Photo of Sandro Santagata,

Sandro Santagata

Brigham And Women's Hospital

Brigham And Women's Hospital
Phone: (617) 732-7532

Sandro Santagata

Brigham And Women's Hospital


  • Assistant Professor, Pathology, Harvard Medical School
  • Neuropathologist, Pathology, Brigham And Women's Hospital


Research Abstract

Stress Responses in Cancer Development and Progression

We focus on understanding a fundamental challenge in tumor biology: how tumor cells develop their most aggressive behaviors and the mechanisms that they use to resist even the most sophisticated therapeutic regimens. One biological program that we focus on in this area is a potent adaptive mechanism: what has been classically called the heat shock response. So powerful is this program that it is used by even single cell organisms to survive scorching heat waves and other caustic environmental challenges. Our work has revealed that highly aggressive tumors across a broad range of tumor types co-opt the activity of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the dominant transcriptional regulator of this ancient survival program. The HSF1 transcriptional program differs when activated in cancer versus when it is activated in heat shock – how are the programs different, how are the programs regulated, how are tumor adaptive responses conscripted in cancer, how can the HSF1 program be modulated for therapeutic benefit. We use chemical and genetic approaches to address these questions in a range of cancer types including the most aggressive forms of cancer - melanoma and those of the brain, pancreas, ovary, breast and lung.

Molecular Genetics of Brain Tumors

As molecular pathologists, we are eager to determine the molecular drivers of brain tumors and viable new therapeutic targets. We use genomic tools in our studies and are developing a range of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers and cell line models of brain tumors. We work on meningioma, low grade pediatric gliomas (such as ganglioglioma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma), craniopharyngioma and brain metastases aiming to spark new clinical trials and to support the characterization of clinical trial with validated biomarker assays.

New Tools for Characterizing Brain Tumors

We are using high-powered imaging techniques to investigate the function of brain tumors. Along with a close collaborator (Nathalie Agar) who is a chemist and an expert in mass spectrometry imaging, we are implementing a range of mass spec imaging techniques to investigate the molecular pathology of brain tumors and to attempt to bring mass spectrometry diagnostics into the operating room to assist with iterative real time tissue characterization. We have strong interests in a range of new ways of imaging and characterizing brain tumors.


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  • Calligaris D, Feldman DR, Norton I, Olubiyi O, Changelian AN, Machaidze R, Vestal ML, Laws ER, Dunn IF, Santagata S, Agar NY. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging analysis of pituitary adenomas for near-real-time tumor delineation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015; 112:9978-83. PubMed
  • Olubiyi OI, Ozdemir A, Incekara F, Tie Y, Dolati P, Hsu L, Santagata S, Chen Z, Rigolo L, Golby AJ. Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Intracranial Glioma Resection: A Single-Center, Retrospective Blinded Volumetric Study. World Neurosurg 2015. PubMed
  • Jones RT, Abedalthagafi MS, Brahmandam M, Greenfield EA, Hoang MP, Louis DN, Hornick JL, Santagata S. Cross-reactivity of the BRAF VE1 antibody with epitopes in axonemal dyneins leads to staining of cilia. Mod Pathol 2015; 28:596-606. PubMed
  • Bergthold G, Bandopadhayay P, Hoshida Y, Ramkissoon S, Ramkissoon L, Rich B, Maire CL, Paolella BR, Schumacher SE, Tabak B, Ferrer-Luna R, Ozek M, Sav A, Santagata S, Wen PY, Goumnerova LC, Ligon AH, Stiles C, Segal R, Golub T, Grill J, Ligon KL, Chan JA, Kieran MW, Beroukhim R. Expression profiles of 151 pediatric low-grade gliomas reveal molecular differences associated with location and histological subtype. 2015. PubMed
  • Abedalthagafi MS, Bi WL, Merrill PH, Gibson WJ, Rose MF, Du Z, Francis JM, Du R, Dunn IF, Ligon AH, Beroukhim R, Santagata S. ARID1A and TERT promoter mutations in dedifferentiated meningioma. Cancer Genet 2015. PubMed
  • Du Z, Abedalthagafi M, Aizer AA, McHenry AR, Sun HH, Bray MA, Viramontes O, Machaidze R, Brastianos PK, Reardon DA, Dunn IF, Freeman GJ, Ligon KL, Carpenter AE, Alexander BM, Agar NY, Rodig SJ, Bradshaw EM, Santagata S. Increased expression of the immune modulatory molecule PD-L1 (CD274) in anaplastic meningioma. 2015; 6:4704-16. PubMed
  • Ramkissoon SH, Bi WL, Schumacher SE, Ramkissoon LA, Haidar S, Knoff D, Dubuc A, Brown L, Burns M, Cryan JB, Abedalthagafi M, Kang YJ, Schultz N, Reardon DA, Lee EQ, Rinne ML, Norden AD, Nayak L, Ruland S, Doherty LM, LaFrankie DC, Horvath M, Aizer AA, Russo A, Arvold ND, Claus EB, Al-Mefty O, Johnson MD, Golby AJ, Dunn IF, Chiocca EA, Trippa L, Santagata S, Folkerth RD, Kantoff P, Rollins BJ, Lindeman NI, Wen PY, Ligon AH, Beroukhim R, Alexander BM, Ligon KL. Clinical implementation of integrated whole-genome copy number and mutation profiling for glioblastoma. 2015. PubMed
  • Calligaris D, Feldman DR, Norton I, Brastianos PK, Dunn IF, Santagata S, Agar NY. Molecular typing of Meningiomas by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Surgical Decision-Making. 2015; 377:690-698. PubMed
  • Whitesell L, Santagata S, Mendillo ML, Lin NU, Proia DA, Lindquist S. HSP90 empowers evolution of resistance to hormonal therapy in human breast cancer models. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014; 111:18297-302. PubMed
  • Abedalthagafi MS, Merrill PH, Bi WL, Jones RT, Listewnik ML, Ramkissoon SH, Thorner AR, Dunn IF, Beroukhim R, Alexander BM, Brastianos PK, Francis JM, Folkerth RD, Ligon KL, Van Hummelen P, Ligon AH, Santagata S. Angiomatous meningiomas have a distinct genetic profile with multiple chromosomal polysomies including polysomy of chromosome 5. 2014; 5:10596-606. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Ince TA. Normal cell phenotypes of breast epithelial cells provide the foundation of a breast cancer taxonomy. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2014. PubMed
  • Calligaris D, Caragacianu D, Liu X, Norton I, Thompson CJ, Richardson AL, Golshan M, Easterling ML, Santagata S, Dillon DA, Jolesz FA, Agar NY. Application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging in breast cancer margin analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014. PubMed
  • Cryan JB, Haidar S, Ramkissoon LA, Bi WL, Knoff DS, Schultz N, Abedalthagafi M, Brown L, Wen PY, Reardon DA, Dunn IF, Folkerth RD, Santagata S, Lindeman NI, Ligon AH, Beroukhim R, Hornick JL, Alexander BM, Ligon KL, Ramkissoon SH. Clinical multiplexed exome sequencing distinguishes adult oligodendroglial neoplasms from astrocytic and mixed lineage gliomas. 2014. PubMed
  • Lee EQ, Ruland S, LeBoeuf NR, Wen PY, Santagata S. Successful Treatment of a Progressive BRAF V600E-Mutated Anaplastic Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma With Vemurafenib Monotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2014. PubMed
  • Scherz-Shouval R, Santagata S, Mendillo ML, Sholl LM, Ben-Aharon I, Beck AH, Dias-Santagata D, Koeva M, Stemmer SM, Whitesell L, Lindquist S. The reprogramming of tumor stroma by HSF1 is a potent enabler of malignancy. Cell 2014; 158:564-78. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Eberlin LS, Norton I, Calligaris D, Feldman DR, Ide JL, Liu X, Wiley JS, Vestal ML, Ramkissoon SH, Orringer DA, Gill KK, Dunn IF, Dias-Santagata D, Ligon KL, Jolesz FA, Golby AJ, Cooks RG, Agar NY. Intraoperative mass spectrometry mapping of an onco-metabolite to guide brain tumor surgery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014; 111:11121-6. PubMed
  • Aizer AA, Arvold ND, Catalano P, Claus EB, Golby AJ, Johnson MD, Al-Mefty O, Wen PY, Reardon DA, Lee EQ, Nayak L, Rinne ML, Beroukhim R, Weiss SE, Ramkissoon SH, Abedalthagafi M, Santagata S, Dunn IF, Alexander BM. Adjuvant radiation therapy, local recurrence, and the need for salvage therapy in atypical meningioma. 2014. PubMed
  • Wen PY, Chang SM, Lamborn KR, Kuhn JG, Norden AD, Cloughesy TF, Robins HI, Lieberman FS, Gilbert MR, Mehta MP, Drappatz J, Groves MD, Santagata S, Ligon AH, Yung WK, Wright JJ, Dancey J, Aldape KD, Prados MD, Ligon KL. Phase I/II study of erlotinib and temsirolimus for patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: North American Brain Tumor Consortium trial 04-02. 2014; 16:567-78. PubMed
  • Wijeratne EM, Xu YM, Scherz-Shouval R, Marron MT, Rocha DD, Liu MX, Costa-Lotufo LV, Santagata S, Lindquist S, Whitesell L, Gunatilaka AA. Structure-Activity Relationships for Withanolides as Inducers of the Cellular Heat-Shock Response. J Med Chem 2014. PubMed
  • Auclair JR, Salisbury JP, Johnson JL, Petsko GA, Ringe D, Bosco DA, Agar NY, Santagata S, Durham HD, Agar JN. Artifacts to avoid while taking advantage of top-down mass spectrometry based detection of protein S-thiolation. Proteomics 2014. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Thakkar A, Ergonul A, Wang B, Woo T, Hu R, Harrell JC, McNamara G, Schwede M, Culhane AC, Kindelberger D, Rodig S, Richardson A, Schnitt SJ, Tamimi RM, Ince TA. Taxonomy of breast cancer based on normal cell phenotype predicts outcome. J Clin Invest 2014; 124:859-70. PubMed
  • Filone CM, Caballero IS, Dower K, Mendillo ML, Cowley GS, Santagata S, Rozelle DK, Yen J, Rubins KH, Hacohen N, Root DE, Hensley LE, Connor J. The master regulator of the cellular stress response (HSF1) is critical for orthopoxvirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2014; 10:e1003904. PubMed
  • Brastianos PK, Taylor-Weiner A, Manley PE, Jones RT, Dias-Santagata D, Thorner AR, Lawrence MS, Rodriguez FJ, Bernardo LA, Schubert L, Sunkavalli A, Shillingford N, Calicchio ML, Lidov HG, Taha H, Martinez-Lage M, Santi M, Storm PB, Lee JY, Palmer JN, Adappa ND, Scott RM, Dunn IF, Laws ER, Stewart C, Ligon KL, Hoang MP, Van Hummelen P, Hahn WC, Louis DN, Resnick AC, Kieran MW, Getz G, Santagata S. Exome sequencing identifies BRAF mutations in papillary craniopharyngiomas. Nat Genet 2014; 46:161-5. PubMed
  • Shankar GM, Taylor-Weiner A, Lelic N, Jones RT, Kim JC, Francis JM, Abedalthagafi M, Borges LF, Coumans JV, Curry WT, Nahed BV, Shin JH, Paek SH, Park SH, Stewart C, Lawrence MS, Cibulskis K, Thorner AR, Van Hummelen P, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Batchelor TT, Carter SL, Hoang MP, Santagata S, Louis DN, Barker FG, Meyerson M, Getz G, Brastianos PK, Cahill DP. Sporadic hemangioblastomas are characterized by cryptic VHL inactivation. Acta Neuropathol Commun 2015; 2:167. PubMed
  • Calligaris D, Norton I, Feldman DR, Ide JL, Dunn IF, Eberlin LS, Cooks RG, Jolesz FA, Golby AJ, Santagata S, Agar NY. Mass spectrometry imaging as a tool for surgical decision-making. J Mass Spectrom 2013; 48:1178-87. PubMed
  • Ji M, Orringer DA, Freudiger CW, Ramkissoon S, Liu X, Lau D, Golby AJ, Norton I, Hayashi M, Agar NY, Young GS, Spino C, Santagata S, Camelo-Piragua S, Ligon KL, Sagher O, Xie XS. Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Sci Transl Med 2013; 5:201ra119. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Mendillo ML, Tang YC, Subramanian A, Perley CC, Roche SP, Wong B, Narayan R, Kwon H, Koeva M, Amon A, Golub TR, Porco JA, Whitesell L, Lindquist S. Tight coordination of protein translation and HSF1 activation supports the anabolic malignant state. Science 2013; 341:1238303. PubMed
  • Taipale M, Krykbaeva I, Whitesell L, Santagata S, Zhang J, Liu Q, Gray NS, Lindquist S. Chaperones as thermodynamic sensors of drug-target interactions reveal kinase inhibitor specificities in living cells. Nat Biotechnol 2013; 31:630-7. PubMed
  • Ramkissoon LA, Horowitz PM, Craig JM, Ramkissoon SH, Rich BE, Schumacher SE, McKenna A, Lawrence MS, Bergthold G, Brastianos PK, Tabak B, Ducar MD, Van Hummelen P, MacConaill LE, Pouissant-Young T, Cho YJ, Taha H, Mahmoud M, Bowers DC, Margraf L, Tabori U, Hawkins C, Packer RJ, Hill DA, Pomeroy SL, Eberhart CG, Dunn IF, Goumnerova L, Getz G, Chan JA, Santagata S, Hahn WC, Stiles CD, Ligon AH, Kieran MW, Beroukhim R, Ligon KL. Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013; 110:8188-93. PubMed
  • Brastianos PK, Horowitz PM, Santagata S, Jones RT, McKenna A, Getz G, Ligon KL, Palescandolo E, Van Hummelen P, Ducar MD, Raza A, Sunkavalli A, Macconaill LE, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Louis DN, Hahn WC, Dunn IF, Beroukhim R. Genomic sequencing of meningiomas identifies oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations. Nat Genet 2013; 45:285-9. PubMed
  • Silverman MA, Misasi J, Smole S, Feldman HA, Cohen AB, Santagata S, McManus M, Ahmed AA. Eastern equine encephalitis in children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970-2010. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19:194-201; quiz 352. PubMed
  • Eberlin LS, Norton I, Orringer D, Dunn IF, Liu X, Ide JL, Jarmusch AK, Ligon KL, Jolesz FA, Golby AJ, Santagata S, Agar NY, Cooks RG. Ambient mass spectrometry for the intraoperative molecular diagnosis of human brain tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013; 110:1611-6. PubMed
  • Liu X, Ide JL, Norton I, Marchionni MA, Ebling MC, Wang LY, Davis E, Sauvageot CM, Kesari S, Kellersberger KA, Easterling ML, Santagata S, Stuart DD, Alberta J, Agar JN, Stiles CD, Agar NY. Molecular imaging of drug transit through the blood-brain barrier with MALDI mass spectrometry imaging. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2859. PubMed
  • Dai C, Santagata S, Tang Z, Shi J, Cao J, Kwon H, Bronson RT, Whitesell L, Lindquist S. Loss of tumor suppressor NF1 activates HSF1 to promote carcinogenesis. J Clin Invest 2012; 122:3742-54. PubMed
  • Mendillo ML, Santagata S, Koeva M, Bell GW, Hu R, Tamimi RM, Fraenkel E, Ince TA, Whitesell L, Lindquist S. HSF1 drives a transcriptional program distinct from heat shock to support highly malignant human cancers. Cell 2012; 150:549-62. PubMed
  • Whitesell L, Santagata S, Lin NU. Inhibiting HSP90 to treat cancer: a strategy in evolution. Curr Mol Med 2012. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Xu YM, Wijeratne EM, Kontnik R, Rooney C, Perley CC, Kwon H, Clardy J, Kesari S, Whitesell L, Lindquist S, Gunatilaka AA. Using the heat-shock response to discover anticancer compounds that target protein homeostasis. ACS Chem Biol 2012; 7:340-9. PubMed
  • Eberlin LS, Norton I, Dill AL, Golby AJ, Ligon KL, Santagata S, Cooks RG, Agar NY. Classifying human brain tumors by lipid imaging with mass spectrometry. Cancer Res 2012; 72:645-54. PubMed
  • Craig JM, Vena N, Ramkissoon S, Idbaih A, Fouse SD, Ozek M, Sav A, Hill DA, Margraf LR, Eberhart CG, Kieran MW, Norden AD, Wen PY, Loda M, Santagata S, Ligon KL, Ligon AH. DNA fragmentation simulation method (FSM) and fragment size matching improve aCGH performance of FFPE tissues. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e38881. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Hu R, Lin NU, Mendillo ML, Collins LC, Hankinson SE, Schnitt SJ, Whitesell L, Tamimi RM, Lindquist S, Ince TA. High levels of nuclear heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011; 108:18378-83. PubMed
  • Tian Y, Rich BE, Vena N, Craig JM, Macconaill LE, Rajaram V, Goldman S, Taha H, Mahmoud M, Ozek M, Sav A, Longtine JA, Lindeman NI, Garraway LA, Ligon AH, Stiles CD, Santagata S, Chan JA, Kieran MW, Ligon KL. Detection of KIAA1549-BRAF Fusion Transcripts in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas. J Mol Diagn 2011; 13:669-77. PubMed
  • Eberlin LS, Liu X, Ferreira CR, Santagata S, Agar NY, Cooks RG. Desorption Electrospray Ionization then MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipid and Protein Distributions in Single Tissue Sections. Anal Chem 2011. PubMed
  • Mahta A, Qu Y, Nastic D, Sundstrom M, Kim RY, Saria M, Santagata S, Kesari S. Relapsing Tumefactive Lesion in an Adult with Medulloblastoma Previously Treated with Chemoradiotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant. Pathol Oncol Res 2011. PubMed
  • Milbury CA, Chen CC, Mamon H, Liu P, Santagata S, Makrigiorgos GM. Multiplex amplification coupled with COLD-PCR and high resolution melting enables identification of low-abundance mutations in cancer samples with low DNA content. J Mol Diagn 2011; 13:220-32. PubMed
  • Dias-Santagata D, Lam Q, Vernovsky K, Vena N, Lennerz JK, Borger DR, Batchelor TT, Ligon KL, Iafrate AJ, Ligon AH, Louis DN, Santagata S. BRAF V600E mutations are common in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PLoS ONE 2011; 6:e17948. PubMed
  • Cho YJ, Tsherniak A, Tamayo P, Santagata S, Ligon A, Greulich H, Berhoukim R, Amani V, Goumnerova L, Eberhart CG, Lau CC, Olson JM, Gilbertson RJ, Gajjar A, Delattre O, Kool M, Ligon K, Meyerson M, Mesirov JP, Pomeroy SL. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Medulloblastoma Identifies a Molecular Subgroup That Drives Poor Clinical Outcome. J Clin Oncol 2010. PubMed
  • McMillan HJ, Santagata S, Shapiro F, Batish SD, Couchon L, Donnelly S, Kang PB. Novel MPZ mutations and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy. 2010; 20:725-9. PubMed
  • Haskew-Layton RE, Payappilly JB, Smirnova NA, Ma TC, Chan KK, Murphy TH, Guo H, Langley B, Sultana R, Butterfield DA, Santagata S, Alldred MJ, Gazaryan IG, Bell GW, Ginsberg SD, Ratan RR. Controlled enzymatic production of astrocytic hydrogen peroxide protects neurons from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-independent pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010; 107:17385-90. PubMed
  • Lengner CJ, Gimelbrant AA, Erwin JA, Cheng AW, Guenther MG, Welstead GG, Alagappan R, Frampton GM, Xu P, Muffat J, Santagata S, Powers D, Barrett CB, Young RA, Lee JT, Jaenisch R, Mitalipova M. Derivation of pre-X inactivation human embryonic stem cells under physiological oxygen concentrations. Cell 2010; 141:872-83. PubMed
  • McIntire MG, Santagata S, Ligon K, Chirieac LR. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung. Am J Transl Res 2010; 2:309-15. PubMed
  • Kritzer JA, Hamamichi S, McCaffery JM, Santagata S, Naumann TA, Caldwell KA, Caldwell GA, Lindquist S. Rapid selection of cyclic peptides that reduce alpha-synuclein toxicity in yeast and animal models. Nat Chem Biol 2009; 5:655-63. PubMed
  • Kesari S,Schiff D,Drappatz J,LaFrankie D,Doherty L,Macklin EA,Muzikansky A,Santagata S,Ligon KL,Norden AD,Ciampa A,Bradshaw J,Levy B,Radakovic G,Ramakrishna N,Black PM,Wen PY. Phase II study of protracted daily temozolomide for low-grade gliomas in adults. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:330-7. PubMed
  • MacConaill LE, Campbell CD, Kehoe SM, Bass AJ, Hatton C, Niu L, Davis M, Yao K, Hanna M, Mondal C, Luongo L, Emery CM, Baker AC, Philips J, Goff DJ, Fiorentino M, Rubin MA, Polyak K, Chan J, Wang Y, Fletcher JA, Santagata S, Corso G, Roviello F, Shivdasani R, Kieran MW, Ligon KL, Stiles CD, Hahn WC, Meyerson ML, Garraway LA. Profiling critical cancer gene mutations in clinical tumor samples. PLoS ONE 2009; 4:e7887. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Maire CL, Idbaih A, Geffers L, Correll M, Holton K, Quackenbush J, Ligon KL. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors. PLoS ONE 2009; 4:e7932. PubMed
  • Wabulya A, Imitola J, Santagata S, Kesari S. Mycosis fungoides with leptomeningeal involvement. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:5658-61. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Ligon KL, Hornick JL. Embryonic Stem Cell Transcription Factor Signatures in the Diagnosis of Primary and Metastatic Germ Cell Tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2007; 31:836-845. PubMed
  • Santagata S, van Horne C, Sallan SE, McLaughlin ME, Ramakrishna NR. Post-irradiation meningioma with sarcoidosis. J. Neurooncol. 2007; 82:271-2. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Kesari S, Black PM, Chan JA. Anaplastic variant of medulloblastoma mimicking a vestibular schwannoma. J Neurooncol 2006; 81:49-51. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Hornick JL, Ligon KL. Comparative analysis of germ cell transcription factors in CNS germinoma reveals diagnostic utility of NANOG. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:1613-8. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Tuli S, Wiese DE, Day A, De Girolami U. Intramedullary neuroma of the cervicomedullary junction. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine 2006; 5:362-6. PubMed
  • Santagata S, Kinney HC. Mechanism of JCV entry into oligodendrocytes. Science 2005; 309:381-2. PubMed
  • Dahia PL, Ross KN, Wright ME, Hayashida CY, Santagata S, Barontini M, Kung AL, Sanso G, Powers JF, Tischler AS, Hodin R, Heitritter S, Moore F, Dluhy R, Sosa JA, Ocal IT, Benn DE, Marsh DJ, Robinson BG, Schneider K, Garber J, Arum SM, Korbonits M, Grossman A, Pigny P, Toledo SP, Nose V, Li C, Stiles CD. A HIF1alpha regulatory loop links hypoxia and mitochondrial signals in pheochromocytomas. PLoS Genet 2005; 1:72-80. PubMed