There is little data considering relationships among human RNA, demographic variables, and primary human cell physiology. The platelet RNA and expression-1 study measured platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid, ADP, protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 activation peptide (PAR1-AP), and PAR4-AP, as well as mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) levels in platelets from 84 white and 70 black healthy subjects. A total of 5911 uniquely mapped mRNAs and 181 miRNAs were commonly expressed and validated in a separate cohort. One hundred twenty-nine mRNAs and 15 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) by age, and targets of these miRNAs were over-represented among these mRNAs. Fifty-four mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were DE by gender. Networks of miRNAs targeting mRNAs, both DE by age and gender, were identified. The inverse relationship in these RNA pairs suggests miRNAs regulate mRNA levels on aging and between genders. A simple, interactive public web tool (www.plateletomics.com) was developed that permits queries of RNA levels and associations among RNA, platelet aggregation and demographic variables. Access to these data will facilitate discovery of mechanisms of miRNA regulation of gene expression. These results provide new insights into aging and gender, and future platelet RNA association studies must account for age and gender.
The Notch signaling pathway is a regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in several tissues and cell types. Notch is a binary cell-fate determinant, and its hyperactivation has been implicated as oncogenic in several cancers including breast cancer and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Recently, several studies also unraveled tumor-suppressor roles for Notch signaling in different tissues, including tissues where it was before recognized as an oncogene in specific lineages. Whereas involvement of Notch as an oncogene in several lymphoid malignancies (T-ALL, B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, splenic marginal zone lymphoma) is well characterized, there is growing evidence involving Notch signaling as a tumor suppressor in myeloid malignancies. It therefore appears that Notch signaling pathway’s oncogenic or tumor-suppressor abilities are highly context dependent. In this review, we summarize and discuss latest advances in the understanding of this dual role in hematopoiesis and the possible consequences for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.
TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) belong to a family of receptor tyrosine kinases that have important effects on hemostasis and inflammation. Also, they affect cell proliferation, survival, adhesion, and migration. TAM receptors can be activated by the vitamin K–dependent proteins Gas6 and protein S. Protein S is more commonly known as an important cofactor for protein C as well as a direct inhibitor of multiple coagulation factors. To our knowledge, the functions of Gas6 are limited to TAM receptor activation. When activated, the TAM receptors have effects on primary hemostasis and coagulation and display an anti-inflammatory or a proinflammatory effect, depending on cell type. To comprehend the effects that the TAM receptors and their ligands have on hemostasis and inflammation, we compare studies that report the different phenotypes displayed by mice with deficiencies in the genes of this receptor family and its ligands (protein S+/–, Gas6–/–, TAM–/–, and variations of these). In this manner, we aim to display which features are attributable to the different ligands. Because of the effects TAM receptors have on hemostasis, inflammation, and cancer growth, their modulation could make interesting therapeutic targets in thromboembolic disease, atherosclerosis, sepsis, autoimmune disease, and cancer.
Unconjugated monoclonal antibodies that target hematopoietic differentiation antigens have been developed to treat hematologic malignancies. Although some of these have activity against chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hairy cell leukemia, in general, monoclonal antibodies have limited efficacy as single agents in the treatment of leukemia. To increase their potency, the binding domains of monoclonal antibodies can be attached to protein toxins. Such compounds, termed immunotoxins, are delivered to the interior of leukemia cells based on antibody specificity for cell surface target antigens. Recombinant immunotoxins have been shown to be highly cytotoxic to leukemic blasts in vitro, in xenograft model systems, and in early-phase clinical trials in humans. These agents will likely play an increasing role in the treatment of leukemia.
Published data demonstrating the efficacy of complement inhibition therapy in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) are remarkable in contrast to the historically poor long-term prognosis for aHUS patients treated with plasma-based therapy. Although both aHUS and acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) remain clinical diagnoses, an increased understanding of both conditions has improved our ability to differentiate aHUS from acquired TTP. These same data have also demonstrated the importance of a more rapid identification and diagnosis of aHUS as the recovery of end-organ injury present appears to be related to the time to initiate therapy with eculizumab. The diagnosis of acquired TTP can be confirmed by the finding of severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity (<10%) with evidence of an ADAMTS13 antibody inhibitor whereas merely deficient ADAMTS13 activity in the absence of an ADAMTS13 autoantibody is more consistent with congenital TTP. In the absence of an objective diagnostic test, clinicians must rely collectively on platelet count, serum creatinine, and ADAMTS13 activity in the context of the response to plasma exchange therapy to identify patients whose diagnosis is most consistent with aHUS, and thus be more likely to benefit from therapy with eculizumab.
Heparin reexposure despite a history of previous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can be appropriate if platelet-activating antibodies are no longer detectable. We determined the frequency, timing, and magnitude of the antiplatelet factor 4 (anti-PF4)/heparin immune response (by serotonin-release assay [SRA] and enzyme-immunoassay [EIA]), and the frequency of recurrent HIT in 20 patients with previous HIT reexposed to heparin 4.4 years (mean) post-HIT; 17 patients were given heparin intraoperatively (without postoperative heparin) for cardiac/vascular surgery. One patient developed recurrent HIT beginning 7 days after cardiac surgery, with newly regenerated HIT antibodies exhibiting strong heparin-independent platelet-activating properties. Intraoperative heparin induced EIA seroconversion in 11/17 (65%) patients (immunoglobulin G [IgG]>IgA>IgM) and SRA seroconversion in 8/17 (47%), whereas none of 3 medical patients reexposed to heparin developed seroconversion. Anti-PF4/heparin IgG became detectable at day 7 (median), ie, no sooner than observed in typical-onset HIT. The high proportion of SRA positivity among EIA-seroconverting patients (8/11 [73%]) suggests that patients with previous HIT may be especially predisposed to forming recurrent antibodies with platelet-activating properties. We conclude that among patients with a previous history of HIT who are reexposed to intraoperative (but not postoperative) heparin, the risk of recurrent HIT appears to be low, but is possible if antibodies with strong heparin-independent platelet-activating properties are formed.
With the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients has migrated extensively to municipal hospitals (MHs) and office-based physicians (OBPs). Thus, we wanted to check whether the health care setting has an impact on outcome. Based on 1491 patients of the German CML Study IV, we compared the outcomes of patients from teaching hospitals (THs) with those from MHs and OBPs. Adjusting for age, European Treatment and Outcome Study (EUTOS) score, Karnofsky performance status, year of diagnosis, and experience with CML, a significant survival advantage for TH patients (hazard ratio: 0.632 respectively 0.609) was found. In particular, when treated in THs, patients with blast crisis showed a superior outcome (2-year survival rate: 47.7% vs 22.3% vs 25.0%). Because the impact of the health care setting on the outcome of CML patients has not been reported before, these findings need confirmation by other study groups. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00055874.
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), via interaction with their cognate HLA class I ligands, play a crucial role in the development and activity of natural killer cells. Following recent reports of KIR gene associations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we present a more in-depth investigation of KIR genes and their cognate HLA ligands on childhood ALL risk. Genotyping of 16 KIR genes, along with HLA class I groups C1/C2 and Bw4 supertype ligands, was carried out in 212 childhood ALL cases and 231 healthy controls. Frequencies of KIR genes, KIR haplotypes, and combinations of KIR-HLA ligands were tested for disease association using logistic regression analyses. KIR A/A genotype frequency was significantly increased in cases (33.5%) compared with controls (24.2%) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.39). Stratifying analysis by ethnicity, a significant difference in KIR genotype frequency was demonstrated in Hispanic cases (34.2%) compared with controls (21.9%) (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.05-3.31). Homozygosity for the HLA-Bw4 allele was strongly associated with increased ALL risk exclusively in non-Hispanic white children (OR = 3.93; 95% CI, 1.44-12.64). Our findings suggest a role for KIR genes and their HLA ligands in childhood ALL etiology that may vary among ethnic groups.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy driven in part by increasing copy number alterations (CNAs) during disease progression. Prognostically significant CNAs accumulate during clonal evolution and include gains of 1q21 and deletions of 17p, among others. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of CNAs and resulting subclonal heterogeneity in high-risk MM are poorly understood. To investigate the impact of jumping translocations of 1q12 (JT1q12) on receptor chromosomes (RCs) and subsequent clonal evolution, we analyzed specimens from 86 patients selected for unbalanced 1q12 aberrations by G-banding. Utilizing spectral karyotyping and locus-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization, we identified 10 patients with unexpected focal amplifications of an RC that subsequently translocated as part of a sequential JT1q12 to one or more additional RCs. Four patients exhibited amplification and translocation of 8q24 (MYC), 3 showed amplification of 16q11, and 1 each displayed amplification of 18q21.3 (BCL2), 18q23, or 4p16 (FGFR3). Unexpectedly, in 6 of 14 patients with the combination of the t(4;14) and deletion of 17p, we identified the loss of 17p as resulting from a JT1q12. Here, we provide evidence that the JT1q12 is a mechanism for the simultaneous gain of 1q21 and deletion of 17p in cytogenetically defined high-risk disease.
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is present in ~2% of individuals age >50 years. The increased risk of multiple myeloma (MM) in relatives of individuals with MGUS is consistent with MGUS being a marker of inherited genetic susceptibility to MM. Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 2p23.3 (rs6746082), 3p22.1 (rs1052501), 3q26.2 (rs10936599), 6p21.33 (rs2285803), 7p15.3 (rs4487645), 17p11.2 (rs4273077), and 22q13.1 (rs877529) have recently been shown to influence MM risk. To examine the impact of these 7 SNPs on MGUS, we analyzed two case-control series totaling 492 cases and 7306 controls. Each SNP independently influenced MGUS risk with statistically significant associations (P < .02) for rs1052501, rs2285803, rs4487645, and rs4273077. SNP associations were independent, with risk increasing with a larger number of risk alleles carried (per allele odds ratio, 1.18; P < 10–7). Collectively these data are consistent with a polygenic model of disease susceptibility to MGUS.
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is expressed in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) but its role during embryogenesis is unclear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), internal tandem duplication (ITD) of FLT3 at the juxtamembrane (JMD) and tyrosine kinase (TKD) domains (FLT3-ITD+) occurs in 30% of patients and is associated with inferior clinical prognosis. TKD mutations (FLT3-TKD+) occur in 5% of cases. We made use of zebrafish to examine the role of flt3 in developmental hematopoiesis and model human FLT3-ITD+ and FLT3-TKD+ AML. Zebrafish flt3 JMD and TKD were remarkably similar to their mammalian orthologs. Morpholino knockdown significantly reduced the expression of l-plastin (pan-leukocyte), csf1r, and mpeg1 (macrophage) as well as that of c-myb (definitive HSPCs), lck, and rag1 (T-lymphocyte). Expressing human FLT3-ITD in zebrafish embryos resulted in expansion and clustering of myeloid cells (pu.1+, mpo+, and cebpα+) which were ameliorated by AC220 and associated with stat5, erk1/2, and akt phosphorylation. Human FLT3-TKD (D835Y) induced significant, albeit modest, myeloid expansion resistant to AC220. This study provides novel insight into the role of flt3 during hematopoiesis and establishes a zebrafish model of FLT3-ITD+ and FLT3-TKD+ AML that may facilitate high-throughput screening of novel and personalized agents.
Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with inferior clinical prognosis. Sorafenib is effective in clearing leukemic blasts in chemorefractory FLT3-ITD+ AML, but leukemia progression invariably occurs. Mechanisms of drug resistance are not completely understood. We hypothesized that a gene encoding tescalcin (TESC), known to be upregulated at leukemia progression during continuous sorafenib treatment and activate an Na+/H+ exchanger type-1 (NHE1), may underlie tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. TESC was highly expressed in FLT3-ITD+ AML lines MOLM-13 and MV4-11, and its knockdown by small-interfering RNA lowered intracellular pH (pHi) and induced apoptosis. The results were recapitulated by treatment with an NHE1 inhibitor, 5-(N,N-hexamethylene) amiloride (HMA). Induction of sorafenib resistance in the MOLM-13 cell line (M13-RE) significantly increased its sensitivity to HMA. The later also enhanced suppression of FLT3 signaling by sorafenib in otherwise resistant cell lines. HMA treatment of MOLM-13 and MV4-11 as well as primary FLT3-ITD+ AML cells significantly reduced leukemia initiation in anti-CD122-primed NOD/SCID mouse xenotransplantation. These observations provided novel information about the pathogenetic role of a TESC-NHE1-pHi axis in mediating sorafenib resistance in AML.
Just as normal stem cells require niche cells for survival, leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) may also require niche cells for their maintenance. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by the activity of BCR-ABL, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase. CML therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is highly effective; however, due to the persistence of residual LICs, it is not curative. Several factors are known to support CML LICs, but purification of LICs and a thorough understanding of their niche signals have not yet been achieved. Using a CML-like mouse model of myeloproliferative disease, we demonstrate that CML LICs can be divided into CD25+FcRIα– Lineage marker (Lin)– Sca-1+c-Kit+ (F–LSK) cells and CD25–F–LSK cells. The CD25+F–LSK cells had multilineage differentiation capacity, with a preference toward cytokine-producing mast cell commitment. Although cells interconverted between CD25–F–LSK and CD25+F–LSK status, the CD25+F–LSK cells exhibited higher LIC capacity. Our findings suggest that interleukin-2 derived from the microenvironment and CD25 expressed on CML LICs constitute a novel signaling axis. The high levels of CD25 expression in the CD34+CD38– fraction of human CML cells indicate that CD25+ LICs constitute an "LIC-derived niche" that could be preferentially targeted in therapy for CML.
The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer–binding factor 1 (LEF-1), which plays a definitive role in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor-triggered granulopoiesis, is downregulated in granulocytic progenitors of severe congenital neutropenia (CN) patients. However, the exact mechanism of LEF-1 downregulation is unclear. CN patients are responsive to therapeutically high doses of G-CSF and are at increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. The normal expression of LEF-1 in monocytes and lymphocytes, whose differentiation is unaffected in CN, suggests the presence of a granulopoiesis-specific mechanism downstream of G-CSF receptor signaling that leads to LEF-1 downregulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is activated by G-CSF and is hyperactivated in acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we investigated the effects of activated STAT5 on LEF-1 expression and functions in hematopoietic progenitor cells. We demonstrated that constitutively active STAT5a (caSTAT5a) inhibited LEF-1–dependent autoregulation of the LEF-1 gene promoter by binding to the LEF-1 protein, recruiting Nemo-like kinase and the E3 ubiquitin-ligase NARF to LEF-1, leading to LEF-1 ubiquitination and a reduction in LEF-1 protein levels. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib reversed the defective G-CSF–triggered granulocytic differentiation of CD34+ cells from CN patients in vitro, an effect that was accompanied by restoration of LEF-1 protein levels and LEF-1 messenger RNA autoregulation. Taken together, our data define a novel mechanism of LEF-1 downregulation in CN patients via enhanced ubiquitination and degradation of LEF-1 protein by hyperactivated STAT5.
Loss of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), particularly cIAP1, can promote production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and sensitize cancer cell lines to TNF-induced necroptosis by promoting formation of a death-inducing signaling complex containing receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (RIPK) 1 and 3. To define the role of IAPs in myelopoiesis, we generated a mouse with cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP deleted in the myeloid lineage. Loss of cIAPs and XIAP in the myeloid lineage caused overproduction of many proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in granulocytosis and severe sterile inflammation. In vitro differentiation of macrophages from bone marrow in the absence of cIAPs and XIAP led to detectable levels of TNF and resulted in reduced numbers of mature macrophages. The cytokine production and consequent cell death caused by IAP depletion was attenuated by loss or inhibition of TNF or TNF receptor 1. The loss of RIPK1 or RIPK3, but not the RIPK3 substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein, attenuated TNF secretion and thereby prevented apoptotic cell death and not necrosis. Our results demonstrate that cIAPs and XIAP together restrain RIPK1- and RIPK3-dependent cytokine production in myeloid cells to critically regulate myeloid homeostasis.
There is emerging evidence that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play important roles in inflammatory processes. Here we report that neutrophils have to be simultaneously activated by integrin-mediated outside-in– and G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to induce NET formation in acute lung injury (ALI), which is associated with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients. NETs consist of decondensed chromatin decorated with granular and cytosolic proteins and they can trap extracellular pathogens. The prerequisite for NET formation is the activation of neutrophils and the release of their DNA. In a neutrophil- and platelet-dependent mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), NETs were found in the lung microvasculature, and circulating NET components increased in the plasma. In this model, blocking integrin-mediated outside-in or either GPCR-signaling or heteromerization of platelet chemokines decreased NET formation and lung injury. Targeting NET components by DNAse1 application or neutrophil elastase–deficient mice protected mice from ALI, whereas DNase1–/–/Trap1m/m mice had an aggravated ALI, suggesting that NETs directly influence the severity of ALI. These data suggest that NETs form in the lungs during VILI, contribute to the disease process, and thus may be a promising new direction for the treatment of ALI.
Rheological shear forces in the blood trigger von Willebrand factor (VWF) unfolding which exposes the Y1605-M1606 scissile bond within the VWF A2 domain for cleavage by ADAMTS13. The VWF A2 domain contains 2 structural features that provide it with stability: a vicinal disulphide bond and a Ca2+-binding site (CBS). We investigated how these 2 structural features interplay to determine stability and regulate the exposure of the scissile bond in full-length VWF. We have used differential scanning fluorimetry together with site-directed mutagenesis of residues involved in both the vicinal disulphide bond and the CBS to demonstrate that both of these sites contribute to stability against thermal unfolding of the isolated VWF A2 domain. Moreover, we show that the combination of site mutations can result in increased susceptibility of FL-VWF to proteolysis by ADAMTS13, even in the absence of an agent (such as urea) required to induce unfolding. These studies demonstrate that VWF A2 domain stability provided by its 2 structural elements (vicinal disulphide bond and CBS) is a key protective determinant against FL-VWF cleavage by ADAMTS13. They suggest a 2-step mechanism for VWF A2 domain unfolding.