Studies have endeavored to reconcile whether dysfunction of neutrophils in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a result of the genetic defect or is secondary due to infection and inflammation. In this study, we illustrate that disrupted function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), such as that which occurs in patients with F508 and/or G551D mutations, correlates with impaired degranulation of antimicrobial proteins. We demonstrate that CF blood neutrophils release less secondary and tertiary granule components compared with control cells and that activation of the low-molecular-mass GTP-binding protein Rab27a, involved in the regulation of granule trafficking, is defective. The mechanism leading to impaired degranulation involves altered ion homeostasis caused by defective CFTR function with increased cytosolic levels of chloride and sodium, yet decreased magnesium measured in CF neutrophils. Decreased magnesium concentration in vivo and in vitro resulted in significantly decreased levels of GTP-bound Rab27a. Treatment of G551D patients with the ion channel potentiator ivacaftor resulted in normalized neutrophil cytosolic ion levels and activation of Rab27a, thereby leading to increased degranulation and bacterial killing. Our results confirm that intrinsic alterations of circulating neutrophils from patients with CF are corrected by ivacaftor, thus illustrating additional clinical benefits for CFTR modulator therapy.
Mouse models that recapitulate human malignancy are valuable tools for the elucidation of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and for preclinical studies. Several genetically engineered mouse models have been generated, either mimicking genetic aberrations or deregulated gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The usefulness of such models in the study of the human disease may potentially be hampered by species-specific biological differences in the target cell of the oncogenic transformation. Specifically, do the genetic lesions or the deregulated expression of leukemia-associated genes faithfully recapitulate the spectrum of lymphoproliferations in humans? Do the CLL-like lymphoproliferations in the mouse have the phenotypic, histological, genetic, and clinical features of the human disease? Here we compare the various CLL mouse models with regard to disease phenotype, penetrance, and severity. We discuss similarities and differences of the murine lymphoproliferations compared with human CLL. We propose that the Eμ-TCL1 transgenic and 13q14-deletion models that have been comprehensively studied at the levels of leukemia phenotype, antigen-receptor repertoire, and disease course show close resemblance to the human disease. We conclude that modeling CLL-associated genetic dysregulations in mice can provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and generate valuable tools for the development of novel therapies.
The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which include dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, are poised to replace warfarin for treatment of the majority of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). With a rapid onset of action and the capacity to be administered in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring, NOACs streamline VTE treatment. In phase 3 trials in patients with acute symptomatic VTE, NOACs have been shown to be noninferior to conventional anticoagulant therapy for prevention of recurrence and are associated with less bleeding. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are already licensed for VTE treatment in the United States, and apixaban and edoxaban are under regulatory consideration for this indication. As the number of approved drugs increases, clinicians will need to choose the right anticoagulant for the right VTE patient. To help with this decision, this review (1) compares the pharmacologic profiles of the NOACs, (2) outlines the unique design features of the phase 3 trials that evaluated the NOACs for VTE treatment, (3) reviews the results of these trials highlighting similarities and differences in the findings, (4) provides perspective about which VTE patients should receive conventional treatment or are candidates for NOACs, and (5) offers suggestions about how to choose among the NOACs.
Nucleotides and nucleosides—such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine—are famous for their intracellular roles as building blocks for the genetic code or cellular energy currencies. In contrast, their function in the extracellular space is different. Here, they are primarily known as signaling molecules via activation of purinergic receptors, classified as P1 receptors for adenosine or P2 receptors for ATP. Because extracellular ATP is rapidly converted to adenosine by ectonucleotidase, nucleotide-phosphohydrolysis is important for controlling the balance between P2 and P1 signaling. Gene-targeted mice for P1, P2 receptors, or ectonucleotidase exhibit only very mild phenotypic manifestations at baseline. However, they demonstrate alterations in disease susceptibilities when exposed to a variety of vascular or blood diseases. Examples of phenotypic manifestations include vascular barrier dysfunction, graft-vs-host disease, platelet activation, ischemia, and reperfusion injury or sickle cell disease. Many of these studies highlight that purinergic signaling events can be targeted therapeutically.
Ixazomib is the first investigational oral proteasome inhibitor to be studied clinically. In this phase 1 trial, 60 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (median of 4 prior lines of therapy; bortezomib, lenalidomide, thalidomide, and carfilzomib/marizomib in 88%, 88%, 62%, and 5%, respectively) received single-agent ixazomib 0.24 to 2.23 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11; 21-day cycles). Two dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 rash; grade 4 thrombocytopenia) occurred at 2.23 mg/m2. The maximum tolerated dose was 2.0 mg/m2, which 40 patients received in 4 expansion cohorts. Patients received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1-39); 18% received ≥12 cycles. Eighty-eight percent had drug-related adverse events, including nausea (42%), thrombocytopenia (42%), fatigue (40%), and rash (40%); drug-related grade ≥3 events included thrombocytopenia (37%) and neutropenia (17%). Grade 1/2 drug-related peripheral neuropathy occurred in 12% (no grade ≥3). Two patients died on the study (both considered unrelated to treatment). The terminal half-life of ixazomib was 3.3 to 7.4 days; plasma exposure increased proportionally with dose (0.48-2.23 mg/m2). Among 55 response-evaluable patients, 15% achieved partial response or better (76% stable disease or better). These findings have informed the subsequent clinical development of ixazomib in multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00932698.
Proteasome inhibition is an effective treatment strategy for multiple myeloma. With improving survival, attention is increasingly focusing on ease of administration and toxicity profile. Ixazomib is an investigational, orally bioavailable 20S proteasome inhibitor. Sixty patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma were enrolled on this phase 1 trial to evaluate safety and tolerability and determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of single-agent, oral ixazomib given weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. Upon MTD determination, patients were enrolled to 4 different cohorts based on relapsed/refractory status and prior bortezomib and carfilzomib exposure. The MTD was determined to be 2.97 mg/m2. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in 2 patients, and grade 3 skin rash in 1 patient. Common drug-related adverse events were thrombocytopenia (43%), diarrhea (38%), nausea (38%), fatigue (37%), and vomiting (35%). The observed rate of peripheral neuropathy was 20%, with only 1 grade 3 event reported. Nine (18%) patients achieved a partial response or better, including 8 of 30 (27%) evaluable patients treated at the MTD. Pharmacokinetic studies suggested a long terminal half-life of 3.6 to 11.3 days, supporting once-weekly dosing. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00963820.
Although infection is the major cause of treatment-related mortality (TRM) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, factors associated with infection-related mortality (IRM) are poorly understood. To address this, we report an analysis of all 75 cases of IRM in the United Kingdom Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Randomised Trial 2003 (UKALL 2003). The 5-year cumulative incidence of IRM was 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9%-3.0%), accounting for 75 (30%) of 249 trial deaths and 75 (64%) of 117 TRM deaths. Risk for IRM as a proportion of TRM was greater in induction than other phases (77% vs 56%; P = .02). Sixty-eight percent of cases were associated with bacterial infection (64% Gram-negative) and 20% with fungal infection. Down syndrome was the most significant risk factor for IRM (odds ratio [OR], 12.08; 95% CI, 6.54-22.32; P < .0001). In addition, there was a trend toward increased IRM in girls (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.02-2.61; P = .04), as well as increasing treatment intensity (regimen B vs A: OR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.24-3.60]; regimen C vs A: OR, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.76-2.62]; P = .02). Importantly, patients with Down syndrome were at significantly higher risk for IRM during maintenance (P = .048). Our results confirm Down syndrome as a major risk factor for IRM. Enhanced supportive care and prophylactic antibiotics should be considered in high-risk patient groups and during periods of increased risk. This study was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ as #ISRCTN07355119.
We studied the impact of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, (calreticulin gene) or MPL on clinical course, leukemic transformation, and survival of patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Of the 617 subjects studied, 399 (64.7%) carried JAK2 (V617F), 140 (22.7%) had a CALR exon 9 indel, 25 (4.0%) carried an MPL (W515) mutation, and 53 (8.6%) had nonmutated JAK2, CALR, and MPL (so-called triple-negative PMF). Patients with CALR mutation had a lower risk of developing anemia, thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis compared with other subtypes. They also had a lower risk of thrombosis compared with patients carrying JAK2 (V617F). At the opposite, triple-negative patients had higher incidence of leukemic transformation compared with either CALR-mutant or JAK2-mutant patients. Median overall survival was 17.7 years in CALR-mutant, 9.2 years in JAK2-mutant, 9.1 years in MPL-mutant, and 3.2 years in triple-negative patients. In multivariate analysis corrected for age, CALR-mutant patients had better overall survival than either JAK2-mutant or triple-negative patients. The impact of genetic lesions on survival was independent of current prognostic scoring systems. These observations indicate that driver mutations define distinct disease entities within PMF. Accounting for them is not only relevant to clinical decision-making, but should also be considered in designing clinical trials.
With the notable exception of B-cell malignancies, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been limited, and CAR T cells have not been shown to expand and persist in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Here we demonstrate that redirection of primary human T cells with a CAR containing the inducible costimulator (ICOS) intracellular domain generates tumor-specific IL-17-producing effector cells that show enhanced persistence. Compared with CARs containing the CD3 chain alone, or in tandem with the CD28 or the 4-1BB intracellular domains, ICOS signaling increased IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 following antigen recognition. In addition, T cells redirected with an ICOS-based CAR maintained a core molecular signature characteristic of TH17 cells and expressed higher levels of RORC, CD161, IL1R-1, and NCS1. Of note, ICOS signaling also induced the expression of IFN- and T-bet, consistent with a TH17/TH1 bipolarization. When transferred into mice with established tumors, TH17 cells that were redirected with ICOS-based CARs mediated efficient antitumor responses and showed enhanced persistence compared with CD28- or 4-1BB-based CAR T cells. Thus, redirection of TH17 cells with a CAR encoding the ICOS intracellular domain is a promising approach to augment the function and persistence of CAR T cells in hematologic malignancies.
Natural killer (NK) cell survival and, hence, cytotoxicity requires cytokine support. We determined whether expression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in a nonsecretory, membrane-bound form could sustain NK cell growth. We linked the human IL15 gene to that encoding CD8α transmembrane domain (mbIL15). After retroviral transduction, human NK cells expressed mbIL15 on the cell surface; IL-15 secretion was negligible. Survival of mbIL15-NK cells without interleukin-2 (IL-2) after 7-day culture was vastly superior to that of mock-transduced NK cells (P < .001, n = 15) and of NK cells expressing nonmembrane-bound IL-15 (P = .025, n = 9); viable mbIL15-NK cells were detectable for up to 2 months. In immunodeficient mice, mbIL15-NK cells expanded without IL-2 and were detectable in all tissues examined (except brain) in much higher numbers than mock-transduced NK cells (P < .001). Expansion further increased with IL-2. The primary mechanism of mbIL15 stimulation was autocrine; it activated IL-15 signaling and antiapoptotic signaling. NK cells expressing mbIL15 had higher cytotoxicity against leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor cells in vitro and against leukemia and sarcoma cells in xenograft models. Thus, mbIL15 confers independent growth to NK cells and enhances their antitumor capacity. Infusion of mbIL15-NK cells would allow NK cell therapy without the potential adverse effects of cytokine administration.
One major goal of cancer genome sequencing is to identify key genes and pathways that drive tumor pathogenesis. Although many studies have identified candidate driver genes based on recurrence of mutations in individual genes, subsets of genes with nonrecurrent mutations may also be defined as putative drivers if they affect a single biological pathway. In this fashion, we previously identified Wnt signaling as significantly mutated through large-scale massively parallel DNA sequencing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we use a novel method of biomolecule delivery, vertical silicon nanowires, to efficiently introduce small interfering RNAs into CLL cells, and interrogate the effects of 8 of 15 mutated Wnt pathway members identified across 91 CLLs. In HEK293T cells, mutations in 2 genes did not generate functional changes, 3 led to dysregulated pathway activation, and 3 led to further activation or loss of repression of pathway activation. Silencing 4 of 8 mutated genes in CLL samples harboring the mutated alleles resulted in reduced viability compared with leukemia samples with wild-type alleles. We demonstrate that somatic mutations in CLL can generate dependence on this pathway for survival. These findings support the notion that nonrecurrent mutations at different nodes of the Wnt pathway can contribute to leukemogenesis.
Mice susceptible to plasma cell tumors provide a useful model for human multiple myeloma. We previously showed that mice expressing an Eµ-v-abl oncogene solely develop plasmacytomas. Here we show that loss of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim or, to a lesser extent, overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, significantly accelerated the development of plasmacytomas and increased their incidence. Disease was preceded by an increased abundance of plasma cells, presumably reflecting their enhanced survival capacity in vivo. Plasmacytomas of each genotype expressed high levels of v-abl and frequently harbored a rearranged c-myc gene, probably as a result of chromosome translocation. As in human multiple myelomas, elevated expression of cyclin D genes was common, and p53 deregulation was rare. Our results for plasmacytomas highlight the significance of antiapoptotic changes in multiple myeloma, which include elevated expression of Mcl-1 and, less frequently, Bcl-2, and suggest that closer attention to defects in Bim expression is warranted.
Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) frequently harbor mutations in genes involved in the DNA (hydroxy)methylation pathway (DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1, and IDH2). In this study, we measured 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels in 206 clinically and molecularly well-characterized younger adult AML patients (≤60 years) included in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto (EORTC/GIMEMA) AML-12 06991 clinical trial and correlated the 5hmC levels with mutational status and overall survival (OS). In healthy control cells, 5hmC levels were confined to a narrow range (1.5-fold difference), whereas in AML cells, a much wider range was detected (15-fold difference). We identified 3 5hmC subpopulations in our patient cohort (low, intermediate, and high). The low 5hmC group consisted almost entirely of patients with TET2 or IDH mutations. As expected, TET2 and IDH mutated patients had significantly lower levels of 5hmC compared with patients without mutated TET2 and IDH1/2 (both P < .001). Interestingly, high 5hmC levels correlated with inferior OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P = .047, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81). Multivariate analysis revealed that high 5hmC is an independent poor prognostic indicator for OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P = .01, HR = 2.10). This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00004128.
Histiocytoses are a group of heterogeneous diseases that mostly comprise Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-LCH. The association of LCH with non-LCH is exceptional. We report 23 patients with biopsy-proven LCH associated with Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) (mixed histiocytosis) and discuss the significance of this association. We compare the clinical phenotypes of these patients with those of 56 patients with isolated LCH and 53 patients with isolated ECD. The average age at diagnosis was 43 years. ECD followed (n = 12) or was diagnosed simultaneously with (n = 11) but never preceded LCH. Although heterogeneous, the phenotype of patients with mixed histiocytosis was closer to that of isolated ECD than to that of isolated LCH (principal component analysis). LCH and ECD improved in response to interferon alpha-2a treatment in only 50% of patients (8 of 16). We found the BRAFV600E mutation in 11 (69%) of 16 LCH lesions and in 9 (82%) of 11 ECD lesions. Eight patients had mutations in both ECD and LCH biopsies. Our findings indicate that the association of LCH and ECD is not fortuitous and suggest a link between these diseases involving the BRAFV600E mutation.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often relapses following chemotherapy-induced remission and is generally chemo-resistant. Given the potential role for cancer stem cells in relapse, targeting of the leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) in AML may provide improved outcome following remission induction. However, due to overlap in their self-renewal program with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), therapeutic targeting of the LIC may have an adverse effect on long-term hematopoietic recovery. Here we used a mouse model of relapsed AML to explore whether the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α inhibitor echinomycin can be used to treat relapsed AML without affecting host HSCs. We show that echinomycin cured 40% to 60% of mice transplanted with relapsed AML. Bone marrow cells from the cured mice displayed normal composition of HSCs and their progenitors and were as competent as those isolated from nonleukemic mice in competitive repopulation assays. Importantly, in mice with complete remission, echinomycin appeared to completely eliminate LICs because no leukemia could be propagated in vivo following serial transplantation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that in a mouse model of relapsed AML, low-dose echinomycin selectively targets LICs and spares normal hematopoiesis.
Thrombosis is common in patients suffering from myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), whereas bleeding is less frequent. JAK2V617F, the main mutation involved in MPN, is considered as a risk factor for thrombosis, although the direct link between the mutation and hemostatic disorders is not strictly established. We investigated this question using conditional JAK2V617F knock-in mice with constitutive and inducible expression of JAK2V617F in hematopoietic cells, which develop a polycythemia vera (PV)-like disorder evolving into myelofibrosis. In vitro, thrombosis was markedly impaired with an 80% decrease in platelet-covered surface, when JAK2V617F blood was perfused at arterial shear over collagen. JAK2V617F platelets presented only a moderate glycoprotein (GP) VI deficiency not responsible for the defective platelet accumulation. In contrast, a decreased proportion of high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor multimers could reduce platelet adhesion. Accordingly, the tail bleeding time was prolonged. In the FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, platelet aggregates formed rapidly but were highly unstable. Interestingly, vessels were considerably dilated. Thus, mice developing PV secondary to constitutive JAK2V617F expression exhibit a bleeding tendency combined with the accelerated formation of unstable clots, reminiscent of observations made in patients. Hemostatic defects were not concomitant with the induction of JAK2V617F expression, suggesting they were not directly caused by the mutation but were rather the consequence of perturbations in blood and vessel homeostasis.
Hydroxyurea (HU) is effectively used in the management of β-hemoglobinopathies by augmenting the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HU-mediated HbF regulation remain unclear. We previously reported that overexpression of the HU-induced SAR1 gene closely mimics the known effects of HU on K562 and CD34+ cells, including -globin induction and cell-cycle regulation. Here, we show that HU stimulated nuclear factor-B interaction with its cognate-binding site on the SAR1 promoter to regulate transcriptional expression of SAR1 in K562 and CD34+ cells. Silencing SAR1 expression not only significantly lowered both basal and HU-elicited HbF production in K562 and CD34+ cells, but also significantly reduced HU-mediated S-phase cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in K562 cells. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/Jun phosphorylation and silencing of Giα expression in SAR1-transfected K562 and CD34+ cells reduced both -globin expression and HbF level, indicating that activation of Giα/JNK/Jun proteins is required for SAR1-mediated HbF induction. Furthermore, reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed an association between forcibly expressed SAR1 and Giα2 or Giα3 proteins in both K562 and nonerythroid cells. These results indicate that HU induces SAR1, which in turn activates -globin expression, predominantly through the Giα/JNK/Jun pathway. Our findings identify SAR1 as an alternative therapeutic target for β-globin disorders.
Recombinant activated human factor VII (rhFVIIa) is an established hemostatic agent in hemophilia, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Although tissue factor (TF) is its natural receptor, rhFVIIa also interacts with the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) through its -carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, with unknown hemostatic consequences in vivo. Here, we study whether EPCR facilitates rhFVIIa hemostasis in hemophilia using a mouse model system. Mouse activated FVII (mFVIIa) is functionally homologous to rhFVIIa, but binds poorly to mouse EPCR (mEPCR). We modified mFVIIa to gain mEPCR binding using 3 amino acid changes in its Gla domain (L4F/L8M/W9R). The resulting molecule mFVIIa-FMR specifically bound mEPCR in vitro and in vivo and was identical to mFVIIa with respect to TF affinity and procoagulant functions. In macrovascular injury models, hemophilic mice administered mFVIIa-FMR exhibited superior hemostatic activity compared with mFVIIa. This was abolished by blocking mEPCR and was absent in ex vivo whole blood coagulation assays, implicating a specific mFVIIa-FMR and endothelial mEPCR interaction. Because mFVIIa-FMR models the TF-dependent and EPCR binding properties of rhFVIIa, our data unmask a novel contribution of EPCR on the action of rhFVIIa administration in hemophilia, prompting the rational design of improved and safer rhFVIIa therapeutics.
Despite its relatively estimated high occurrence, the characterization of pediatric upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UE-DVT) and of UE postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is still lacking. We investigated the occurrence, characteristics, and predictors of UE-PTS in a cohort of children with objectively confirmed UE-DVT. Patients were analyzed in 3 groups according to DVT pathogenesis and neonatal status: primary (G1), secondary neonates (G2neonates), and non-neonates (G2non-neonates). A total of 158 children (23 G1, 25 G2neonates, and 110 G2non-neonates) were included. The most common triggering factors were effort-related (87%) in G1 and central lines in G2neonates (100%) and in G2non-neonates (92%). PTS scores ≥1, as per the Modified Villalta Scale, were identified in 87% of primary patients, 16% of G2neonates, and 49% of G2non-neonates. Survival analysis showed that the time to PTS score ≥1 significantly differed among group (log-rank test P < .0001). A multivariable logistic regression showed that DVT pathogenesis and imaging-determined degree of thrombus resolution at the end of therapy were independent predictors of a PTS score ≥2. In conclusion, pediatric UE-PTS frequency and severity depend on UE-DVT pathogenesis (primary/secondary) and, within the secondary group, on patient’s age. Line-related UE-PTS has a more benign course, particularly in neonates.
Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined the impact of intestinal diversity on subsequent mortality outcomes following transplantation. Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low diversity groups and assessed for differences in outcomes. Mortality outcomes were significantly worse in patients with lower intestinal diversity; overall survival at 3 years was 36%, 60%, and 67% for low, intermediate, and high diversity groups, respectively (P = .019, log-rank test). Low diversity showed a strong effect on mortality after multivariate adjustment for other clinical predictors (transplant related mortality: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.25; P = .014). In conclusion, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota at engraftment is an independent predictor of mortality in allo-HSCT recipients. These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota may be an important factor in the success or failure in allo-HSCT.
From 2007 to 2011, 66 patients with primary myelofibrosis or myelofibrosis (MF) preceded by essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera were enrolled into a prospective phase 2 clinical trial of reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), Myeloproliferative Disorder Research Consortium 101 trial. The study included patients with sibling donors (n = 32) receiving fludarabine/melphalan (FluMel) as a preparative regimen and patients with unrelated donors (n = 34) receiving conditioning with FluMel plus anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). Patient characteristics in the 2 cohorts were similar. Engraftment occurred in 97% of siblings and 76% of unrelated transplants, whereas secondary graft failure occurred in 3% and 12%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 25 months for patients alive, the overall survival (OS) was 75% in the sibling group (median not reached) and 32% in the unrelated group (median OS: 6 months, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3, 25) (hazard ratio 3.9, 95% CI: 1.8,8.9) (P < .001). Nonrelapse mortality was 22% in sibling and 59% in unrelated AHSCT. Survival correlated with type of donor, but not with the degree of histocompatibility match, age, or JAK2V617F status. In patients with MF with sibling donors, AHSCT is an effective therapy, whereas AHSCT from unrelated donors with FluMel/ATG conditioning led to a high rate of graft failure and limited survival. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00572897.