Photo of Simon K. Warfield,  PhD

Simon K. Warfield, PhD

Boston Children's Hospital

Boston Children's Hospital
Phone: (617) 355-4566
Fax: (617) 730-4644

Simon K. Warfield, PhD

Boston Children's Hospital


  • Professor, Radiology, Harvard Medical School
  • Director, Computational Radiology Laboratory, Boston Children's Hospital
  • Director of Research, Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital


Research Abstract

My research focus is on the development of novel algorithms that improve our capability to extract information from images and to apply that information for the treatment of cancer. The applications of this technology include:

1. improved targeting and monitoring for brain tumor surgeries and prostate cancer treatment

2. preoperative surgical planning

3. assessment of tumor volume and infiltration by 3D segmentation of multimodality imaging data

4. nonrigid registration for multimodality image fusion


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  • Im K, Ahtam B, Haehn D, Peters JM, Warfield SK, Sahin M, Ellen Grant P. Altered Structural Brain Networks in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Cereb Cortex 2015. PubMed
  • Taquet M, Scherrer B, Commowick O, Peters JM, Sahin M, Macq B, Warfield SK. A mathematical framework for the registration and analysis of multi-fascicle models for population studies of the brain microstructure. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2014; 33:504-17. PubMed
  • Hunold A, Haueisen J, Ahtam B, Doshi C, Harini C, Camposano S, Warfield SK, Grant PE, Okada Y, Papadelis C. Localization of the epileptogenic foci in tuberous sclerosis complex: a pediatric case report. Front Hum Neurosci 2014; 8:175. PubMed
  • Taimouri V, Akhondi-Asl A, Tomas-Fernandez X, Peters JM, Prabhu SP, Poduri A, Takeoka M, Loddenkemper T, Bergin AM, Harini C, Madsen JR, Warfield SK. Electrode localization for planning surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone in pediatric epilepsy. 2014; 9:91-105. PubMed
  • Akhondi-Asl A, Warfield SK. Simultaneous truth and performance level estimation through fusion of probabilistic segmentations. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2013; 32:1840-52. PubMed
  • Weisenfeld NI, Peters JM, Tsai PT, Prabhu SP, Dies KA, Sahin M, Warfield SK. A magnetic resonance imaging study of cerebellar volume in tuberous sclerosis complex. Pediatr Neurol 2013; 48:105-10. PubMed
  • Hyde DE, Duffy FH, Warfield SK. Anisotropic partial volume CSF modeling for EEG source localization. Neuroimage 2012; 62:2161-70. PubMed
  • Commowick O, Warfield SK. Estimation of inferential uncertainty in assessing expert segmentation performance from STAPLE. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2010; 29:771-80. PubMed
  • Lee JW, Wen PY, Hurwitz S, Black P, Kesari S, Drappatz J, Golby AJ, Wells WM, Warfield SK, Kikinis R, Bromfield EB. Morphological characteristics of brain tumors causing seizures. Arch Neurol 2010; 67:336-42. PubMed
  • Krishnan ML, Commowick O, Jeste SS, Weisenfeld N, Hans A, Gregas MC, Sahin M, Warfield SK. Diffusion features of white matter in tuberous sclerosis with tractography. Pediatr Neurol 2010; 42:101-6. PubMed
  • Commowick O, Warfield SK. Incorporating priors on expert performance parameters for segmentation validation and label fusion: a maximum a posteriori STAPLE. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2010; 13:25-32. PubMed
  • Gholipour A, Estroff JA, Sahin M, Prabhu SP, Warfield SK. Maximum a posteriori estimation of isotropic high-resolution volumetric MRI from orthogonal thick-slice scans. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2010; 13:109-16. PubMed
  • Benders MJ, Groenendaal F, van Bel F, Ha Vinh R, Dubois J, Lazeyras F, Warfield SK, Hüppi PS, de Vries LS. Brain development of the preterm neonate after neonatal hydrocortisone treatment for chronic lung disease. Pediatr Res 2009; 66:555-9. PubMed
  • Vigneron LM, Duflot MP, Robe PA, Warfield SK, Verly JG. 2D XFEM-based modeling of retraction and successive resections for preoperative image update. Comput Aided Surg 2009. PubMed
  • Commowick O,Warfield SK. A continuous STAPLE for scalar, vector, and tensor images: an application to DTI analysis. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2009; 28:838-46. PubMed
  • Warfield SK,Zou KH,Wells WM. Validation of image segmentation by estimating rater bias and variance. Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci 2008; 366:2361-75. PubMed
  • Archip N, Clatz O, Whalen S, Dimaio SP, Black PM, Jolesz FA, Golby A, Warfield SK. Compensation of geometric distortion effects on intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for enhanced visualization in image-guided neurosurgery. Neurosurgery 2008; 62:209-15; discussion 215-6. PubMed
  • Archip N, Jolesz FA, Warfield SK. A validation framework for brain tumor segmentation. Acad Radiol 2007; 14:1242-51. PubMed
  • Archip N, Clatz O, Whalen S, Kacher D, Fedorov A, Kot A, Chrisochoides N, Jolesz F, Golby A, Black PM, Warfield SK. Non-rigid alignment of pre-operative MRI, fMRI, and DT-MRI with intra-operative MRI for enhanced visualization and navigation in image-guided neurosurgery. Neuroimage 2007; 35:609-24. PubMed
  • Dimaio SP, Archip N, Hata N, Talos IF, Warfield SK, Majumdar A, Mcdannold N, Hynynen K, Morrison PR, Wells WM, Kacher DF, Ellis RE, Golby AJ, Black PM, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R. Image-guided neurosurgery at Brigham and Women's Hospital. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 2006; 25:67-73. PubMed
  • Warfield SK, Zou KH, Wells WM. Simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE): an algorithm for the validation of image segmentation. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2004; 23:903-21. PubMed
  • Goldberg-Zimring D, Achiron A, Warfield SK, Guttmann CR, Azhari H. Application of spherical harmonics derived space rotation invariant indices to the analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions' geometry by MRI. Magn Reson Imaging 2004; 22:815-25. PubMed
  • Tolsa CB, Zimine S, Warfield SK, Freschi M, Sancho Rossignol A, Lazeyras F, Hanquinet S, Pfizenmaier M, Huppi PS. Early alteration of structural and functional brain development in premature infants born with intrauterine growth restriction. Pediatr Res 2004; 56:132-8. PubMed
  • Zou KH, Wells WM, Kikinis R, Warfield SK. Three validation metrics for automated probabilistic image segmentation of brain tumours. Stat Med 2004; 23:1259-82. PubMed
  • Grau V, Mewes AU, Alca. Improved watershed transform for medical image segmentation using prior information. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2004; 23:447-58. PubMed
  • Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, Rivkin MJ, Vajapeyam S, Mulkern RV, Warfield SK, Huppi PS, Butler SC, Conneman N, Fischer C, Eichenwald EC. Early experience alters brain function and structure. Pediatrics 2004; 113:846-57. PubMed
  • Zou KH, Warfield SK, Bharatha A, Tempany CM, Kaus MR, Haker SJ, Wells WM, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R. Statistical validation of image segmentation quality based on a spatial overlap index. Acad Radiol 2004; 11:178-89. PubMed
  • Wiegand LC, Warfield SK, Levitt JJ, Hirayasu Y, Salisbury DF, Heckers S, Dickey CC, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW, Shenton ME. Prefrontal cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55:131-40. PubMed
  • Anderson NG, Warfield SK, Wells S, Spencer C, Balasingham A, Volpe JJ, Inder TE. A limited range of measures of 2-D ultrasound correlate with 3-D MRI cerebral volumes in the premature infant at term. Ultrasound Med Biol 2004; 30:11-8. PubMed
  • Zou KH, Warfield SK, Fielding JR, Tempany CM, William MW, Kaus MR, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R. Statistical validation based on parametric receiver operating characteristic analysis of continuous classification data. Acad Radiol 2003; 10:1359-68. PubMed
  • Hunt RW, Warfield SK, Wang H, Kean M, Volpe JJ, Inder TE. Assessment of the impact of the removal of cerebrospinal fluid on cerebral tissue volumes by advanced volumetric 3D-MRI in posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a premature infant. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74:658-60. PubMed
  • Jaume S, Ferrant M, Macq B, Hoyte L, Fielding JR, Schreyer A, Kikinis R, Warfield SK. Tumor detection in the bladder wall with a measurement of abnormal thickness in CT scans. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2003; 50:383-90. PubMed
  • Ferrant M, Nabavi A, Macq B, Black PM, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R, Warfield SK. Serial registration of intraoperative MR images of the brain. Med Image Anal 2002; 6:337-59. PubMed
  • Hirose M, Bharatha A, Hata N, Zou KH, Warfield SK, Cormack RA, D'Amico A, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Tempany CM. Quantitative MR imaging assessment of prostate gland deformation before and during MR imaging-guided brachytherapy. Acad Radiol 2002; 9:906-12. PubMed
  • Ruiz-Alzola J, Westin CF, Warfield SK, Alberola C, Maier S, Kikinis R. Nonrigid registration of 3D tensor medical data. Med Image Anal 2002; 6:143-61. PubMed
  • Wei X, Warfield SK, Zou KH, Wu Y, Li X, Guimond A, Mugler JP, Benson RR, Wolfson L, Weiner HL, Guttmann CR. Quantitative analysis of MRI signal abnormalities of brain white matter with high reproducibility and accuracy. J Magn Reson Imaging 2002; 15:203-9. PubMed
  • Benson RR, Guttmann CR, Wei X, Warfield SK, Hall C, Schmidt JA, Kikinis R, Wolfson LI. Older people with impaired mobility have specific loci of periventricular abnormality on MRI. Neurology 2002; 58:48-55. PubMed
  • Bharatha A, Hirose M, Hata N, Warfield SK, Ferrant M, Zou KH, Suarez-Santana E, Ruiz-Alzola J, D'Amico A, Cormack RA, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Tempany CM. Evaluation of three-dimensional finite element-based deformable registration of pre- and intraoperative prostate imaging. Med Phys 2002; 28:2551-60. PubMed
  • Ferrant M, Nabavi A, Macq B, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R, Warfield SK. Registration of 3-D intraoperative MR images of the brain using a finite-element biomechanical model. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002; 20:1384-97. PubMed
  • Nabavi A, Black PM, Gering DT, Westin CF, Mehta V, Pergolizzi RS, Ferrant M, Warfield SK, Hata N, Schwartz RB, Wells WM, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA. Serial intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of brain shift. Neurosurgery 2001; 48:787-97; discussion 797-8. PubMed
  • Kaus MR, Warfield SK, Nabavi A, Black PM, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R. Automated segmentation of MR images of brain tumors. Radiology 2001; 218:586-91. PubMed
  • Schreyer AG, Fielding JR, Warfield SK, Lee JH, Loughlin KR, Dumanli H, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R. Virtual CT cystoscopy: color mapping of bladder wall thickness. Invest Radiol 2000; 35:331-4. PubMed
  • Warfield SK, Kaus M, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R. Adaptive, template moderated, spatially varying statistical classification. Ultrasound Med Biol 2000; 4:43-55. PubMed