Photo of Richard C. Mulligan,   Ph.D.

Richard C. Mulligan, Ph.D.

Boston Children's Hospital

Boston Children's Hospital
Phone: (617) 432-1465
Fax: (617) 432-6146

Richard C. Mulligan, Ph.D.

Boston Children's Hospital


  • Professor, Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
  • Ivestigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital



  • Member, Center Scientific Council

Research Abstract

Dr. Mulligan's laboratory is primarily interested in the development of methods for introducing genes into mammalian cells, and the application of those methods in a number of areas of cell biology, developmental biology, virology and medicines. The current research activities of his laboratory are focused in three general areas: (i) the control of hematopoiesis, (ii) manipulation of the immune response via gene transfer, and (iii) the development of new mammalian gene transfer vectors.


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  • Mulligan RC. Development of gene transfer technology. Hum Gene Ther 2014; 25:995-1002. PubMed
  • Burkhardt UE, Hainz U, Stevenson K, Goldstein NR, Pasek M, Naito M, Wu D, Ho VT, Alonso A, Hammond NN, Wong J, Sievers QL, Brusic A, McDonough SM, Zeng W, Perrin A, Brown JR, Canning CM, Koreth J, Cutler C, Armand P, Neuberg D, Lee JS, Antin JH, Mulligan RC, Sasada T, Ritz J, Soiffer RJ, Dranoff G, Alyea EP, Wu CJ. Autologous CLL cell vaccination early after transplant induces leukemia-specific T cells. J Clin Invest 2013; 123:3756-65. PubMed
  • Brusic A, Hainz U, Wadleigh M, Neuberg D, Su M, Canning CM, Deangelo DJ, Stone RM, Lee JS, Mulligan RC, Ritz J, Dranoff G, Sasada T, Wu CJ. Detecting T-cell reactivity to whole cell vaccines: Proof of concept analysis of T-cell response to K562 cell antigens in CML patients. Oncoimmunology 2012; 1:1095-1103. PubMed
  • Sahin E, Colla S, Liesa M, Moslehi J, Müller FL, Guo M, Cooper M, Kotton D, Fabian AJ, Walkey C, Maser RS, Tonon G, Foerster F, Xiong R, Wang YA, Shukla SA, Jaskelioff M, Martin ES, Heffernan TP, Protopopov A, Ivanova E, Mahoney JE, Kost-Alimova M, Perry SR, Bronson R, Liao R, Mulligan R, Shirihai OS, Chin L, DePinho RA. Telomere dysfunction induces metabolic and mitochondrial compromise. Nature 2011; 470:359-65. PubMed
  • Wilson AA, Murphy GJ, Hamakawa H, Kwok LW, Srinivasan S, Hovav AH, Mulligan RC, Amar S, Suki B, Kotton DN. Amelioration of emphysema in mice through lentiviral transduction of long-lived pulmonary alveolar macrophages. J Clin Invest 2010; 120:379-89. PubMed
  • Bullain SS,Sahin A,Szentirmai O,Sanchez C,Lin N,Baratta E,Waterman P,Weissleder R,Mulligan RC,Carter BS. Genetically engineered T cells to target EGFRvIII expressing glioblastoma. J Neurooncol 2009; 94:373-82. PubMed
  • Yen L,Stockwell BR,Mulligan RC. A mammalian cell-based assay for screening inhibitors of RNA cleavage. Methods Mol Biol 2009; 540:335-47. PubMed
  • Kuhnert F,Tam BY,Sennino B,Gray JT,Yuan J,Jocson A,Nayak NR,Mulligan RC,McDonald DM,Kuo CJ. Soluble receptor-mediated selective inhibition of VEGFR and PDGFRbeta signaling during physiologic and tumor angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008; 105:10185-90. PubMed
  • Szentirmai O, Baker CH, Bullain SS, Lin N, Takahashi M, Folkman J, Mulligan RC, Carter BS. Successful inhibition of intracranial human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft growth via systemic adenoviral delivery of soluble endostatin and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. J Neurosurg 2008; 108:979-988. PubMed
  • Austin KM, Gupta ML, Coats SA, Tulpule A, Mostoslavsky G, Balazs AB, Mulligan RC, Daley G, Pellman D, Shimamura A. Mitotic spindle destabilization and genomic instability in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. J Clin Invest 2008; 118:1511-8. PubMed
  • Glodek AM, Le Y, Dykxhoorn DM, Park SY, Mostoslavsky G, Mulligan R, Lieberman J, Beggs HE, Honczarenko M, Silberstein LE. Focal adhesion kinase is required for CXCL12-induced chemotactic and pro-adhesive responses in hematopoietic precursor cells. Leukemia 2007; 21:1723-32. PubMed
  • Chan RK, Garfein E, Gigante PR, Liu P, Agha RA, Mulligan R, Orgill DP. Side population hematopoietic stem cells promote wound healing in diabetic mice. Plast Reconstr Surg 2007; 120:407-11; discussion 412-3. PubMed
  • Butler MO, Lee JS, Ans. Long-Lived Antitumor CD8+ Lymphocytes for Adoptive Therapy Generated Using an Artificial Antigen-Presenting Cell. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:1857-1867. PubMed
  • H. Consequences of Shb and c-Abl interactions for cell death in response to various stress stimuli. Exp Cell Res 2006; 313:284-91. PubMed
  • Kaipainen A, Kieran MW, Huang S, Butterfield C, Bielenberg D, Mostoslavsky G, Mulligan R, Folkman J, Panigrahy D. PPARalpha Deficiency in Inflammatory Cells Suppresses Tumor Growth. PLoS ONE 2007; 2:e260. PubMed
  • Mostoslavsky G, Fabian AJ, Rooney S, Alt FW, Mulligan RC. Complete correction of murine Artemis immunodeficiency by lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103:16406-11. PubMed
  • Murphy GJ, Mostoslavsky G, Kotton DN, Mulligan RC. Exogenous control of mammalian gene expression via modulation of translational termination. Nat Med 2006; 12:1093-9. PubMed
  • Tam BY, Wei K, Rudge JS, Hoffman J, Holash J, Park SK, Yuan J, Hefner C, Chartier C, Lee JS, Jiang S, Niyak NR, Kuypers FA, Ma L, Sundram U, Wu G, Garcia JA, Schrier SL, Maher JJ, Johnson RS, Yancopoulos GD, Mulligan RC, Kuo CJ. VEGF modulates erythropoiesis through regulation of adult hepatic erythropoietin synthesis. Nat Med 2006; 12:793-800. PubMed
  • Yan CT, Kaushal D, Murphy M, Zhang Y, Datta A, Chen C, Monroe B, Mostoslavsky G, Coakley K, Gao Y, Mills KD, Fazeli AP, Tepsuporn S, Hall G, Mulligan R, Fox E, Bronson R, De Girolami U, Lee C, Alt FW. XRCC4 suppresses medulloblastomas with recurrent translocations in p53-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103:7378-83. PubMed
  • Yen L, Magnier M, Weissleder R, Stockwell BR, Mulligan RC. Identification of inhibitors of ribozyme self-cleavage in mammalian cells via high-throughput screening of chemical libraries. RNA 2006; 12:797-806. PubMed
  • Balazs AB, Fabian AJ, Esmon CT, Mulligan RC. Endothelial protein C receptor (CD201) explicitly identifies hematopoietic stem cells in murine bone marrow. Blood 2005; 107:2317-21. PubMed
  • Szentirmai O, Baker CH, Lin N, Szucs S, Takahashi M, Kiryu S, Kung AL, Mulligan RC, Carter BS. Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of luciferase expressing intracranial U87 xenografts: correlation with magnetic resonance imaging determined tumor volume and longitudinal use in assessing tumor growth and antiangiogenic treatment effect. Neurosurgery 2006; 58:365-72; discussion 365-72. PubMed
  • Mostoslavsky R, Chua KF, Lombard DB, Pang WW, Fischer MR, Gellon L, Liu P, Mostoslavsky G, Franco S, Murphy MM, Mills KD, Patel P, Hsu JT, Hong AL, Ford E, Cheng HL, Kennedy C, Nunez N, Bronson R, Frendewey D, Auerbach W, Valenzuela D, Karow M, Hottiger MO, Hursting S, Barrett JC, Guarente L, Mulligan R, Demple B, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Genomic instability and aging-like phenotype in the absence of mammalian SIRT6. Cell 2006; 124:315-29. PubMed
  • Fernandes JR, Duvivier-Kali VF, Keegan M, Hollister-Lock J, Omer A, Su S, Bonner-Weir S, Feng S, Lee JS, Mulligan RC, Weir GC. Transplantation of islets transduced with CTLA4-Ig and TGFbeta using adenovirus and lentivirus vectors. Transpl Immunol 2004; 13:191-200. PubMed
  • Perron MJ, Stremlau M, Song B, Ulm W, Mulligan RC, Sodroski J. TRIM5alpha mediates the postentry block to N-tropic murine leukemia viruses in human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101:11827-32. PubMed
  • Soiffer R, Hodi FS, Haluska F, Jung K, Gillessen S, Singer S, Tanabe K, Duda R, Mentzer S, Jaklitsch M, Bueno R, Clift S, Hardy S, Neuberg D, Mulligan R, Webb I, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Vaccination with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer augments antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21:3343-50. PubMed
  • Robert C, Klein C, Cheng G, Kogan A, Mulligan RC, von Andrian UH, Kupper TS. Gene therapy to target dendritic cells from blood to lymph nodes. Gene Ther 2003; 10:1479-86. PubMed
  • Klein C, Nguyen D, Liu CH, Mizoguchi A, Bhan AK, Miki H, Takenawa T, Rosen FS, Alt FW, Mulligan RC, Snapper SB. Gene therapy for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: rescue of T-cell signaling and amelioration of colitis upon transplantation of retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells in mice. Blood 2002; 101:2159-66. PubMed
  • Salgia R, Lynch T, Skarin A, Lucca J, Lynch C, Jung K, Hodi FS, Jaklitsch M, Mentzer S, Swanson S, Lukanich J, Bueno R, Wain J, Mathisen D, Wright C, Fidias P, Donahue D, Clift S, Hardy S, Neuberg D, Mulligan R, Webb I, Sugarbaker D, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Vaccination with irradiated autologous tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments antitumor immunity in some patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21:624-30. PubMed
  • Heinz M, Huang CA, Emery DW, Giovino MA, LeGuern A, Kurilla-Mahon B, Theodore P, Arn JS, Sykes M, Mulligan R, Down JD, Sachs DH, Goodell MA. Use of CD9 expression to enrich for porcine hematopoietic progenitors. Exp Hematol 2002; 30:809-15. PubMed
  • Niederman TM, Ghogawala Z, Carter BS, Tompkins HS, Russell MM, Mulligan RC. Antitumor activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes engineered to target vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99:7009-14. PubMed
  • Snapper SB, Takeshima F, Ant. N-WASP deficiency reveals distinct pathways for cell surface projections and microbial actin-based motility. Nat Cell Biol 2001; 3:897-904. PubMed
  • Gussoni E, Soneoka Y, Strickland CD, Buzney EA, Khan MK, Flint AF, Kunkel LM, Mulligan RC. Dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse restored by stem cell transplantation. Nature 1999; 401:390-4. PubMed
  • Rebel VI, Tanaka M, Lee JS, Hartnett S, Pulsipher M, Nathan DG, Mulligan RC, Sieff CA. One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus. Blood 1999; 93:2217-24. PubMed
  • Pulsipher M, Kupfer GM, Naf D, Suliman A, Lee JS, Jakobs P, Grompe M, Joenje H, Sieff C, Guinan E, Mulligan R, D'Andrea AD. Subtyping analysis of Fanconi anemia by immunoblotting and retroviral gene transfer. Mol Med 1998; 4:468-79. PubMed
  • Lantz CS, Boesiger J, Song CH, Mach N, Kobayashi T, Mulligan RC, Nawa Y, Dranoff G, Galli SJ. Role for interleukin-3 in mast-cell and basophil development and in immunity to parasites. Nature 1998; 392:90-3. PubMed
  • Mach N, Lantz CS, Galli SJ, Reznikoff G, Mihm M, Small C, Granstein R, Beissert S, Sadelain M, Mulligan RC, Dranoff G. Involvement of interleukin-3 in delayed-type hypersensitivity. Blood 1998; 91:778-83. PubMed
  • McArthur JG, Mulligan RC. Induction of protective anti-tumor immunity by gene-modified dendritic cells. J Immunother 1998; 21:41-7. PubMed
  • Goodell MA, Rosenzweig M, Kim H, Marks DF, DeMaria M, Paradis G, Grupp SA, Sieff CA, Mulligan RC, Johnson RP. Dye efflux studies suggest that hematopoietic stem cells expressing low or undetectable levels of CD34 antigen exist in multiple species. Nat Med 1997; 3:1337-45. PubMed
  • Lindemann D, Patriquin E, Feng S, Mulligan RC. Versatile retrovirus vector systems for regulated gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Mol Med 1997; 3:466-76. PubMed
  • Lieschke GJ, Rao PK, Gately MK, Mulligan RC. Bioactive murine and human interleukin-12 fusion proteins which retain antitumor activity in vivo. Nat Biotechnol 1997; 15:35-40. PubMed
  • Ory DS, Neugeboren BA, Mulligan RC. A stable human-derived packaging cell line for production of high titer retrovirus/vesicular stomatitis virus G pseudotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93:11400-6. PubMed
  • B. Induction of antigen-specific tumor immunity by genetic and cellular vaccines against MAGE: enhanced tumor protection by coexpression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and B7-1. Mol Med 1996; 2:545-55. PubMed
  • Goodell MA, Brose K, Paradis G, Conner AS, Mulligan RC. Isolation and functional properties of murine hematopoietic stem cells that are replicating in vivo. J Exp Med 1996; 183:1797-806. PubMed
  • Rivi. Effects of retroviral vector design on expression of human adenosine deaminase in murine bone marrow transplant recipients engrafted with genetically modified cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92:6733-7. PubMed
  • Carmeliet P, Schoonjans L, Kieckens L, Ream B, Degen J, Bronson R, De Vos R, van den Oord JJ, Collen D, Mulligan RC. Physiological consequences of loss of plasminogen activator gene function in mice. Nature 1994; 368:419-24. PubMed
  • Sanda MG, Ayyagari SR, Jaffee EM, Epstein JI, Clift SL, Cohen LK, Dranoff G, Pardoll DM, Mulligan RC, Simons JW. Demonstration of a rational strategy for human prostate cancer gene therapy. J Urol 1994; 151:622-8. PubMed
  • Carmeliet P, Stassen JM, Schoonjans L, Ream B, van den Oord JJ, De Mol M, Mulligan RC, Collen D. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene-deficient mice. II. Effects on hemostasis, thrombosis, and thrombolysis. J Clin Invest 1993; 92:2756-60. PubMed
  • Mulligan RC. The basic science of gene therapy. Science 1993; 260:926-32. PubMed
  • Dranoff G, Jaffee E, Lazenby A, Golumbek P, Levitsky H, Brose K, Jackson V, Hamada H, Pardoll D, Mulligan RC. Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90:3539-43. PubMed
  • Spain LM, Mulligan RC. Purification and characterization of retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89:3790-4. PubMed
  • Wilson JM, Danos O, Grossman M, Raulet DH, Mulligan RC. Expression of human adenosine deaminase in mice reconstituted with retrovirus-transduced hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990; 87:439-43. PubMed
  • Wilson JM, Birinyi LK, Salomon RN, Libby P, Callow AD, Mulligan RC. Implantation of vascular grafts lined with genetically modified endothelial cells. Science 1989; 244:1344-6. PubMed
  • Hartman SC, Mulligan RC. Two dominant-acting selectable markers for gene transfer studies in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988; 85:8047-51. PubMed
  • Danos O, Mulligan RC. Safe and efficient generation of recombinant retroviruses with amphotropic and ecotropic host ranges. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988; 85:6460-4. PubMed
  • Cone RD, Weber-Benarous A, Baorto D, Mulligan RC. Regulated expression of a complete human beta-globin gene encoded by a transmissible retrovirus vector. Mol Cell Biol 1987; 7:887-97. PubMed
  • Lemischka IR, Raulet DH, Mulligan RC. Developmental potential and dynamic behavior of hematopoietic stem cells. Cell 1986; 45:917-27. PubMed
  • Williams DA, Lemischka IR, Nathan DG, Mulligan RC. Introduction of new genetic material into pluripotent haematopoietic stem cells of the mouse. Nature 1984; 310:476-80. PubMed