Photo of Steven P. Balk,  MD, PhD

Steven P. Balk, MD, PhD

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Phone: (617) 735-2065
Fax: (617) 667-0610

Steven P. Balk, MD, PhD

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


  • Professor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • Staff Physician, Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center



  • Member, Center Scientific Council

Research Abstract

The major focus of the lab is on the molecular basis of prostate cancer development and progression. The androgen receptor, which is a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, plays a major role in prostate cancer. We have identified mutations in the androgen receptor that contribute to prostate cancer progression and are characterizing androgen receptor interacting proteins. We have also determined that the platelet derived growth factor receptor contributes to prostate cancer and are attempting to define other important growth factor-receptor interactions that may be useful therapeutic targets. Finally, efforts are underway to develop murine transgenic and gene knockout models of PCa. A second interest in the lab is a novel T cell population termed NK T cells and the MHC class I-like CD1d protein they recognize. These cells appear to have an important immunoregulatory function and we are determining the role they play in viral infections and anti-tumor



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  • Taplin ME, Balk SP. Has the Time Arrived for Biomarker-Directed Therapy in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer? JAMA Oncol 2015. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Sager R, Schaefer RJ, Bratslavsky G, Pandolfi PP, Balk SP, Kotula L. Loss of Wave1 gene defines a subtype of lethal prostate cancer. 2015; 6:12383-91. PubMed
  • Hsieh CL, Botta G, Gao S, Li T, Van Allen EM, Treacy DJ, Cai C, He HH, Sweeney CJ, Brown M, Balk SP, Nelson PS, Garraway LA, Kantoff PW. PLZF, a Tumor Suppressor Genetically Lost in Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer, is a Mediator of Resistance to Androgen Deprivation Therapy. Cancer Res 2015. PubMed
  • Plymate SR, Bhatt RS, Balk SP. Taxane resistance in prostate cancer mediated by AR-independent GATA2 regulation of IGF2. Cancer Cell 2015; 27:158-9. PubMed
  • Tamae D, Mostaghel E, Montgomery B, Nelson PS, Balk SP, Kantoff PW, Taplin M, Penning TM. The DHEA-sulfate depot following P450c17 inhibition supports the case for AKR1C3 inhibition in high risk localized and advanced castration resistant prostate cancer. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2014. PubMed
  • Cai C, He HH, Gao S, Chen S, Yu Z, Gao Y, Chen S, Chen MW, Zhang J, Ahmed M, Wang Y, Metzger E, Schüle R, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 has dual functions as a major regulator of androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Cell Rep 2014; 9:1618-27. PubMed
  • Chen E, Sowalsky AG, Gao S, Cai C, Voznesensky O, Schaefer R, Loda M, True LD, Ye H, Troncoso P, Lis RT, Kantoff P, Montgomery B, Nelson PS, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Taplin ME. Abiraterone Treatment in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Selects for Progesterone Responsive Mutant Androgen Receptors. Clin Cancer Res 2014. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Montgomery B, Logothetis CJ, Bubley GJ, Richie JP, Dalkin BL, Sanda MG, Davis JW, Loda M, True LD, Troncoso P, Ye H, Lis RT, Marck BT, Matsumoto AM, Balk SP, Mostaghel EA, Penning TM, Nelson PS, Xie W, Jiang Z, Haqq CM, Tamae D, Tran N, Peng W, Kheoh T, Molina A, Kantoff PW. Intense Androgen-Deprivation Therapy With Abiraterone Acetate Plus Leuprolide Acetate in Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results of a Randomized Phase II Neoadjuvant Study. J Clin Oncol 2014. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Xia Z, Wang L, Zhao H, Chen S, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Li W. Whole Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Extensive Unspliced mRNA in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Mol Cancer Res 2014. PubMed
  • Lu J, Lonergan PE, Nacusi LP, Wang L, Schmidt LJ, Sun Z, Van der Steen T, Boorjian SA, Kosari F, Vasmatzis G, Klee GG, Balk SP, Huang H, Wang C, Tindall DJ. The cistrome and gene signature of androgen receptor splice variants in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. J Urol 2014. PubMed
  • Yu Z, Cai C, Gao S, Simon NI, Shen H, Balk SP. Galeterone Prevents Androgen Receptor Binding to Chromatin and Enhances Degradation of Mutant Androgen Receptor. Clin Cancer Res 2014. PubMed
  • Yuan X, Cai C, Chen S, Chen S, Yu Z, Balk SP. Androgen receptor functions in castration-resistant prostate cancer and mechanisms of resistance to new agents targeting the androgen axis. Oncogene 2014. PubMed
  • Sun T, Wang X, He HH, Sweeney CJ, Liu SX, Brown M, Balk S, Lee GS, Kantoff PW. MiR-221 promotes the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of HECTD2 and RAB1A. Oncogene 2014. PubMed
  • Hsieh CL, Fei T, Chen Y, Li T, Gao Y, Wang X, Sun T, Sweeney CJ, Lee GS, Chen S, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M, Kantoff PW. Enhancer RNAs participate in androgen receptor-driven looping that selectively enhances gene activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014. PubMed
  • Chin YM, Yuan X, Balk SP, Toker A. Pten-deficient tumors depend on akt2 for maintenance and survival. 2014. PubMed
  • Balk SP. Androgen receptor functions in prostate cancer development and progression. Asian J. Androl. 2014. PubMed
  • Egan A, Dong Y, Zhang H, Qi Y, Balk SP, Sartor O. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: adaptive responses in the androgen axis. Cancer Treat Rev 2014; 40:426-33. PubMed
  • Yu Z, Chen S, Sowalsky AG, Voznesensky OS, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Cai C, Balk SP. Rapid induction of androgen receptor splice variants by androgen deprivation in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2014; 20:1590-600. PubMed
  • Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Lange P, Lin DW, Taplin ME, Balk S, Ellis W, Kantoff P, Marck B, Tamae D, Matsumoto AM, True LD, Vessella R, Penning T, Hunter Merrill R, Gulati R, Montgomery B. Targeted androgen pathway suppression in localized prostate cancer: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32:229-37. PubMed
  • Liu F, Zhang X, Weisberg E, Chen S, Hur W, Wu H, Zhao Z, Wang W, Mao M, Cai C, Simon NI, Sanda T, Wang J, Look AT, Griffin JD, Balk SP, Liu Q, Gray NS. Discovery of a Selective Irreversible BMX Inhibitor for Prostate Cancer. ACS Chem Biol 2013. PubMed
  • Wang H, He L, Ma F, Regan MM, Balk SP, Richardson AL, Yuan X. SOX9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) expression and Wnt/硫-catenin activation in breast cancer. J Biol Chem 2013; 288:6478-87. PubMed
  • Cai C, Wang H, He HH, Chen S, He L, Ma F, Mucci L, Wang Q, Fiore C, Sowalsky AG, Loda M, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP, Yuan X. ERG induces androgen receptor-mediated regulation of SOX9 in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest 2013; 123:1109-22. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Clonal progression of prostate cancers from Gleason grade 3 to grade 4. Cancer Res 2013; 73:1050-5. PubMed
  • Xu K, Wu ZJ, Groner AC, He HH, Cai C, Lis RT, Wu X, Stack EC, Loda M, Liu T, Xu H, Cato L, Thornton JE, Gregory RI, Morrissey C, Vessella RL, Montironi R, Magi-Galluzzi C, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M. EZH2 oncogenic activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells is Polycomb-independent. Science 2012; 338:1465-9. PubMed
  • Shen HC, Shanmugasundaram K, Simon NI, Cai C, Wang H, Chen S, Balk SP, Rigby AC. In silico discovery of androgen receptor antagonists with activity in castration resistant prostate cancer. Mol Endocrinol 2012; 26:1836-46. PubMed
  • Lynch L, Nowak M, Varghese B, Clark J, Hogan AE, Toxavidis V, Balk SP, O'Shea D, O'Farrelly C, Exley MA. Adipose Tissue Invariant NKT Cells Protect against Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorder through Regulatory Cytokine Production. Immunity 2012; 37:574-87. PubMed
  • Wang H, Xu Y, Fang Z, Chen S, Balk SP, Yuan X. Doxycycline regulated induction of AKT in murine prostate drives proliferation independently of p27 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor downregulation. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e41330. PubMed
  • Exley MA, Wilson B, Balk SP. Isolation and functional use of human NKT cells. Curr Protoc Immunol 2010; Chapter 14:Unit 14.11. PubMed
  • Jiang X, Chen S, Asara JM, Balk SP. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway activation in PTEN deficient prostate cancer cells is independent of receptor tyrosine kinases and mediated by the p110{beta} and p110{delta} catalytic subunits. J Biol Chem 2010; 285:14980-9. PubMed
  • Porcelli S, Brenner MB, Greenstein JL, Terhorst C, Balk SP, Bleicher PA. Pillars Article: Recognition of Cluster of Differentiation 1 Antigens by Human CD4-CD8- CytolyticT Lymphocyte. Nature. 1989. 341: 447-450. J Immunol 2010; 184:3306-9. PubMed
  • Nowak M, Lynch L, Yue S, Ohta A, Sitkovsky M, Balk SP, Exley MA. The A2aR adenosine receptor controls cytokine production in iNKT cells. Eur J Immunol 2010; 40:682-7. PubMed
  • Nowak M, Arredouani MS, Tun-Kyi A, Schmidt-Wolf I, Sanda MG, Balk SP, Exley MA. Defective NKT cell activation by CD1d+ TRAMP prostate tumor cells is corrected by interleukin-12 with alpha-galactosylceramide. PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e11311. PubMed
  • Yue SC, Nowak M, Shaulov-Kask A, Wang R, Yue D, Balk SP, Exley MA. Direct CD1d-mediated stimulation of APC IL-12 production and protective immune response to virus infection in vivo. J Immunol 2009; 184:268-76. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Regan MM, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ, Duggan SE, Werner L, Beer TM, Ryan CW, Mathew P, Tu SM, Denmeade SR, Oh WK, Sartor O, Mantzoros CS, Rittmaster R, Kantoff PW, Balk SP. Phase II study of androgen synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride in asymptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:7099-105. PubMed
  • Lu B, Maqsodi B, Yang W, McMaster GK, Perner S, Regan M, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Rubin M, Sanda MG. Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer specimens by a novel assay using branched DNA. Urology 2009; 74:1156-61. PubMed
  • Sartor O, Nakabayashi M, Taplin ME, Ross RW, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Oh WK. Activity of dutasteride plus ketoconazole in castration-refractory prostate cancer after progression on ketoconazole alone. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2009; 7:E90-2. PubMed
  • Chen S, Kesler CT, Paschal BM, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and activity are regulated by an association with protein phosphatase 1. J Biol Chem 2009; 284:25576-84. PubMed
  • Cai C, Wang H, Xu Y, Chen S, Balk SP. Reactivation of androgen receptor-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG gene expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2009; 69:6027-32. PubMed
  • Wang Q, Li W, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Xu K, Yu J, Chen Z, Beroukhim R, Wang H, Lupien M, Wu T, Regan MM, Meyer CA, Carroll JS, Manrai AK, Jänne OA, Balk SP, Mehra R, Han B, Chinnaiyan AM, Rubin MA, True L, Fiorentino M, Fiore C, Loda M, Kantoff PW, Liu XS, Brown M. Androgen receptor regulates a distinct transcription program in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cell 2009; 138:245-56. PubMed
  • Cai C, Portnoy DC, Wang H, Jiang X, Chen S, Balk SP. Androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells is suppressed by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2. Cancer Res 2009; 69:5202-9. PubMed
  • Shen HC,Balk SP. Development of androgen receptor antagonists with promising activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Cell 2009; 15:461-3. PubMed
  • Sun T, Wang Q, Balk S, Brown M, Lee GS, Kantoff P. The role of microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2009; 69:3356-63. PubMed
  • Yuan X,Balk SP. Mechanisms mediating androgen receptor reactivation after castration. Urol Oncol 2008; 27:36-41. PubMed
  • Hur W,Velentza A,Kim S,Flatauer L,Jiang X,Valente D,Mason DE,Suzuki M,Larson B,Zhang J,Zagorska A,Didonato M,Nagle A,Warmuth M,Balk SP,Peters EC,Gray NS. Clinical stage EGFR inhibitors irreversibly alkylate Bmx kinase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:5916-9. PubMed
  • Song W,van der Vliet HJ,Tai YT,Prabhala R,Wang R,Podar K,Catley L,Shammas MA,Anderson KC,Balk SP,Exley MA,Munshi NC. Generation of antitumor invariant natural killer T cell lines in multiple myeloma and promotion of their functions via lenalidomide: a strategy for immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:6955-62. PubMed
  • Hodgson MC,Shen HC,Hollenberg AN,Balk SP. Structural basis for nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment by antagonist-liganded androgen receptor. Mol Cancer Ther 2008; 7:3187-94. PubMed
  • Kaur R,Yuan X,Lu ML,Balk SP. Increased PAK6 expression in prostate cancer and identification of PAK6 associated proteins. Prostate 2008; 68:1510-6. PubMed
  • Bhatt RS, Landis DM, Zimmer M, Torregrossa J, Chen S, Sukhatme VP, Iliopoulos O, Balk S, Bubley GJ. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha: effect on radiation sensitivity and differential regulation by an mTOR inhibitor. BJU Int 2008; 102:358-63. PubMed
  • van der Vliet HJ,Wang R,Yue SC,Koon HB,Balk SP,Exley MA. Circulating myeloid dendritic cells of advanced cancer patients result in reduced activation and a biased cytokine profile in invariant NKT cells. J Immunol 2008; 180:7287-93. PubMed
  • Exley MA,Hou R,Shaulov A,Tonti E,Dellabona P,Casorati G,Akbari O,Akman HO,Greenfield EA,Gumperz JE,Boyson JE,Balk SP,Wilson SB. Selective activation, expansion, and monitoring of human iNKT cells with a monoclonal antibody specific for the TCR alpha-chain CDR3 loop. Eur J Immunol 2008; 38:1756-66. PubMed
  • Bao BY,Chuang BF,Wang Q,Sartor O,Balk SP,Brown M,Kantoff PW,Lee GS. Androgen receptor mediates the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B15 and B17 genes. Prostate 2008; 68:839-48. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Manola J, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Bubley GJ, Smith M, Barb D, Mantzoros C, Gelmann EP, Balk SP. A phase II study of mifepristone (RU-486) in castration-resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones. BJU Int 2008; 101:1084-9. PubMed
  • Wang H, Leav I, Ibaragi S, Wegner M, Hu GF, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in human fetal prostate epithelium and enhances prostate cancer invasion. Cancer Res 2008; 68:1625-30. PubMed
  • Balk SP, Knudsen KE. AR, the cell cycle, and prostate cancer. Nucl Recept Signal 2008; 6:e001. PubMed
  • Barb D, Neuwirth A, Mantzoros CS, Balk SP. Adiponectin signals in prostate cancer cells through Akt to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Endocr Relat Cancer 2007; 14:995-1005. PubMed
  • Jiang X, Borgesi RA, McKnight NC, Kaur R, Carpenter CL, Balk SP. Activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Bmx/Etk mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:32689-98. PubMed
  • van der Vliet HJ, Koon HB, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Exploiting regulatory T-cell populations for the immunotherapy of cancer. J Immunother 2007; 30:591-5. PubMed
  • Li H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Gaziano JM, Pollak M, Stampfer MJ, Ma J. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) gene polymorphisms, circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels and prostate cancer. Prostate 2007; 67:1354-61. PubMed
  • Hodgson MC, Astapova I, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Activity of androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide in prostate cancer cells is independent of NCoR and SMRT corepressors. Cancer Res 2007; 67:8388-95. PubMed
  • van Dervliet HJ, Koon HB, Yue SC, Uzunparmak B, Seery V, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Effects of the administration of high-dose interleukin-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:2100-8. PubMed
  • Cai C, Chen SY, Zheng Z, Omwancha J, Lin MF, Balk SP, Shemshedini L. Androgen regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclasealpha1 mediates prostate cancer cell proliferation. Oncogene 2006; 26:1606-15. PubMed
  • Masiello D, Mohi MG, McKnight NC, Smith B, Neel BG, Balk SP, Bubley GJ. Combining an mTOR Antagonist and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 2007; 6:195-201. PubMed
  • Wang H, McKnight NC, Zhang T, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in normal prostate basal cells and regulates androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67:528-36. PubMed
  • Reddy GK, Balk SP. Clinical utility of microarray-derived genetic signatures in predicting outcomes in prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2007; 5:187-9. PubMed
  • Chen S, Xu Y, Yuan X, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and stabilization in prostate cancer by cyclin-dependent kinase 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103:15969-74. PubMed
  • van der Vliet HJ, Balk SP, Exley MA. Natural killer T cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:5921-3. PubMed
  • Yuan X, Li T, Wang H, Zhang T, Barua M, Borgesi RA, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP. Androgen receptor remains critical for cell-cycle progression in androgen-independent CWR22 prostate cancer cells. Am J Pathol 2006; 169:682-96. PubMed
  • Xu Y, Chen SY, Ross KN, Balk SP. Androgens induce prostate cancer cell proliferation through mammalian target of rapamycin activation and post-transcriptional increases in cyclin D proteins. Cancer Res 2006; 66:7783-92. PubMed
  • Ilyinskii PO, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA. CD1d mediates T-cell-dependent resistance to secondary infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in vitro and immune response to EMCV infection in vivo. J Virol 2006; 80:7146-58. PubMed
  • Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, Golub TR, Rubin MA, Penning TM, Febbo PG, Balk SP. Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2006; 66:2815-25. PubMed
  • Chen SY, Wulf G, Zhou XZ, Rubin MA, Lu KP, Balk SP. Activation of beta-catenin signaling in prostate cancer by peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1-mediated abrogation of the androgen receptor-beta-catenin interaction. Mol Cell Biol 2006; 26:929-39. PubMed
  • Sonoda KH, Sakamoto T, Qiao H, Hisatomi T, Oshima T, Tsutsumi-Miyahara C, Exley M, Balk SP, Taniguchi M, Ishibashi T. The analysis of systemic tolerance elicited by antigen inoculation into the vitreous cavity: vitreous cavity-associated immune deviation. Immunology 2005; 116:390-9. PubMed
  • Yue SC, Shaulov A, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA. CD1d ligation on human monocytes directly signals rapid NF-kappaB activation and production of bioactive IL-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102:11811-6. PubMed
  • Fu XS, Choi E, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Identification of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) polymorphism as a mutation in prostate cancer that prevents normoxia-induced degradation. Prostate 2004; 63:215-21. PubMed
  • Nieuwenhuis EE, Gillessen S, Scheper RJ, Exley MA, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Dranoff G, Blumberg RS, Wilson SB. CD1d and CD1d-restricted iNKT-cells play a pivotal role in contact hypersensitivity. Exp Dermatol 2005; 14:250-8. PubMed
  • Exley MA, Bigley NJ, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Tahir SM, Carter QL, Garcia J, Wang C, Patten K, Stills HF, Alt FW, Snapper SB, Balk SP. Innate immune response to encephalomyocarditis virus infection mediated by CD1d. Immunology 2003; 110:519-26. PubMed
  • Spentzos D, Mantzoros C, Regan MM, Morrissey ME, Duggan S, Flickner-Garvey S, McCormick H, DeWolf W, Balk S, Bubley GJ. Minimal effect of a low-fat/high soy diet for asymptomatic, hormonally naive prostate cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9:3282-7. PubMed
  • Amir AL, Barua M, McKnight NC, Cheng S, Yuan X, Balk SP. A direct beta-catenin-independent interaction between androgen receptor and T cell factor 4. J Biol Chem 2003; 278:30828-34. PubMed
  • Rossi S, Graner E, Febbo P, Weinstein L, Bhattacharya N, Onody T, Bubley G, Balk S, Loda M. Fatty acid synthase expression defines distinct molecular signatures in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res 2003; 1:707-15. PubMed
  • Gillessen S, Naumov YN, Nieuwenhuis EE, Exley MA, Lee FS, Mach N, Luster AD, Blumberg RS, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Dranoff G, Wilson SB. CD1d-restricted T cells regulate dendritic cell function and antitumor immunity in a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent fashion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100:8874-9. PubMed
  • Balk SP, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ. Biology of prostate-specific antigen. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21:383-91. PubMed
  • Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Regan MM, Duggan S, Morrissey ME, Dewolf WC, Salgami E, Mantzoros C. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 binding proteins after radical prostatectomy. J Urol 2002; 168:2249-52. PubMed
  • Boyson JE, Rybalov B, Koopman LA, Exley M, Balk SP, Racke FK, Schatz F, Masch R, Wilson SB, Strominger JL. CD1d and invariant NKT cells at the human maternal-fetal interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99:13741-6. PubMed
  • Carroll PR, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Brown MA, D'amico AV, George DJ, Grossfeld GD, Johnson CS, Kelly WK, Klotz L, Lee WR, Lubeck DP, Mcleod DG, Oh WK, Pollack A, Sartor O, Smith MR, Hart C,. Overview consensus statement. Newer approaches to androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. Urology 2002; 60:1-6. PubMed
  • Masiello D, Cheng S, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP. Bicalutamide functions as an androgen receptor antagonist by assembly of a transcriptionally inactive receptor. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:26321-6. PubMed
  • Exley MA, He Q, Cheng O, Wang RJ, Cheney CP, Balk SP, Koziel MJ. Cutting edge: Compartmentalization of Th1-like noninvariant CD1d-reactive T cells in hepatitis C virus-infected liver. J Immunol 2002; 168:1519-23. PubMed
  • Exley MA, Tahir SM, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Joyce R, Avigan D, Sackstein R, Balk SP. A major fraction of human bone marrow lymphocytes are Th2-like CD1d-reactive T cells that can suppress mixed lymphocyte responses. J Immunol 2001; 167:5531-4. PubMed
  • Tahir SM, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Koezuka Y, Bubley GJ, Wilson SB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Loss of IFN-gamma production by invariant NK T cells in advanced cancer. J Immunol 2001; 167:4046-50. PubMed
  • Stanbrough M, Leav I, Kwan PW, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice expressing an androgen receptor transgene in prostate epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98:10823-8. PubMed
  • Exley MA, Bigley NJ, Cheng O, Tahir SM, Smiley ST, Carter QL, Stills HF, Grusby MJ, Koezuka Y, Taniguchi M, Balk SP. CD1d-reactive T-cell activation leads to amelioration of disease caused by diabetogenic encephalomyocarditis virus. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 69:713-8. PubMed
  • Ko YJ, Small EJ, Kabbinavar F, Chachoua A, Taneja S, Reese D, DePaoli A, Hannah A, Balk SP, Bubley GJ. A multi-institutional phase ii study of SU101, a platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor, for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7:800-5. PubMed
  • Exley M, Garcia J, Wilson SB, Spada F, Gerdes D, Tahir SM, Patton KT, Blumberg RS, Porcelli S, Chott A, Balk SP. CD1d structure and regulation on human thymocytes, peripheral blood T cells, B cells and monocytes. Immunology 2000; 100:37-47. PubMed
  • Sonoda KH, Exley M, Snapper S, Balk SP, Stein-Streilein J. CD1-reactive natural killer T cells are required for development of systemic tolerance through an immune-privileged site. J Exp Med 1999; 190:1215-26. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Bubley GJ, Ko YJ, Small EJ, Upton M, Rajeshkumar B, Balk SP. Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. Cancer Res 1999; 59:2511-5. PubMed
  • Exley M, Porcelli S, Furman M, Garcia J, Balk S. CD161 (NKR-P1A) costimulation of CD1d-dependent activation of human T cells expressing invariant V alpha 24 J alpha Q T cell receptor alpha chains. J Exp Med 1998; 188:867-76. PubMed
  • Joyce S, Woods AS, Yewdell JW, Bennink JR, De Silva AD, Boesteanu A, Balk SP, Cotter RJ, Brutkiewicz RR. Natural ligand of mouse CD1d1: cellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Science 1998; 279:1541-4. PubMed
  • Wilson SB, Kent SC, Patton KT, Orban T, Jackson RA, Exley M, Porcelli S, Schatz DA, Atkinson MA, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Hafler DA. Extreme Th1 bias of invariant Valpha24JalphaQ T cells in type 1 diabetes. Nature 1998; 391:177-81. PubMed
  • Koningsberger JC, Chott A, Logtenberg T, Wiegman LJ, Blumberg RS, van Berge Henegouwen GP, Balk SP. TCR expression in human fetal intestine and identification of an early T cell receptor beta-chain transcript. J Immunol 1997; 159:1775-82. PubMed
  • Sun Z, Pan J, Balk SP. Androgen receptor-associated protein complex binds upstream of the androgen-responsive elements in the promoters of human prostate-specific antigen and kallikrein 2 genes. Nucleic Acids Res 1997; 25:3318-25. PubMed
  • Chott A, Gerdes D, Spooner A, Mosberger I, Kummer JA, Ebert EC, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in normal human intestine do not express proteins associated with cytolytic function. Am J Pathol 1997; 151:435-42. PubMed
  • Fenton MA, Shuster TD, Fertig AM, Taplin ME, Kolvenbag G, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Functional characterization of mutant androgen receptors from androgen-independent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1998; 3:1383-8. PubMed
  • Exley M, Garcia J, Balk SP, Porcelli S. Requirements for CD1d recognition by human invariant Valpha24+ CD4-CD8- T cells. J Exp Med 1997; 186:109-20. PubMed
  • Porcelli S, Gerdes D, Fertig AM, Balk SP. Human T cells expressing an invariant V alpha 24-J alpha Q TCR alpha are CD4- and heterogeneous with respect to TCR beta expression. Hum Immunol 1996; 48:63-7. PubMed
  • Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Lessons from the androgen receptor. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1996; 10:713-25. PubMed
  • Chott A, Probert CS, Gross GG, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. A common TCR beta-chain expressed by CD8+ intestinal mucosa T cells in ulcerative colitis. J Immunol 1996; 156:3024-35. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Frantz ME, Canning C, Ritz J, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression. Immunology 1996; 87:402-7. PubMed
  • Balk SP, Polischuk JE, Probert C, Stevens C, Ebert E, She J, Terhorst C, Blumberg RS. Composition of TCR-CD3 complex in human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: lack of Fc epsilon RI gamma chain. Int Immunol 1995; 7:1237-41. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Bubley GJ, Shuster TD, Frantz ME, Spooner AE, Ogata GK, Keer HN, Balk SP. Mutation of the androgen-receptor gene in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:1393-8. PubMed
  • Gross GG, Schwartz VL, Stevens C, Ebert EC, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. Distribution of dominant T cell receptor beta chains in human intestinal mucosa. J Exp Med 1994; 180:1337-44. PubMed
  • Balk SP, Burke S, Polischuk JE, Frantz ME, Yang L, Porcelli S, Colgan SP, Blumberg RS. Beta 2-microglobulin-independent MHC class Ib molecule expressed by human intestinal epithelium. Science 1994; 265:259-62. PubMed
  • Brooks EG, Balk SP, Aupeix K, Colonna M, Strominger JL, Groh-Spies V. Human T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta + CD4-CD8- T cells express oligoclonal TCRs, share junctional motifs across TCR V beta-gene families, and phenotypically resemble memory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90:11787-91. PubMed
  • Porcelli S, Yockey CE, Brenner MB, Balk SP. Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by human peripheral blood CD4-8- alpha/beta T cells demonstrates preferential use of several V beta genes and an invariant TCR alpha chain. J Exp Med 1993; 178:1-16. PubMed
  • Davis TH, Yockey CE, Balk SP. Detection of clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements by polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Am J Pathol 1993; 142:1841-7. PubMed
  • Blumberg RS, Yockey CE, Gross GG, Ebert EC, Balk SP. Human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes are derived from a limited number of T cell clones that utilize multiple V beta T cell receptor genes. J Immunol 1993; 150:5144-53. PubMed
  • Blumberg RS, Terhorst C, Bleicher P, McDermott FV, Allan CH, Landau SB, Trier JS, Balk SP. Expression of a nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecule, CD1D, by human intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol 1991; 147:2518-24. PubMed
  • Balk SP, Bleicher PA, Terhorst C. Isolation and expression of cDNA encoding the murine homologues of CD1. J Immunol 1991; 146:768-74. PubMed
  • Bleicher PA, Balk SP, Hagen SJ, Blumberg RS, Flotte TJ, Terhorst C. Expression of murine CD1 on gastrointestinal epithelium. Science 1990; 250:679-82. PubMed
  • Balk SP, Bleicher PA, Terhorst C. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA and gene coding for a fourth CD1 molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988; 86:252-6. PubMed