GP, Cheung HW, Agarwalla PK, Thomas S, Zektser Y, Karst AM, Boehm JS, Weir BA, Berlin AM, Zou L, Getz G, Liu JF, Hirsch M, Vazquez F, Root DE, Beroukhim R, Drapkin R, Hahn WC. In vivo multiplexed interrogation of amplified genes identifies GAB2 as an ovarian cancer oncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014; 111:1102-7. PubMed
  • Deo RC, Musso G, Tasan M, Tang P, Poon A, Yuan C, Felix JF, Vasan RS, Beroukhim R, De Marco T, Kwok PY, MacRae CA, Roth FP. Prioritizing causal disease genes using unbiased genomic features. Genome Biol 2015; 15:534. PubMed
  • Li L, Shen C, Nakamura E, Ando K, Signoretti S, Beroukhim R, Cowley GS, Lizotte P, Liberzon E, Bair S, Root DE, Tamayo P, Tsherniak A, Cheng SC, Tabak B, Jacobsen A, Hakimi AA, Schultz N, Ciriello G, Sander C, Hsieh JJ, Kaelin WG. SQSTM1 is a pathogenic target of 5q copy number gains in kidney cancer. Cancer Cell 2013; 24:738-50. PubMed
  • Gruber Filbin M, Dabral SK, Pazyra-Murphy MF, Ramkissoon S, Kung AL, Pak E, Chung J, Theisen MA, Sun Y, Franchetti Y, Sun Y, Shulman DS, Redjal N, Tabak B, Beroukhim R, Wang Q, Zhao J, Dorsch M, Buonamici S, Ligon KL, Kelleher JF, Segal RA. Coordinate activation of Shh and PI3K signaling in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma: new therapeutic opportunities. Nat Med 2013; 19:1518-23. PubMed
  • Brennan CW, Verhaak RG, McKenna A, Campos B, Noushmehr H, Salama SR, Zheng S, Chakravarty D, Sanborn JZ, Berman SH, Beroukhim R, Bernard B, Wu CJ, Genovese G, Shmulevich I, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Zou L, Vegesna R, Shukla SA, Ciriello G, Yung WK, Zhang W, Sougnez C, Mikkelsen T, Aldape K, Bigner DD, Van Meir EG, Prados M, Sloan A, Black KL, Eschbacher J, Finocchiaro G, Friedman W, Andrews DW, Guha A, Iacocca M, O'Neill BP, Foltz G, Myers J, Weisenberger DJ, Penny R, Kucherlapati R, Perou CM, Hayes DN, Gibbs R, Marra M, Mills GB, Lander E, Spellman P, Wilson R, Sander C, Weinstein J, Meyerson M, Gabriel S, Laird PW, Haussler D, Getz G, Chin L, . The somatic genomic landscape of glioblastoma. Cell 2013; 155:462-77. PubMed
  • Zack TI, Schumacher SE, Carter SL, Cherniack AD, Saksena G, Tabak B, Lawrence MS, Zhang CZ, Wala J, Mermel CH, Sougnez C, Gabriel SB, Hernandez B, Shen H, Laird PW, Getz G, Meyerson M, Beroukhim R. Pan-cancer patterns of somatic copy number alteration. Nat Genet 2013; 45:1134-1140. PubMed
  • Ramkissoon LA, Horowitz PM, Craig JM, Ramkissoon SH, Rich BE, Schumacher SE, McKenna A, Lawrence MS, Bergthold G, Brastianos PK, Tabak B, Ducar MD, Van Hummelen P, MacConaill LE, Pouissant-Young T, Cho YJ, Taha H, Mahmoud M, Bowers DC, Margraf L, Tabori U, Hawkins C, Packer RJ, Hill DA, Pomeroy SL, Eberhart CG, Dunn IF, Goumnerova L, Getz G, Chan JA, Santagata S, Hahn WC, Stiles CD, Ligon AH, Kieran MW, Beroukhim R, Ligon KL. Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013; 110:8188-93. PubMed
  • Shao DD, Tsherniak A, Gopal S, Weir BA, Tamayo P, Stransky N, Schumacher SE, Zack TI, Beroukhim R, Garraway LA, Margolin AA, Root DE, Hahn WC, Mesirov JP. ATARiS: Computational quantification of gene suppression phenotypes from multisample RNAi screens. Genome Res 2013; 23:665-78. PubMed
  • Dulak AM, Stojanov P, Peng S, Lawrence MS, Fox C, Stewart C, Bandla S, Imamura Y, Schumacher SE, Shefler E, McKenna A, Carter SL, Cibulskis K, Sivachenko A, Saksena G, Voet D, Ramos AH, Auclair D, Thompson K, Sougnez C, Onofrio RC, Guiducci C, Beroukhim R, Zhou Z, Lin L, Lin J, Reddy R, Chang A, Landrenau R, Pennathur A, Ogino S, Luketich JD, Golub TR, Gabriel SB, Lander ES, Beer DG, Godfrey TE, Getz G, Bass AJ. Exome and whole-genome sequencing of esophageal adenocarcinoma identifies recurrent driver events and mutational complexity. Nat Genet 2013. PubMed
  • Brastianos PK, Horowitz PM, Santagata S, Jones RT, McKenna A, Getz G, Ligon KL, Palescandolo E, Van Hummelen P, Ducar MD, Raza A, Sunkavalli A, Macconaill LE, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Louis DN, Hahn WC, Dunn IF, Beroukhim R. Genomic sequencing of meningiomas identifies oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations. Nat Genet 2013; 45:285-9. PubMed
  • Raeder MB, Birkeland E, Trovik J, Krakstad C, Shehata S, Schumacher S, Zack TI, Krohn A, Werner HM, Moody SE, Wik E, Stefansson IM, Holst F, Oyan AM, Tamayo P, Mesirov JP, Kalland KH, Akslen LA, Simon R, Beroukhim R, Salvesen HB. Integrated genomic analysis of the 8q24 amplification in endometrial cancers identifies ATAD2 as essential to MYC-dependent cancers. PLoS ONE 2013; 8:e54873. PubMed
  • Rosenbluh J, Nijhawan D, Cox AG, Li X, Neal JT, Schafer EJ, Zack TI, Wang X, Tsherniak A, Schinzel AC, Shao DD, Schumacher SE, Weir BA, Vazquez F, Cowley GS, Root DE, Mesirov JP, Beroukhim R, Kuo CJ, Goessling W, Hahn WC. 硫-Catenin-driven cancers require a YAP1 transcriptional complex for survival and tumorigenesis. Cell 2012; 151:1457-73. PubMed
  • Drier Y, Lawrence MS, Carter SL, Stewart C, Gabriel SB, Lander ES, Meyerson M, Beroukhim R, Getz G. Somatic rearrangements across cancer reveal classes of samples with distinct patterns of DNA breakage and rearrangement-induced hypermutability. Genome Res 2012. PubMed
  • Dulak AM, Schumacher SE, van Lieshout J, Imamura Y, Fox C, Shim B, Ramos AH, Saksena G, Baca SC, Baselga J, Tabernero J, Barretina J, Enzinger PC, Corso G, Roviello F, Lin L, Bandla S, Luketich JD, Pennathur A, Meyerson M, Ogino S, Shivdasani RA, Beer DG, Godfrey TE, Beroukhim R, Bass AJ. Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, and colon exhibit distinct patterns of genome instability and oncogenesis. Cancer Res 2012; 72:4383-93. PubMed
  • Nijhawan D, Zack TI, Ren Y, Strickland MR, Lamothe R, Schumacher SE, Tsherniak A, Besche HC, Rosenbluh J, Shehata S, Cowley GS, Weir BA, Goldberg AL, Mesirov JP, Root DE, Bhatia SN, Beroukhim R, Hahn WC. Cancer vulnerabilities unveiled by genomic loss. Cell 2012; 150:842-54. PubMed
  • Northcott PA, Shih DJ, Peacock J, Garzia L, Morrissy AS, Zichner T, Stütz AM, Korshunov A, Reimand J, Schumacher SE, Beroukhim R, Ellison DW, Marshall CR, Lionel AC, Mack S, Dubuc A, Yao Y, Ramaswamy V, Luu B, Rolider A, Cavalli FM, Wang X, Remke M, Wu X, Chiu RY, Chu A, Chuah E, Corbett RD, Hoad GR, Jackman SD, Li Y, Lo A, Mungall KL, Nip KM, Qian JQ, Raymond AG, Thiessen NT, Varhol RJ, Birol I, Moore RA, Mungall AJ, Holt R, Kawauchi D, Roussel MF, Kool M, Jones DT, Witt H, Fernandez-L A, Kenney AM, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Dirks P, Aviv T, Grajkowska WA, Perek-Polnik M, Haberler CC, Delattre O, Reynaud SS, Doz FF, Pernet-Fattet SS, Cho BK, Kim SK, Wang KC, Scheurlen W, Eberhart CG, Fèvre-Montange M, Jouvet A, Pollack IF, Fan X, Muraszko KM, Gillespie GY, Di Rocco C, Massimi L, Michiels EM, Kloosterhof NK, French PJ, Kros JM, Olson JM, Ellenbogen RG, Zitterbart K, Kren L, Thompson RC, Cooper MK, Lach B, McLendon RE, Bigner DD, Fontebasso A, Albrecht S, Jabado N, Lindsey JC, Bailey S, Gupta N, Weiss WA, Bognár L, Klekner A, Van Meter TE, Kumabe T, Tominaga T, Elbabaa SK, Leonard JR, Rubin JB, Liau LM, Van Meir EG, Fouladi M, Nakamura H, Cinalli G, Garami M, Hauser P, Saad AG, Iolascon A, Jung S, Carlotti CG, Vibhakar R, Ra YS, Robinson S, Zollo M, Faria CC, Chan JA, Levy ML, Sorensen PH, Meyerson M, Pomeroy SL, Cho YJ, Bader GD, Tabori U, Hawkins CE, Bouffet E, Scherer SW, Rutka JT, Malkin D, Clifford SC, Jones SJ, Korbel JO, Pfister SM, Marra MA, Taylor MD. Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes. Nature 2012; 488:49-56. PubMed
  • Rozenblatt-Rosen O, Deo RC, Padi M, Adelmant G, Calderwood MA, Rolland T, Grace M, Dricot A, Askenazi M, Tavares M, Pevzner SJ, Abderazzaq F, Byrdsong D, Carvunis AR, Chen AA, Cheng J, Correll M, Duarte M, Fan C, Feltkamp MC, Ficarro SB, Franchi R, Garg BK, Gulbahce N, Hao T, Holthaus AM, James R, Korkhin A, Litovchick L, Mar JC, Pak TR, Rabello S, Rubio R, Shen Y, Singh S, Spangle JM, Tasan M, Wanamaker S, Webber JT, Roecklein-Canfield J, Johannsen E, Barabási AL, Beroukhim R, Kieff E, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Münger K, Marto JA, Quackenbush J, Roth FP, DeCaprio JA, Vidal M. Interpreting cancer genomes using systematic host network perturbations by tumour virus proteins. Nature 2012; 487:491-5. PubMed
  • Solimini NL, Xu Q, Mermel CH, Liang AC, Schlabach MR, Luo J, Burrows AE, Anselmo AN, Bredemeyer AL, Li MZ, Beroukhim R, Meyerson M, Elledge SJ. Recurrent hemizygous deletions in cancers may optimize proliferative potential. Science 2012; 337:104-9. PubMed
  • Banerji S, Cibulskis K, Rangel-Escareno C, Brown KK, Carter SL, Frederick AM, Lawrence MS, Sivachenko AY, Sougnez C, Zou L, Cortes ML, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Peng S, Ardlie KG, Auclair D, Bautista-Piña V, Duke F, Francis J, Jung J, Maffuz-Aziz A, Onofrio RC, Parkin M, Pho NH, Quintanar-Jurado V, Ramos AH, Rebollar-Vega R, Rodriguez-Cuevas S, Romero-Cordoba SL, Schumacher SE, Stransky N, Thompson KM, Uribe-Figueroa L, Baselga J, Beroukhim R, Polyak K, Sgroi DC, Richardson AL, Jimenez-Sanchez G, Lander ES, Gabriel SB, Garraway LA, Golub TR, Melendez-Zajgla J, Toker A, Getz G, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Meyerson M. Sequence analysis of mutations and translocations across breast cancer subtypes. Nature 2012; 486:405-9. PubMed
  • Carter SL, Cibulskis K, Helman E, McKenna A, Shen H, Zack T, Laird PW, Onofrio RC, Winckler W, Weir BA, Beroukhim R, Pellman D, Levine DA, Lander ES, Meyerson M, Getz G. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer. Nat Biotechnol 2012; 30:413-21. PubMed
  • Mermel CH, Schumacher SE, Hill B, Meyerson ML, Beroukhim R, Getz G. GISTIC2.0 facilitates sensitive and confident localization of the targets of focal somatic copy-number alteration in human cancers. Genome Biol 2011; 12:R41. PubMed
  • Attolini CS, Cheng YK, Beroukhim R, Getz G, Abdel-Wahab O, Levine RL, Mellinghoff IK, Michor F. A mathematical framework to determine the temporal sequence of somatic genetic events in cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010; 107:17604-9. PubMed
  • Beroukhim R, Mermel CH, Porter D, Wei G, Raychaudhuri S, Donovan J, Barretina J, Boehm JS, Dobson J, Urashima M, Mc Henry KT, Pinchback RM, Ligon AH, Cho YJ, Haery L, Greulich H, Reich M, Winckler W, Lawrence MS, Weir BA, Tanaka KE, Chiang DY, Bass AJ, Loo A, Hoffman C, Prensner J, Liefeld T, Gao Q, Yecies D, Signoretti S, Maher E, Kaye FJ, Sasaki H, Tepper JE, Fletcher JA, Tabernero J, Baselga J, Tsao MS, Demichelis F, Rubin MA, Janne PA, Daly MJ, Nucera C, Levine RL, Ebert BL, Gabriel S, Rustgi AK, Antonescu CR, Ladanyi M, Letai A, Garraway LA, Loda M, Beer DG, True LD, Okamoto A, Pomeroy SL, Singer S, Golub TR, Lander ES, Getz G, Sellers WR, Meyerson M. The landscape of somatic copy-number alteration across human cancers. Nature 2010; 463:899-905. PubMed
  • Beroukhim R,Brunet JP,Di Napoli A,Mertz KD,Seeley A,Pires MM,Linhart D,Worrell RA,Moch H,Rubin MA,Sellers WR,Meyerson M,Linehan WM,Kaelin WG Jr,Signoretti S. Patterns of Gene Expression and Copy-Number Alterations in von-Hippel Lindau Disease-Associated and Sporadic Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney. Cancer Res 2009; 69:4674-4681. PubMed
  • Salvesen HB, Carter SL, Mannelqvist M, Dutt A, Getz G, Stefansson IM, Raeder MB, Sos ML, Engelsen IB, Trovik J, Wik E, Greulich H, Bø TH, Jonassen I, Thomas RK, Zander T, Garraway LA, Oyan AM, Sellers WR, Kalland KH, Meyerson M, Akslen LA, Beroukhim R. Integrated genomic profiling of endometrial carcinoma associates aggressive tumors with indicators of PI3 kinase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009; 106:4834-9. PubMed
  • Beroukhim R, Getz G, Nghiemphu L, Barretina J, Hsueh T, Linhart D, Vivanco I, Lee JC, Huang JH, Alexander S, Du J, Kau T, Thomas RK, Shah K, Soto H, Perner S, Prensner J, Debiasi RM, Demichelis F, Hatton C, Rubin MA, Garraway LA, Nelson SF, Liau L, Mischel PS, Cloughesy TF, Meyerson M, Golub TA, Lander ES, Mellinghoff IK, Sellers WR. Assessing the significance of chromosomal aberrations in cancer: Methodology and application to glioma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104:20007-12. PubMed
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