Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by a single point mutation in the seventh codon of the β-globin gene. Site-specific correction of the sickle mutation in hematopoietic stem cells would allow for permanent production of normal red blood cells. Using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) designed to flank the sickle mutation, we demonstrate efficient targeted cleavage at the β-globin locus with minimal off-target modification. By codelivering a homologous donor template (either an integrase-defective lentiviral vector or a DNA oligonucleotide), high levels of gene modification were achieved in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Modified cells maintained their ability to engraft NOD/SCID/IL2rnull mice and to produce cells from multiple lineages, although with a reduction in the modification levels relative to the in vitro samples. Importantly, ZFN-driven gene correction in CD34+ cells from the bone marrow of patients with SCD resulted in the production of wild-type hemoglobin tetramers.
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) research took hold in the 1950s with the demonstration that intravenously injected bone marrow cells can rescue irradiated mice from lethality by reestablishing blood cell production. Attempts to quantify the cells responsible led to the discovery of serially transplantable, donor-derived, macroscopic, multilineage colonies detectable on the spleen surface 1 to 2 weeks posttransplant. The concept of self-renewing multipotent HSCs was born, but accompanied by perplexing evidence of great variability in the outcomes of HSC self-renewal divisions. The next 60 years saw an explosion in the development and use of more refined tools for assessing the behavior of prospectively purified subsets of hematopoietic cells with blood cell–producing capacity. These developments have led to the formulation of increasingly complex hierarchical models of hematopoiesis and a growing list of intrinsic and extrinsic elements that regulate HSC cycling status, viability, self-renewal, and lineage outputs. More recent examination of these properties in individual, highly purified HSCs and analyses of their perpetuation in clonally generated progeny HSCs have now provided definitive evidence of linearly transmitted heterogeneity in HSC states. These results anticipate the need and use of emerging new technologies to establish models that will accommodate such pluralistic features of HSCs and their control mechanisms.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by their ability to execute a wide range of cell fate choices, including self-renewal, quiescence, and differentiation into the many different mature blood lineages. Cell fate decision making in HSCs, as indeed in other cell types, is driven by the interplay of external stimuli and intracellular regulatory programs. Given the pivotal nature of HSC decision making for both normal and aberrant hematopoiesis, substantial research efforts have been invested over the last few decades into deciphering some of the underlying mechanisms. Central to the intracellular decision making processes are transcription factor proteins and their interactions within gene regulatory networks. More than 50 transcription factors have been shown to affect the functionality of HSCs. However, much remains to be learned about the way in which individual factors are connected within wider regulatory networks, and how the topology of HSC regulatory networks might affect HSC function. Nevertheless, important progress has been made in recent years, and new emerging technologies suggest that the pace of progress is likely to accelerate. This review will introduce key concepts, provide an integrated view of selected recent studies, and conclude with an outlook on possible future directions for this field.
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche commonly refers to the pairing of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell populations that regulate HSC self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation. Anatomic localization of the niche is a dynamic unit from the developmental stage that allows proliferating HSCs to expand before they reach the bone marrow where they adopt a quiescent phenotype that protects their integrity and functions. Recent studies have sought to clarify the complexity behind the HSC niche by assessing the contributions of specific cell populations to HSC maintenance. In particular, perivascular microenvironments in the bone marrow confer distinct vascular niches that regulate HSC quiescence and the supply of lineage-committed progenitors. Here, we review recent data on the cellular constituents and molecular mechanisms involved in the communication between HSCs and putative niches.
The model systems available for studying human hematopoiesis, malignant hematopoiesis, and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function in vivo have improved dramatically over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in xenograft mouse strains. Several recent reviews have focused on the historic development of immunodeficient mice over the last 2 decades, as well as their use in understanding human HSC and leukemia stem cell (LSC) biology and function in the context of a humanized mouse. However, in the intervening time since these reviews, a number of new mouse models, technical approaches, and scientific advances have been made. In this review, we update the reader on the newest and best models and approaches available for studying human malignant and normal HSCs in immunodeficient mice, including newly developed mice for use in chemotherapy testing and improved techniques for humanizing mice without laborious purification of HSC. We also review some relevant scientific findings from xenograft studies and highlight the continued limitations that confront researchers working with human HSC and LSC in vivo.
Generating human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from autologous tissues, when coupled with genome editing technologies, is a promising approach for cellular transplantation therapy and for in vitro disease modeling, drug discovery, and toxicology studies. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a potentially inexhaustible supply of autologous tissue; however, to date, directed differentiation from hPSCs has yielded hematopoietic cells that lack robust and sustained multilineage potential. Cellular reprogramming technologies represent an alternative platform for the de novo generation of HSCs via direct conversion from heterologous cell types. In this review, we discuss the latest advancements in HSC generation by directed differentiation from hPSCs or direct conversion from somatic cells, and highlight their applications in research and prospects for therapy.
Pacritinib (SB1518) is a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK2(V617F), and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitor that does not inhibit JAK1. It demonstrated a favorable safety profile with promising efficacy in phase 1 studies in patients with primary and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). This multicenter phase 2 study further characterized the safety and efficacy of pacritinib in the treatment of patients with MF. Eligible patients had clinical splenomegaly poorly controlled with standard therapies or were newly diagnosed with intermediate- or high-risk Lille score. Patients with any degree of cytopenia were eligible. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. At entry, 40% had hemoglobin <10 g/dL and 43% had platelets <100 000x 109/L. Up to week 24, 8 of 26 evaluable patients (31%) achieved a ≥35% decrease in spleen volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging and 14 of 33 (42%) attained a ≥50% reduction in spleen size by physical examination. Median MF symptom improvement was ≥50% for all symptoms except fatigue. Grade 1 or 2 diarrhea (69%) and nausea (49%) were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events. The study drug was discontinued in 9 patients (26%) due to adverse events (4 severe). Pacritinib is an active agent in patients with MF, offering a potential treatment option for patients with preexisting anemia and thrombocytopenia. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00745550.
Treatment of vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) or events in sickle cell disease (SCD) remains limited to symptom relief with opioids. Animal models support the effectiveness of the pan-selectin inhibitor GMI-1070 in reducing selectin-mediated cell adhesion and abrogating VOC. We studied GMI-1070 in a prospective multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 study of 76 SCD patients with VOC. Study drug (GMI-1070 or placebo) was given every 12 hours for up to 15 doses. Other treatment was per institutional standard of care. All subjects reached the composite primary end point of resolution of VOC. Although time to reach the composite primary end point was not statistically different between the groups, clinically meaningful reductions in mean and median times to VOC resolution of 41 and 63 hours (28% and 48%, P = .19 for both) were observed in the active treatment group vs the placebo group. As a secondary end point, GMI-1070 appeared safe in acute vaso-occlusion, and adverse events were not different in the two arms. Also in secondary analyses, mean cumulative IV opioid analgesic use was reduced by 83% with GMI-1070 vs placebo (P = .010). These results support a phase 3 study of GMI-1070 (now rivipansel) for SCD VOC. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01119833.
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a protein kinase and a master regulator of DNA-damage responses. Germline ATM inactivation causes ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) syndrome with severe lymphocytopenia and greatly increased risk for T-cell lymphomas/leukemia. Both A-T and T-cell prolymphoblastic leukemia patients with somatic mutations of ATM frequently carry inv(14;14) between the T-cell receptor α/ (TCRα/) and immunoglobulin H loci, but the molecular origin of this translocation remains elusive. ATM–/– mice recapitulate lymphocytopenia of A-T patients and routinely succumb to thymic lymphomas with t(12;14) translocation, syntenic to inv(14;14) in humans. Here we report that deletion of the TCR enhancer (E), which initiates TCR rearrangement, significantly improves αβ T cell output and effectively prevents t(12;14) translocations in ATM–/– mice. These findings identify the genomic instability associated with V(D)J recombination at the TCR locus as the molecular origin of both lymphocytopenia and the signature t(12;14) translocations associated with ATM deficiency.
Recent studies show that mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) express aberrant microRNA (miRNA) profiles; however, the clinical effect of miRNA expression has not previously been examined and validated in large prospective homogenously treated cohorts. We performed genome-wide miRNA microarray profiling of 74 diagnostic MCL samples from the Nordic MCL2 trial (screening cohort). Prognostic miRNAs were validated in diagnostic MCL samples from 94 patients of the independent Nordic MCL3 trial (validation cohort). Three miRNAs (miR-18b, miR-92a, and miR-378d) were significantly differentially expressed in patients who died of MCL in both cohorts. MiR-18b was superior to miR-92a and miR-378d in predicting high risk. Thus, we generated a new biological MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI-B)-miR prognosticator, combining expression levels of miR-18b with MIPI-B data. Compared to the MIPI-B, this prognosticator improved identification of high-risk patients with regard to cause-specific, overall, and progression-free survival. Transfection of 2 MCL cell lines with miR-18b decreased their proliferation rate without inducing apoptosis, suggesting that miR-18b may render MCL cells resistant to chemotherapy by decelerating cell proliferation. We conclude that overexpression of miR-18b identifies patients with poor prognosis in 2 large prospective MCL cohorts and adds prognostic information to the MIPI-B. MiR-18b may reduce the proliferation rate of MCL cells as a mechanism of chemoresistance.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in regulatory niches in the bone marrow (BM). Although HSC niches have been extensively characterized, the role of endosteal osteoblasts (OBs) in HSC regulation requires further clarification, and the role of OBs in regulating leukemic stem cells (LSCs) is not well studied. We used an OB visualization and ablation mouse model to study the role of OBs in regulating normal HSCs and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) LSCs. OB ablation resulted in increase in cells with a LSK Flt3–CD150+CD48– long-term HSC (LTHSC) phenotype but reduction of a more highly selected LSK Flt3–CD34–CD49b–CD229– LTHSC subpopulation. LTHSCs from OB-ablated mice demonstrated loss of quiescence and reduced long-term engraftment and self-renewal capacity. Ablation of OB in a transgenic CML mouse model resulted in accelerated leukemia development with reduced survival compared with control mice. The notch ligand Jagged-1 was overexpressed on CML OBs. Normal and CML LTHSCs cultured with Jagged-1 demonstrated reduced cell cycling, consistent with a possible role for loss of Jagged-1 signals in altered HSC and LSC function after OB ablation. These studies support an important role for OBs in regulating quiescence and self-renewal of LTHSCs and a previously unrecognized role in modulating leukemia development in CML.
The prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is poor, highlighting the need for novel treatments. Hypomethylating agents, including decitabine are used to treat elderly AML patients with relative success. Targeting nuclear export receptor (exportin 1 [XPO1]) is a novel approach to restore tumor suppressor (TS) function in AML. Here, we show that sequential treatment of AML blasts with decitabine followed by selinexor (XPO1 inhibitor) enhances the antileukemic effects of selinexor. These effects could be mediated by the re-expression of a subset of TSs (CDKN1A and FOXO3A) that are epigenetically silenced via DNA methylation, and cytoplasmic-nuclear trafficking is regulated by XPO1. We observed a significant upregulation of CDKN1A and FOXO3A in decitabine- versus control-treated cells. Sequential treatment of decitabine followed by selinexor in an MV4-11 xenograft model significantly improved survival compared with selinexor alone. On the basis of these preclinical results, a phase 1 clinical trial of decitabine followed by selinexor in elderly patients with AML has been initiated.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes unregulated platelet activation in dyslipidemic disorders. Although oxLDL stimulates activatory signaling, it is unclear how these events drive accelerated thrombosis. Here, we describe a mechanism for oxLDL-mediated platelet hyperactivity that requires generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under arterial flow, oxLDL triggered sustained generation of platelet intracellular ROS, which was blocked by CD36 inhibitors, mimicked by CD36-specific oxidized phospholipids, and ablated in CD36–/– murine platelets. oxLDL-induced ROS generation was blocked by the reduced NAD phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor, gp91ds-tat, and absent in NOX2–/– mice. The synthesis of ROS by oxLDL/CD36 required Src-family kinases and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation and activation of NOX2. In functional assays, oxLDL abolished guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated signaling and inhibited platelet aggregation and arrest under flow. This was prevented by either pharmacologic inhibition of NOX2 in human platelets or genetic ablation of NOX2 in murine platelets. Platelets from hyperlipidemic mice were also found to have a diminished sensitivity to cGMP when tested ex vivo, a phenotype that was corrected by infusion of gp91ds-tat into the mice. This study demonstrates that oxLDL and hyperlipidemia stimulate the generation of NOX2-derived ROS through a CD36-PKC pathway and may promote platelet hyperactivity through modulation of cGMP signaling.
Plasmodium falciparum invasion of human red blood cells (RBCs) is an intricate process requiring a number of distinct ligand-receptor interactions at the merozoite-erythrocyte interface. Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), a highly abundant ligand coating the merozoite surface in all species of malaria parasites, is essential for RBC invasion and considered a leading candidate for inclusion in a multiple-subunit vaccine against malaria. Our previous studies identified an interaction between the carboxyl-terminus of MSP1 and RBC band 3. Here, by employing phage display technology, we report a novel interaction between the amino-terminus of MSP1 and RBC glycophorin A (GPA). Mapping of the binding domains established a direct interaction between malaria MSP1 and human GPA within a region of MSP1 known to potently inhibit P falciparum invasion of human RBCs. Furthermore, a genetically modified mouse model lacking the GPA– band 3 complex in RBCs is completely resistant to malaria infection in vivo. These findings suggest an essential role of the MSP1-GPA–band 3 complex during the initial adhesion phase of malaria parasite invasion of RBCs.
Factor (F) XII, a key component of the contact system, triggers clotting via the intrinsic pathway, and is implicated in propagating thrombosis. Although nucleic acids are potent activators, it is unclear how the contact system is regulated to prevent uncontrolled clotting. Previously, we showed that histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) binds FXIIa and attenuates its capacity to trigger coagulation. To investigate the role of HRG as a regulator of the intrinsic pathway, we compared RNA- and DNA-induced thrombin generation in plasma from HRG-deficient and wild-type mice. Thrombin generation was enhanced in plasma from HRG-deficient mice, and accelerated clotting was restored to normal with HRG reconstitution. Although blood loss after tail tip amputation was similar in HRG-deficient and wild-type mice, carotid artery occlusion after FeCl3 injury was accelerated in HRG-deficient mice, and HRG administration abrogated this effect. To confirm that HRG modulates the contact system, we used DNase, RNase, and antisense oligonucleotides to characterize the FeCl3 model. Whereas DNase or FVII knockdown had no effect, carotid occlusion was abrogated with RNase or FXII knockdown, confirming that FeCl3-induced thrombosis is triggered by RNA in a FXII-dependent fashion. Therefore, in a nucleic acid–driven model, HRG inhibits thrombosis by modulating the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.
During acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in mice, autoreactive T cells can be generated de novo in the host thymus implying an impairment in self-tolerance induction. As a possible mechanism, we have previously reported that mature medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEChigh) expressing the autoimmune regulator are targets of donor T-cell alloimmunity during aGVHD. A decline in mTEChigh cell pool size, which purges individual tissue-restricted peripheral self-antigens (TRA) from the total thymic ectopic TRA repertoire, weakens the platform for central tolerance induction. Here we provide evidence in a transgenic mouse system using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model surrogate TRA that the de novo production of OVA-specific CD4+ T cells during acute GVHD is a direct consequence of impaired thymic ectopic OVA expression in mTEChigh cells. Our data, therefore, indicate that a functional compromise of the medullary mTEChigh compartment may link alloimmunity to the development of autoimmunity during chronic GVHD.
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major obstacle of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors selectively block acetyl-binding pockets of the bromodomains and modulate histone acetylation. Here, we report that inhibition of BET bromodomain (BRD) proteins with I-BET151 alters cytokine expression in dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, including surface costimulatory molecules, in vitro and in vivo cytokine secretion, and expansion. Mechanistic studies with I-BET151 and JQ1, another inhibitor, demonstrate that these effects could be from disruption of association between BRD4 and acetyl-310 RelA of nuclear factor kappa B. Short-term administration early during BMT reduced GVHD severity and improved mortality in two different allogeneic BMT models but retained sufficient graft-versus-tumor effect. Thus inhibiting BRD proteins may serve as a novel approach for preventing GVHD.