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Clinical Cancer Research

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Clinical Cancer Research

Immunosuppressive checkpoints mediated by IDO, CTLA4, and PD1/PDL1 play a critical role in glioma progression and the efficacy of immunotherapies. Combined blockade of these immunosuppressive checkpoints in a glioma model elicited long-term survival. This combined blockade adds to the armamentarium of anti-glioma therapies, which could be implemented in clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5147–9. ©2014 AACR.


An improved understanding of the genomics of ovarian cancer and the separation of ovarian cancer into histologically and molecularly defined subgroups have affected drug development and clinical trial design in ovarian cancer. Active therapies that have been tested in ovarian cancer include agents that inhibit angiogenesis and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). However, no FDA drug approvals for ovarian cancer have been granted since 2006, and overall survival improvements have been difficult to achieve with new agents. The genomic complexity of ovarian cancer and modest single-agent activity of many biologic agents in this disease have led to testing of biologic agent combinations. In this article, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular diversity of ovarian cancer as well as emerging therapeutic strategies such as new agents and biologic combinations that attempt to target multiple aberrant pathways in this cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5150–6. ©2014 AACR.


Cancer-induced inflammation results in accumulation of myeloid cells. These myeloid cells include progenitors and progeny of monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has become increasingly evident that tumor-dependent factors can condition myeloid cells toward an immunosuppressive and protumorigenic phenotype. Thus, myeloid cells are not simply bystanders in malignancy or barometers of disease burden. Reflecting their dynamic and plastic nature, myeloid cells manifest a continuum of cellular differentiation and are intimately involved at all stages of neoplastic progression. They can promote tumorigenesis through both immune-dependent and -independent mechanisms and can dictate response to therapies. A greater understanding of the inherent plasticity and relationships among myeloid subsets is needed to inform therapeutic targeting. New clinical trials are being designed to modulate the activities of myeloid cells in cancer, which may be essential to maximize the efficacy of both conventional cytotoxic and immune-based therapies for solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5157–70. ©2014 AACR.



The lymphomas represent one of the most heterogeneous groups of malignancies in all of cancer medicine. Whether one attempts to understand these diseases in the context of their complicated ontogeny, unique biologic features, or clinical presentation, this heterogeneity has been a mixed blessing. On the one hand, it has created an ever-changing way to classify these diseases, as classification schemes have been compelled to reflect the rapidly emerging information that seems to split the disease into smaller and smaller subtypes. On the other hand, the biologic and clinical dissection of these diseases has allowed for the identification of unique biologic features—features that have led to novel targets and generated a plethora of new drugs. Virtually every subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has benefited from these efforts to understand the biology of the different subtypes. This paradigm has led to new clinical trials that tailor novel drug regimens to specific biologic disease subtypes. As a prelude to this CCR Focus section, we attempt to put this evolving heterogeneity into context, bridging historical and modern-day views of classification of these diseases. Then, some of the world's leading lymphoma researchers share their perspectives on how to formulate new concepts of care in this era of biologic discovery. Over a relatively short time, the advances in lymphoma research have been nothing short of stunning. There now seems to be little doubt that these recent breakthroughs will redound favorably on the majority of patients diagnosed with a lymphoproliferative malignancy.

See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5173–81. ©2014 AACR.


Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, was once considered to be a single disease, novel insights into its biology have revealed that it is molecularly heterogeneous. Technologies such as gene expression profiling have revealed that DLBCL consists of at least three distinct molecular diseases that have disparate outcomes following standard therapy. These subtypes arise from different stages of B-cell differentiation and are characterized by distinct oncogenic activation mechanisms. This knowledge has led to the investigation of strategies and novel agents that have selective activity within molecular subtypes and sets the stage for an era of precision medicine in DLBCL therapeutics, where therapy can be ascribed based on molecular phenotype. This work offers the chance of improving the curability of DLBCL, particularly in the activated B-cell subtype, where standard approaches are inadequate for a high proportion of patients.

See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5182–93. ©2014 AACR.


The elucidation of crucial biologic pathways of cell survival and proliferation has led to the development of highly effective drugs, some of which have markedly improved mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) therapeutic opportunities in the past 10 years. Moreover, an undeniable clinical heterogeneity in treatment response and disease behavior has become apparent in this neoplasm. Thus, the need for biologic markers stratifying patients with MCL in risk classes deserving different treatment approaches has recently been fervently expressed. Among several newly discovered biomarkers, the dismal predictive value of a high proliferative signature has been broadly recognized in large studies of patients with MCL. Different techniques have been used to assess tumor cell proliferation, including mitotic index, immunostaining with Ki-67 antibody, and gene expression profiling. Ki-67 proliferative index, in particular, has been extensively investigated, and its negative impact on relapse incidence and overall survival has been validated in large prospective clinical trials. However, one important pitfall limiting its widespread use in clinical practice is the reported interobserver variability, due to the previous lack of a standardized approach for quantification among different laboratories. In the present review, we describe some of the major techniques to assess cell proliferation in MCL, focusing in particular on the Ki-67 index and its need for a standardized approach to be used in multicenter clinical trials. The value of MCL biologic prognostic scores (as MIPI-b) is discussed, along with our proposal on how to integrate these scores in the planning of future trials investigating a tailored therapeutic approach for patients with MCL.

See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5194–206. ©2014 AACR.


Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arise from lymphoid populations that are induced by chronic inflammation in extranodal sites. The most frequently affected organ is the stomach, where MALT lymphoma is incontrovertibly associated with a chronic gastritis induced by a microbial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. Gastric MALT lymphoma therefore represents a paradigm for evaluating inflammation-associated lymphomagenesis, which may lead to a deeper understanding of a possible etiologic association between other microorganisms and nongastric marginal zone lymphomas. Besides infectious etiology, chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren syndrome or Hashimoto thyroiditis, can also carry a significant risk factor for the development of marginal zone lymphoma. In addition to the continuous antigenic drive, additional oncogenic events play a relevant role in lymphoma growth and progression to the point at which the lymphoproliferative process may eventually become independent of antigenic stimulation. Recent studies on MALT lymphomas have in fact demonstrated genetic alterations affecting the NF-B) pathway, a major signaling pathway involved in many cancers. This review aims to present marginal zone lymphoma as an example of the close pathogenetic link between chronic inflammation and tumor development, with particular attention to the role of infectious agents and the integration of these observations into everyday clinical practice.

See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5207–16. ©2014 AACR.


Adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (ATL) is a distinct malignancy of regulatory T cell (Treg)/TH2 cells caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1), with a high frequency of expression of CD3/CD4/CD25/CCR4 and FoxP3 in about half of the cells. However, in primary ATL cells, although expression of the virus, including the Tax oncoprotein, appears just after an in vitro culture, integration sites of the provirus into the host genome are random, and chromosomal/genetic abnormalities are complex. ATL is thus a single disease entity that is caused by HTLV-1 and possesses diverse molecular features. The clinical features and prognosis of ATL vary, and this has led to subtypes classified into four categories: acute, lymphomatous, chronic, and smoldering types, based on lactate dehydrogenase and calcium values and organ involvement. Approximately 15 to 20 million individuals are infected with HTLV-1 worldwide, 1.1 million of whom reside in Japan, and the annual incidence of ATL has been estimated to be approximately 1,000. HTLV-1 infection early in life, mainly from breast feeding, is crucial for the development of ATL. The age-specific occurrence of ATL and complex genome abnormalities that accumulate with disease progression suggest a multistep carcinogenesis model following HTLV-1 infection. Various treatment options are available for ATL and consist of watchful waiting for indolent ATL, intensive chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aggressive ATL, and a combination of IFNα and zidovudine for ATL with leukemic manifestation. Several promising new agents, including an anti-CCR4 antibody, are currently undergoing clinical trials associated with translational research.

See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5217–25. ©2014 AACR.


Indolent B-cell lymphomas are heterogeneous, comprising three grades of follicular lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma, Waldenstöm macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, and most recently, possibly low proliferative mantle cell lymphoma. These lymphomas are characterized by a high responsiveness to chemotherapy or immunochemotherapy; however, in most cases, conventional therapy might not offer a cure. Furthermore, the patient's age at diagnosis, at time to first or subsequent relapses, as well as potential comorbidities often preclude the use of chemotherapy. Recent progress has been made in our understanding of dysregulated pathways and immunologic antitumor responses in indolent lymphoma. Major therapeutic advances have been achieved in the development of nonchemotherapeutic agents, making "chemo-free" treatment a near-future reality. In this article, we highlight these promising approaches, such as the combination of anti-CD20 antibodies with immunomodulatory drugs, with mAbs directed against other surface antigens such as CD22, with immunomodulatory antibodies such as PD-1, or with inhibitors of key steps in the B-cell receptor pathway signaling. However, the cost of such therapies and potential, albeit manageable, toxicity should be considered. Phase III trials will confirm the benefit of these new treatment strategies that do not require a chemotherapeutic drug and help us identify their exact place in the therapeutic armamentarium for indolent lymphoma. Here we focus on follicular lymphoma, which is the most frequent subtype of indolent lymphoma and for which an increasing body of evidence has emerged that supports the dawn of a new era of chemotherapy-free treatment.

See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5226–39. ©2014 AACR.


Despite enormous advances in our understanding of aggressive lymphomas, it is clear that progress in the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) has lagged well behind other B-cell malignancies. Although there are many reasons for this, the one commonly cited notes that the paradigms for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were merely applied to all patients with PTCL, the classic "one-size-fits-all" approach. Despite these challenges, progress is being made. Recently, the FDA has approved four drugs for patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL over the past 5 years, and if one counts the recent Japanese approval of the anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody for patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, five drugs have been approved worldwide. These efforts have led to the initiation of no fewer than four randomized clinical studies exploring the integration of these new agents into standard CHOP (cyclophosphamide–Adriamycin–vincristine–prednisone)–based chemotherapy regimens for patients with newly diagnosed PTCL. In addition, a new wave of studies are exploring the merits of novel drug combinations in the disease, an effort to build on the obvious single-agent successes. What has emerged most recently is the recognition that the PTCL may be a disease-characterized by epigenetic dysregulation, which may help explain its sensitivity to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and open the door for even more creative combination approaches. Nonetheless, advances made over a relatively short period of time are changing how we now view these diseases and, hopefully, have poised us to finally improve its prognosis.

See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5240–54. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: The lipoate derivative CPI-613 is a first-in-class agent that targets mitochondrial metabolism. This study determined the effects of CPI-613 on mitochondrial function and defined the MTD, pharmacokinetics, and safety in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies.

Experimental Design: Human leukemia cell lines were exposed to CPI-613 and mitochondrial function was assayed. A phase I trial was conducted in which CPI-613 was given as a 2-hour infusion on days 1 and 4 for 3 weeks every 28 days.

Results: CPI-613 inhibited mitochondrial respiration of human leukemia cells consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. In the phase I trial, 26 patients were enrolled. CPI-613 was well tolerated with no marrow suppression observed. When the infusion time was shortened to 1 hour, renal failure occurred in 2 patients. At 3,780 mg/m2, there were two dose-limiting toxicities (DLT). At a dose of 2,940 mg/m2 over 2 hours, no DLTs were observed, establishing this as the MTD. Renal failure occurred in a total of 4 patients and resolved in all but 1, who chose hospice care. CPI-613 has a triphasic elimination with an alpha half-life of approximately 1.34 hours. Of the 21 evaluable, heavily pretreated patients, 4 achieved an objective response and 2 achieved prolonged stabilization of disease for a clinical benefit rate of 29%. Following drug exposure, gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from responders demonstrated immune activation.

Conclusion: CPI-613 inhibits mitochondrial function and demonstrates activity in a heavily pretreated cohort of patients. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5255–64. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: Dasatinib has limited single-agent activity in unselected patients with metastatic breast cancer. Several gene signatures predictive of dasatinib response in vitro have been reported. The purpose of this three-arm, phase II study was to prospectively assess the utility of three previously published gene signatures to select patients with clinical benefit from dasatinib.

Experimental Design: Patients with metastatic breast cancer underwent biopsy for gene expression profiling in an academic CLIA laboratory; those who were positive for any one of three predictive gene signatures (dasatinib sensitivity signature, SRC pathway activity signature, and dasatinib target index) received dasatinib 100 mg orally daily. The three marker-defined cohorts were analyzed separately, using early stopping rules for futility.

Results: Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, 93 underwent biopsy, and 80% of the biopsies were sufficient for molecular testing. Thirty patients were positive for at least one signature and received treatment. Only 1 patient experienced clinical benefit and had stable disease over 300 days. All three arms were closed early for futility. There was one serious biopsy-related adverse event (hematoma and pain following a liver biopsy). There were no unexpected toxicities from dasatinib.

Conclusion: None of the three predictive gene signatures, although supported by preclinical evidence, defined tumors clinically sensitive to dasatinib as a single agent. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5265–71. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: To identify genes predicting benefit of radiotherapy in patients with high-risk breast cancer treated with systemic therapy and randomized to receive or not receive postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT).

Experimental Design: The study was based on the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG82bc) cohort. Gene-expression analysis was performed in a training set of frozen tumor tissue from 191 patients. Genes were identified through the Lasso method with the endpoint being locoregional recurrence (LRR). A weighted gene-expression index (DBCG-RT profile) was calculated and transferred to quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, before validation in FFPE from 112 additional patients.

Results: Seven genes were identified, and the derived DBCG-RT profile divided the 191 patients into "high LRR risk" and "low LRR risk" groups. PMRT significantly reduced risk of LRR in "high LRR risk" patients, whereas "low LRR risk" patients showed no additional reduction in LRR rate. Technical transfer of the DBCG-RT profile to FFPE/qRT-PCR was successful, and the predictive impact was successfully validated in another 112 patients.

Conclusions: A DBCG-RT gene profile was identified and validated, identifying patients with very low risk of LRR and no benefit from PMRT. The profile may provide a method to individualize treatment with PMRT. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5272–80. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: Despite a challenging prognosis, modern cytotoxic therapy can induce tumor responses and extend life in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Pharmacogenomic (PGx) modeling of tumor tissue can predict the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in preclinical cancer models. We hypothesized that PGx profiling of circulating tumor and invasive cells (CTIC) isolated from peripheral blood could predict tumor response, progression, and resistance.

Experimental Design: A PGx model was created and validated in preclinical models. A prospective clinical trial was conducted. Fifty patients with advanced PDAC were enrolled. Before treatment, 10 mL of peripherally drawn blood was collected. CTICs isolated from this blood sample were expression profiled and the PGx model was used to predict effective and ineffective chemotherapeutic agents. The treating physicians were blinded to PGx prediction.

Results: We found that CTICs could be reliably isolated, total RNA extracted and profiled from 10 mL of peripheral blood from patients with unresectable PDAC before chemotherapy treatment and at disease progression. Using previously created PGx models to predict chemotherapy sensitivity, we found that clinical benefit was seen for study participants treated with chemotherapy regimens predicted to be effective versus chemotherapy regimens predicted to be ineffective with regard to progression-free (10.4 mo vs. 3.6 mo; P < 0.0001; HR, 0.14) and overall survival (17.2 mo vs. 8.3 mo; P < 0.0249; HR, 0.29).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that PGx profiling of CTICs can predict treatment response. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5281–9. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma in adults. Although protected by both the blood–brain and blood–tumor barriers, GBMs are actively infiltrated by T cells. Previous work has shown that IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 are dominant molecular participants in the suppression of GBM immunity. This includes IDO-mediated regulatory T-cell (Treg; CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) accumulation, the interaction of T-cell–expressed, CTLA-4, with dendritic cell-expressed, CD80, as well as the interaction of tumor- and/or macrophage-expressed, PD-L1, with T-cell–expressed, PD-1. The individual inhibition of each pathway has been shown to increase survival in the context of experimental GBM. However, the impact of simultaneously targeting all three pathways in brain tumors has been left unanswered.

Experimental Design and Results: In this report, we demonstrate that, when dually challenged, IDO-deficient tumors provide a selectively competitive survival advantage against IDO-competent tumors. Next, we provide novel observations regarding tryptophan catabolic enzyme expression, before showing that the therapeutic inhibition of IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 in a mouse model of well-established glioma maximally decreases tumor-infiltrating Tregs, coincident with a significant increase in T-cell–mediated long-term survival. In fact, 100% of mice bearing intracranial tumors were long-term survivors following triple combination therapy. The expression and/or frequency of T cell expressed CD44, CTLA-4, PD-1, and IFN- depended on timing after immunotherapeutic administration.

Conclusions: Collectively, these data provide strong preclinical evidence that combinatorially targeting immunosuppression in malignant glioma is a strategy that has high potential value for future clinical trials in patients with GBM. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5290–301. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen recurrence (PSA-R) after radical prostatectomy (RP) can occur years before metastasis. This study estimates the chance that an untreated PSA-R would not progress to clinical metastasis within the patient's lifetime, that is, that recurrence is overdetected.

Experimental Design: Times from PSA-R to metastasis were estimated from patients with RP treated at Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) who did not receive salvage treatment (n = 441) at PSA-R. Times to other-cause death were based on U.S. life tables adjusted to reflect other-cause survival among RP cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. We used competing risks simulation to estimate lower bounds on the chance that other-cause death would precede clinical metastasis for patients with disease characteristics at diagnosis based on the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) database (n = 4,455).

Results: Cumulative incidence of PSA-R in CaPSURE was 13.6% at 5 years and 19.9% at 10 years. The risk of other-cause death among patients with RP in SEER was 60% lower than the age-matched U.S. population. At least 9.1% of patients with PSA-R <5 years after RP and at least 15.6% of patients with PSA-R 5 to 10 years after RP were overdetected. At least 31.4% of patients over the age of 70 years at diagnosis, who recurred <10 years of diagnosis, were overdetected.

Conclusions: This analysis indicates that PSA-R after RP may be overdetected, with risk depending on patient age and tumor characteristics. The potential for overdetection of recurrence confirms the need for approaches to determine whether and when to initiate salvage therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5302–10. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: Loss of epigenetic gene regulation through altered long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression seems important in human cancer. LncRNAs have diagnostic and therapeutic potential, and offer insights into the biology disease, but little is known of their expression in urothelial cancer. Here, we identify differentially expressed lncRNAs with potential regulatory functions in urothelial cancer.

Experimental Design: The expression of 17,112 lncRNAs and 22,074 mRNAs was determined using microarrays in 83 normal and malignant urothelial (discovery) samples and selected RNAs with qPCR in 138 samples for validation. Significantly differentially expressed RNAs were identified and stratified according to tumor phenotype. siRNA knockdown, functional assays, and whole-genome transcriptomic profiling were used to identify potential roles of selected lncRNAs.

Results: We observed upregulation of many lncRNAs in urothelial cancer that was distinct to corresponding, more balanced changes for mRNAs. In general, lncRNA expression reflected disease phenotype. We identified 32 lncRNAs with potential roles in disease progression. Focusing upon a promising candidate, we implicate upregulation of AB074278 in apoptosis avoidance and the maintenance of a proproliferative state in cancer through a potential interaction with EMP1, a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of cell proliferation.

Conclusions: We report differential expression profiles for numerous lncRNA in urothelial cancer. We identify phenotype-specific expression and a potential mechanistic target to explain this observation. Further studies are required to validate lncRNAs as prognostic biomarkers in this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5311–21. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: To determine the prevalence and prognostic value of mismatch repair (MMR) status and its relation to BRAF mutation (BRAFMT) status in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

Experimental Design: A pooled analysis of four phase III studies in first-line treatment of mCRC (CAIRO, CAIRO2, COIN, and FOCUS) was performed. Primary outcome parameter was the hazard ratio (HR) for median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in relation to MMR and BRAF. For the pooled analysis, Cox regression analysis was performed on individual patient data.

Results: The primary tumors of 3,063 patients were analyzed, of which 153 (5.0%) exhibited deficient MMR (dMMR) and 250 (8.2%) a BRAFMT. BRAFMT was observed in 53 (34.6%) of patients with dMMR tumors compared with 197 (6.8%) of patients with proficient MMR (pMMR) tumors (P < 0.001). In the pooled dataset, median PFS and OS were significantly worse for patients with dMMR compared with pMMR tumors [HR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–1.57 and HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13–1.61, respectively), and for patients with BRAFMT compared with BRAF wild-type (BRAFWT) tumors (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.17–1.54 and HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.66–2.19, respectively). PFS and OS were significantly decreased for patients with BRAFMT within the group of patients with pMMR, but not for BRAF status within dMMR, or MMR status within BRAFWT or BRAFMT.

Conclusions: Prevalence of dMMR and BRAFMT in patients with mCRC is low and both biomarkers confer an inferior prognosis. Our data suggest that the poor prognosis of dMMR is driven by the BRAFMT status. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5322–30. ©2014 AACR.


Purpose: Although the relationship between smoking and prostate cancer risk is inconsistent, some studies show that smoking is associated with prostate cancer mortality. Whether this reflects delayed diagnosis or direct smoking-related effects is unknown. REDUCE, which followed biopsy-negative men with protocol-dictated prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-independent biopsies at 2 and 4 years, provides an opportunity to evaluate smoking and prostate cancer diagnosis with minimal confounding from screening biases.

Experimental Design: Logistic regression was conducted to test the association between smoking and cancer on the first on-study biopsy (no cancer, low-grade Gleason 4–6, high-grade Gleason 7–10) in REDUCE.

Results: Of 6,240 men with complete data and ≥1 on-study biopsy, 2,937 (45.8%) never smoked, 929 (14.5%) were current smokers, and 2,554 (39.8%) were former smokers. Among men with negative first on-study biopsies, smokers were 36% less likely to receive a second on-study biopsy (P < 0.001). At first on-study biopsy, 941 (14.7%) men had cancer. Both current and former smoking were not significantly associated with either total or low-grade prostate cancer (all P > 0.36). Current (OR = 1.44, P = 0.028) but not former smokers (OR = 1.21, P = 0.12) were at increased risk of high-grade disease. On secondary analysis, there was an interaction between smoking and body mass index (BMI; Pinteraction = 0.017): current smokers with BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 had an increased risk of low-grade (OR = 1.54, P = 0.043) and high-grade disease (OR = 2.45, P = 0.002), with null associations for BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.

Conclusion: Among men with elevated PSA and negative pre-study biopsy in REDUCE, in which biopsies were largely PSA independent, smoking was unrelated to overall prostate cancer diagnosis but was associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5331–8. ©2014 AACR.