Photo of William R. Brugge,  MD

William R. Brugge, MD

Massachusetts General Hospital

Massachusetts General Hospital
Phone: (617) 724-3715
Fax: (617) 724-5997

William R. Brugge, MD

Massachusetts General Hospital


  • Professor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • Director, GI endoscopy Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital


Research Abstract

Gastroenterology. 2004 May;126(5):1330-6. Related Articles, Links

Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of the cooperative pancreatic cyst study.

Brugge WR, Lewandrowski K, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Centeno BA, Szydlo T, Regan S, del Castillo CF, Warshaw AL.

Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Blake 4, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cysts of the pancreas display a wide spectrum of histology, including inflammatory (pseudocysts), benign (serous), premalignant (mucinous), and malignant (mucinous) lesions. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) may offer a diagnostic tool through the combination of imaging and guided, fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the most accurate test for differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous cystic lesions. METHODS: The results of EUS imaging, cyst fluid cytology, and cyst fluid tumor markers (CEA, CA 72-4, CA 125, CA 19-9, and CA 15-3) were prospectively collected and compared in a multicenter study using histology as the final diagnostic standard. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-one (341) patients underwent EUS and FNA of a pancreatic cystic lesion; 112 of these patients underwent surgical resection, providing a histologic diagnosis of the cystic lesion (68 mucinous, 7 serous, 27 inflammatory, 5 endocrine, and 5 other). Receiver operator curve analysis of the tumor markers demonstrated that cyst fluid CEA (optimal cutoff of 192 ng/mL) demonstrated the greatest area under the curve (0.79) for differentiating mucinous vs. nonmucinous cystic lesions. The accuracy of CEA (88 of 111, 79%) was significantly greater than the accuracy of EUS morphology (57 of 112, 51%) or cytology (64 of 109, 59%) (P < 0.05). There was no combination of tests that provided greater accuracy than CEA alone (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Of tested markers, cyst fluid CEA is the most accurate test available for the diagnosis of mucinous cystic lesions of the pancreas.


Powered by Harvard Catalyst
  • Eluri S, Brugge WR, Daglilar ES, Jackson SA, Styn MA, Callenberg KM, Welch DC, Barr TM, Duits LC, Bergman JJ, Shaheen NJ. The Presence of Genetic Mutations at Key Loci Predicts Progression to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 2015; 110:828-34. PubMed
  • Sahora K, Ferrone CR, Brugge WR, Morales-Oyarvide V, Warshaw AL, Lillemoe KD, Fernández-Del Castillo C. Effects of Comorbidities on Outcomes of Patients With Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015. PubMed
  • Pandharipande PV, Heberle C, Dowling EC, Kong CY, Tramontano A, Perzan KE, Brugge W, Hur C. Targeted screening of individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer: results of a simulation model. Radiology 2015; 275:177-87. PubMed
  • Sharaiha RZ, Sethi A, Weaver KR, Gonda TA, Shah RJ, Fukami N, Kedia P, Kumta NA, Clavo CM, Saunders MD, Cerecedo-Rodriguez J, Barojas PF, Widmer JL, Gaidhane M, Brugge WR, Kahaleh M. Impact of Radiofrequency Ablation on Malignant Biliary Strictures: Results of a Collaborative Registry. Dig Dis Sci 2015. PubMed
  • Maker AV, Carrara S, Jamieson NB, Pelaez-Luna M, Lennon AM, Dal Molin M, Scarpa A, Frulloni L, Brugge WR. Cyst fluid biomarkers for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: a critical review from the international expert meeting on pancreatic branch-duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. J Am Coll Surg 2015; 220:243-53. PubMed
  • Yoon WJ, Daglilar ES, Mino-Kenudson M, Morales-Oyarvide V, Pitman MB, Brugge WR. Characterization of epithelial subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas with endoscopic ultrasound and cyst fluid analysis. Endoscopy 2014. PubMed
  • Sahora K, Fernández-del Castillo C, Dong F, Marchegiani G, Thayer SP, Ferrone CR, Sahani DV, Brugge WR, Warshaw AL, Lillemoe KD, Mino-Kenudson M. Not all mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms behave like main-duct lesions: implications of minimal involvement of the main pancreatic duct. Surgery 2014; 156:611-21. PubMed
  • Oh HC, Kang H, Brugge WR. Cyst Fluid Amylase and CEA Levels in the Differential Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cysts: A Single-Center Experience with Histologically Proven Cysts. Dig Dis Sci 2014. PubMed
  • Yoon WJ, S Daglilar E, Castillo CF, Mino-Kenudson M, Pitman MB, Brugge WR. Peritoneal seeding in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: The PIPE Study. Endoscopy 2014; 46:382-7. PubMed
  • Kadayifci A, Brugge WR. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the differential diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and size stratification for surveillance. Endoscopy 2014; 46:357. PubMed
  • Morales-Oyarvide V, Yoon WJ, Ingkakul T, Forcione DG, Casey BW, Brugge WR, Fernández-Del Castillo C, Pitman MB. Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: The value of cytology in preoperative diagnosis. Cancer Cytopathol 2014. PubMed
  • Ma T, Jang EJ, Zukerberg LR, Odze R, Gala MK, Kelsey PB, Forcione DG, Brugge WR, Casey BW, Syngal S, Chung DC. Recurrences are common after endoscopic ampullectomy for adenoma in the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome. Surg Endosc 2014. PubMed
  • Pitman MB, Centeno BA, Daglilar ES, Brugge WR, Mino-Kenudson M. Cytological criteria of high-grade epithelial atypia in the cyst fluid of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Cancer Cytopathol 2014; 122:40-7. PubMed
  • Pitman MB, Centeno BA, Ali SZ, Genevay M, Stelow E, Mino-Kenudson M, Castillo CF, Schmidt CM, Brugge WR, Layfield LJ. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines. Cytojournal 2014; 11:3. PubMed
  • Brugge WR, De Witt J, Klapman JB, Ashfaq R, Shidham V, Chhieng D, Kwon R, Baloch Z, Zarka M, Staerkel G. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines. Cytojournal 2014; 11:2. PubMed
  • Wu RI, Yoon WJ, Brugge WR, Mino-Kenudson M, Pitman MB. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) contributes to a triple-negative test in preoperative screening of pancreatic cysts. Cancer Cytopathol 2013. PubMed
  • Das KK, Xiao H, Geng X, Fernandez-Del-Castillo C, Morales-Oyarvide V, Daglilar E, Forcione DG, Bounds BC, Brugge WR, Pitman MB, Mino-Kenudson M, Das KM. mAb Das-1 is specific for high-risk and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Gut 2013. PubMed
  • Sahora K, Mino-Kenudson M, Brugge W, Thayer SP, Ferrone CR, Sahani D, Pitman MB, Warshaw AL, Lillemoe KD, Fernandez-del Castillo CF. Branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: does cyst size change the tip of the scale? A critical analysis of the revised international consensus guidelines in a large single-institutional series. Ann Surg 2013; 258:466-75. PubMed
  • Sauk J, Coron E, Kava L, Suter M, Gora M, Gallagher K, Rosenberg M, Ananthakrishnan A, Nishioka N, Lauwers G, Woods K, Brugge W, Forcione D, Bouma BE, Tearney G. Interobserver agreement for the detection of Barrett's esophagus with optical frequency domain imaging. Dig Dis Sci 2013; 58:2261-5. PubMed
  • Daglilar ES, Yoon WJ, Mino-Kenudson M, Brugge WR. Controlled swine bile duct ablation with a bipolar radiofrequency catheter. Gastrointest Endosc 2013; 77:815-9. PubMed
  • Ho HC, Eloubeidi MA, Siddiqui UD, Brugge WR, Rossi F, Bounds BW, Aslanian HR. Endosonographic and cyst fluid characteristics of cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: A multicentre case series. 2013. PubMed
  • Yoon WJ, Brugge WR. Endoscopic evaluation of bile duct strictures. Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 2013; 23:277-93. PubMed
  • Oh HC, Brugge WR. EUS-guided pancreatic cyst ablation: a critical review (with video). Gastrointest Endosc 2013; 77:526-33. PubMed
  • Pitman MB, Yaeger KA, Brugge WR, Mino-Kenudson M. Prospective analysis of atypical epithelial cells as a high-risk cytologic feature for malignancy in pancreatic cysts. Cancer Cytopathol 2012. PubMed
  • Stone JH, Khosroshahi A, Deshpande V, Chan JK, Heathcote JG, Aalberse R, Azumi A, Bloch DB, Brugge WR, Carruthers MN, Cheuk W, Cornell L, Castillo CF, Ferry JA, Forcione D, Klöppel G, Hamilos DL, Kamisawa T, Kasashima S, Kawa S, Kawano M, Masaki Y, Notohara K, Okazaki K, Ryu JK, Saeki T, Sahani D, Sato Y, Smyrk T, Stone JR, Takahira M, Umehara H, Webster G, Yamamoto M, Yi E, Yoshino T, Zamboni G, Zen Y, Chari S. Recommendations for the nomenclature of IgG4-related disease and its individual organ system manifestations. Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64:3061-7. PubMed
  • Deshpande V, Zen Y, Chan JK, Yi EE, Sato Y, Yoshino T, Klöppel G, Heathcote JG, Khosroshahi A, Ferry JA, Aalberse RC, Bloch DB, Brugge WR, Bateman AC, Carruthers MN, Chari ST, Cheuk W, Cornell LD, Fernandez-Del Castillo C, Forcione DG, Hamilos DL, Kamisawa T, Kasashima S, Kawa S, Kawano M, Lauwers GY, Masaki Y, Nakanuma Y, Notohara K, Okazaki K, Ryu JK, Saeki T, Sahani DV, Smyrk TC, Stone JR, Takahira M, Webster GJ, Yamamoto M, Zamboni G, Umehara H, Stone JH. Consensus statement on the pathology of IgG4-related disease. Mod Pathol 2012; 25:1181-92. PubMed
  • Karaca C, Cizginer S, Konuk Y, Kambadakone A, Turner BG, Mino-Kenudson M, Sahani DV, Macfarlane C, Brugge W. Feasibility of EUS-guided injection of irinotecan-loaded microspheres into the swine pancreas. Gastrointest Endosc 2011; 73:603-6. PubMed
  • Pitman MB, Genevay M, Yaeger K, Chebib I, Turner BG, Mino-Kenudson M, Brugge WR. High-grade atypical epithelial cells in pancreatic mucinous cysts are a more accurate predictor of malignancy than "positive" cytology. Cancer Cytopathol 2010; 118:434-40. PubMed
  • Telford JJ, Carr-Locke DL, Baron TH, Poneros JM, Bounds BC, Kelsey PB, Schapiro RH, Huang CS, Lichtenstein DR, Jacobson BC, Saltzman JR, Thompson CC, Forcione DG, Gostout CJ, Brugge WR. A randomized trial comparing uncovered and partially covered self-expandable metal stents in the palliation of distal malignant biliary obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 72:907-14. PubMed
  • Turner BG, Brugge WR. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic approaches to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. World J Gastrointest Surg 2010; 2:337-41. PubMed
  • Turner BG, Gee DW, Cizginer S, Kim MC, Mino-Kenudson M, Sylla P, Brugge WR, Rattner DW. Endoscopic transesophageal mediastinal lymph node dissection and en bloc resection by using mediastinal and thoracic approaches (with video). Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 72:831-5. PubMed
  • DeWitt J, DiMaio CJ, Brugge WR. Long-term follow-up of pancreatic cysts that resolve radiologically after EUS-guided ethanol ablation. Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 72:862-6. PubMed
  • Turner BG, Cizginer S, Kim MC, Mino-Kenudson M, Ducharme RW, Surti VC, Sylla P, Brugge WR, Rattner DW, Gee DW. Stent placement provides safe esophageal closure in thoracic NOTES(TM) procedures. Surg Endosc 2010. PubMed
  • Sylla P, Sohn DK, Cizginer S, Konuk Y, Turner BG, Gee DW, Willingham FF, Hsu M, Mino-Kenudson M, Brugge WR, Rattner DW. Survival study of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery for rectosigmoid resection using transanal endoscopic microsurgery with or without transgastric endoscopic assistance in a swine model. Surg Endosc 2010; 24:2022-30. PubMed
  • Willingham FF, Turner BG, Gee DW, Cizginer S, Sohn DK, Sylla P, Kambadakone A, Sahani D, Mino-Kenudson M, Rattner DW, Brugge WR. Leaks and endoscopic assessment of break of integrity after NOTES gastrotomy: the LEAKING study, a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 71:1018-24. PubMed
  • Turner BG, Brugge WR. Pancreatic cystic lesions: when to watch, when to operate, and when to ignore. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2010; 12:98-105. PubMed
  • Sohn DK, Turner BG, Gee DW, Willingham FF, Sylla P, Cizginer S, Konuk Y, Brugge WR, Rattner DW. Reducing the unexpectedly high rate of injuries caused by NOTES gastrotomy creation. Surg Endosc 2010; 24:277-82. PubMed
  • Turner BG, Gee DW, Cizginer S, Konuk Y, Karaca C, Willingham F, Mino-Kenudson M, Morse C, Rattner DW, Brugge WR. Feasibility of endoscopic transesophageal thoracic sympathectomy (with video). Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 71:171-5. PubMed
  • Turner BG, Cizginer S, Agarwal D, Yang J, Pitman MB, Brugge WR. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy. Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 71:91-8. PubMed
  • Desilets DJ, Romanelli JR, Earle DB, Surti VC, Willingham FF, Brugge WR. Loop-anchor purse-string versus endoscopic clips for gastric closure: a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery comparison study using burst pressures. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 70:1225-30. PubMed
  • Puli SR,Reddy JB,Bechtold ML,Antillon MR,Brugge WR. EUS-Guided Celiac Plexus Neurolysis for Pain due to Chronic Pancreatitis or Pancreatic Cancer Pain: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Dig Dis Sci 2009; 54:2330-7. PubMed
  • DeWitt J, McGreevy K, Schmidt CM, Brugge WR. EUS-guided ethanol versus saline solution lavage for pancreatic cysts: a randomized, double-blind study. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 70:710-23. PubMed
  • Sahani DV,Holalkere NS,Kambadakone A,Matthes K,Mino-Kenudson M,Brugge WR. Role of Computed Tomography Perfusion in the Evaluation of Pancreatic Necrosis and Pancreatitis After Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Ablation of the Pancreas in a Porcine Model. Pancreas 2009; 38:775-81. PubMed
  • Willingham FF, Gee DW, Sylla P, Kambadakone A, Singh AH, Sahani D, Mino-Kenudson M, Rattner DW, Brugge WR. Natural orifice versus conventional laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy in a porcine model: a randomized, controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 70:740-7. PubMed
  • Sepe PS,Moparty B,Pitman MB,Saltzman JR,Brugge WR. EUS-guided FNA for the diagnosis of GI stromal cell tumors: sensitivity and cytologic yield. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 70:254-61. PubMed
  • Shen J,Brugge WR,Dimaio CJ,Pitman MB. Molecular analysis of pancreatic cyst fluid: a comparative analysis with current practice of diagnosis. Cancer Cytopathol 2009; 117:217-27. PubMed
  • Sepe PS,Brugge WR. A guide for the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 6:363-71. PubMed
  • Ferrone CR,Correa-Gallego C,Warshaw AL,Brugge WR,Forcione DG,Thayer SP,Fernandez-del Castillo C. Current trends in pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Arch Surg 2009; 144:448-54. PubMed
  • Sahani DV,Miller JC,del Castillo CF,Brugge WR,Thrall JH,Lee SI. Cystic pancreatic lesions: classification and management. J Am Coll Radiol 2009; 6:376-80. PubMed
  • Puli SR,Reddy JB,Bechtold ML,Choudhary A,Antillon MR,Brugge WR. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound to diagnose nodal invasion by rectal cancers: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Surg Oncol 2009; 16:1255-65. PubMed
  • Khalid A,Zahid M,Finkelstein SD,LeBlanc JK,Kaushik N,Ahmad N,Brugge WR,Edmundowicz SA,Hawes RH,McGrath KM. Pancreatic cyst fluid DNA analysis in evaluating pancreatic cysts: a report of the PANDA study. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 69:1095-102. PubMed
  • Mandal RV,Forcione DG,Brugge WR,Nishioka NS,Mino-Kenudson M,Lauwers GY. Effect of tumor characteristics and duplication of the muscularis mucosae on the endoscopic staging of superficial Barrett esophagus-related neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 2008; 33:620-5. PubMed
  • Lauwers GY,Forcione DG,Nishioka NS,Deshpande V,Lisovsky MY,Brugge WR,Mino-Kenudson M. Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists. Mod Pathol 2009; 22:489-98. PubMed
  • Sahani DV,Lin DJ,Venkatesan AM,Sainani N,Mino-Kenudson M,Brugge WR,Fernandez-Del-Castillo C. Multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 7:259-69. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. EUS-guided tumor ablation with heat, cold, microwave, or radiofrequency: will there be a winner? Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 69:S212-6. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. The use of EUS to diagnose cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 69:S203-9. PubMed
  • Puli SR,Bechtold ML,Reddy JB,Choudhary A,Antillon MR,Brugge WR. How good is endoscopic ultrasound in differentiating various T stages of rectal cancer? Meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Surg Oncol 2008; 16:254-65. PubMed
  • Ho KY,Brugge WR. EUS 2008 Working Group document: evaluation of EUS-guided pancreatic-cyst ablation. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 69:S22-7. PubMed
  • Willingham FF,Gee DW,Sylla P,Lauwers GY,Rattner DW,Brugge WR. En bloc esophageal mucosectomy for concentric circumferential mucosal resection (with video). Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 69:147-51. PubMed
  • Al-Kawas FH,Brugge WR. Report of the first endoscopy unit directors meeting: March 29-30, 2008, Georgetown University Conference Center, Washington, DC. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 68:1153-7. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound for diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy--a visual aid or a distraction? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 5:662-3. PubMed
  • Sepehr A,Mino-Kenudson M,Ogawa F,Brugge WR,Deshpande V,Lauwers GY. IgG4+ to IgG+ plasma cells ratio of ampulla can help differentiate autoimmune pancreatitis from other "mass forming" pancreatic lesions. Am J Surg Pathol 2008; 32:1770-9. PubMed
  • Sylla P,Willingham FF,Sohn DK,Gee D,Brugge WR,Rattner DW. NOTES rectosigmoid resection using transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) with transgastric endoscopic assistance: a pilot study in swine. J Gastrointest Surg 2008; 12:1717-23. PubMed
  • Yusuf TE, Matthes K, Brugge WR. EUS-guided photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for ablation of normal pancreatic tissue: a pilot study in a porcine model (with video). Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67:957-61. PubMed
  • Vignesh S, Brugge WR. Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Cysts. J Clin Gastroenterol 2008; 42:493-506. PubMed
  • Belsley NA, Pitman MB, Lauwers GY, Brugge WR, Deshpande V. Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: limitations and pitfalls of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer 2008; 114:102-10. PubMed
  • Willingham FF, Gee DW, Lauwers GY, Brugge WR, Rattner DW. Natural orifice transesophageal mediastinoscopy and thoracoscopy. Surg Endosc 2007; 22:1042-7. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. Diagnosis and management of relapsing pancreatitis associated with cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14:1038-43. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. The incidental pancreatic cyst on abdominal computerized tomography imaging: diagnosis and management. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 6:140-4. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. EUS is an important new tool for accessing the portal vein. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67:343-4. PubMed
  • Sahani DV, Shah ZK, Catalano OA, Boland GW, Brugge WR. Radiology of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: current status of imaging. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23:23-33. PubMed
  • Pitman MB,Michaels PJ,Deshpande V,Brugge WR,Bounds BC. Cytological and cyst fluid analysis of small (< or =3 cm) branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms adds value to patient management decisions. Pancreatology 2008; 8:277-84. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. Optimizing methods for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41:869-70. PubMed
  • Khalid A, Brugge W. ACG practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of neoplastic pancreatic cysts. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102:2339-49. PubMed
  • Matthes K, Yusuf TE, Willingham FF, Mino-Kenudson M, Rattner DW, Brugge WR. Feasibility of endoscopic transgastric distal pancreatectomy in a porcine animal model. Gastrointest Endosc 2007; 66:762-6. PubMed
  • Willingham FF, Brugge WR. Taking NOTES: translumenal flexible endoscopy and endoscopic surgery. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2007; 23:550-5. PubMed
  • Yusuf TE, Tsutaki S, Wagh MS, Waxman I, Brugge WR. The EUS hardware store: state of the art technical review of instruments and equipment (with videos). Gastrointest Endosc 2007; 66:131-43. PubMed
  • Deshpande V, Chicano S, Chiocca S, Finkelberg D, Selig MK, Mino-Kenudson M, Brugge WR, Colvin RB, Lauwers GY. Autoimmune pancreatitis: a systemic immune complex mediated disease. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:1537-45. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. Advances in the endoscopic management of patients with pancreatic and biliary malignancies. South Med J 2007; 99:1358-66. PubMed
  • Matthes K, Bounds BC, Collier K, Gutierrez A, Brugge WR. EUS staging of upper GI malignancies: results of a prospective randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2006; 64:496-502. PubMed
  • Brugge WR. Endoscopic management of esophageal malignancy: lessons learned from gastric cancer. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2006; 22:527-8. PubMed
  • Michaels PJ, Brachtel EF, Bounds BC, Brugge WR, Bishop Pitman M. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: cytologic features predict histologic grade. Cancer 2006; 108:163-73. PubMed
  • Fern. Serum CA 19-9 in the management of cystic lesions of the pancreas. Pancreas 2006; 32:220. PubMed
  • Sahani DV, Saokar A, Hahn PF, Brugge WR, Fernandez-Del Castillo C. Pancreatic cysts 3 cm or smaller: how aggressive should treatment be? Radiology 2006; 238:912-9. PubMed
  • Farrell JJ, Lauwers GY, Brugge WR. Endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap-fitted endoscope improves tissue resection and pathology interpretation: an animal study. Gastric Cancer 2006; 9:3-8. PubMed