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Clinical Cancer Research

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Clinical Cancer Research

Mutations in TP53 are common in non–small cell lung cancer. Apart from the loss of tumor-suppressor functions, TP53 mutations may result in gain of function favoring cellular proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and genomic instability. Some TP53 mutations are more likely to affect the course of the disease than others. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4419–21. ©2014 AACR.

Rapid development of molecularly targeted drugs requires a "companion diagnostic" that could delay drug development and limit availability of active drugs for relevant patients. Were the negative results from MetMab studies in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer due to drug failure or failure of the right companion diagnostic? Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4422–4. ©2014 AACR.

The delineation of signaling pathways to understand tumor biology combined with the rapid development of technologies that allow broad molecular profiling and data analysis has led to a new era of personalized medicine in oncology. Many academic institutions now routinely profile patients and discuss their cases in meetings of personalized medicine tumor boards before making treatment recommendations. Clinical trials initiated by pharmaceutical companies often require specific markers for enrollment or at least explore multiple options for future markers. In addition to the still small number of targeted agents that are approved for the therapy of patients with histological and molecularly defined tumors, a broad range of novel targeted agents in development are undergoing clinical studies with companion profiling to determine the best-responding patient population. Although the present focus of profiling lies in genetic analyses, additional tests of RNA, protein, and immune parameters are being developed and incorporated in clinical research, and these methods are likely to contribute significantly to future patient selection and treatment approaches. As the advances in tumor biology and human genetics have identified promising tumor targets, the ongoing clinical evaluation of novel agents will now need to show if the promise can be translated into benefit for patients. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4425–35. ©2014 AACR.

On February 22, 2013, the FDA licensed ado-trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla; Genentech, Inc.) for use as a single agent for the treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who previously received trastuzumab and a taxane, separately or in combination. The clinical basis for licensure was a phase III trial in 991 patients with HER2-positive MBC that randomly allocated patients to receive ado-trastuzumab emtansine (n = 495) or lapatinib in combination with capecitabine (n = 496). The coprimary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) based on tumor assessments by an independent review committee and overall survival (OS). Statistically significant improvements in PFS and OS were observed in patients receiving ado-trastuzumab emtansine compared with patients receiving lapatinib plus capecitabine [difference in PFS medians of 3.2 months, HR, 0.65 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.55–0.77), P < 0.0001 and difference in OS medians of 5.8 months, HR, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55–0.85), P = 0.0006]. The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving ado-trastuzumab emtansine were fatigue, nausea, musculoskeletal pain, thrombocytopenia, headache, increased aminotransferase levels, and constipation. Other significant adverse reactions included hepatobiliary disorders and left ventricular dysfunction. Given the PFS and OS results, the benefit–risk profile was considered favorable. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4436–41. ©2014 AACR.

Rearrangements, or gene fusions, involving the ETS family of transcription factors are common driving events in both prostate cancer and Ewing sarcoma. These rearrangements result in pathogenic expression of the ETS genes and trigger activation of transcriptional programs enriched for invasion and other oncogenic features. Although ETS gene fusions represent intriguing therapeutic targets, transcription factors, such as those comprising the ETS family, have been notoriously difficult to target. Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated an association between ETS gene fusions and components of the DNA damage response pathway, such as PARP1, the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNAPK), and histone deactylase 1 (HDAC1), and have suggested that ETS fusions may confer sensitivity to inhibitors of these DNA repair proteins. In this review, we discuss the role of ETS fusions in cancer, the preclinical rationale for targeting ETS fusions with inhibitors of PARP1, DNAPK, and HDAC1, as well as ongoing clinical trials targeting ETS gene fusions. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4442–8. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Dabrafenib is a selective, potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of the BRAFV600-mutant kinase that has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. We report the rationale for dose selection in the first-in-human study of dabrafenib, including pharmacokinetics, tissue pharmacodynamics, 2[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) pharmacodynamics, and dose–response relationship.

Experimental Design: Dabrafenib was administered orally once, twice (BID), or three times daily (TID). Selected dose cohorts were expanded to collect adequate data on safety, pharmacokinetics, or pharmacodynamics. A recommended phase II dose (RP2D) was chosen based on safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and response data.

Results: One hundred and eighty-four patients were enrolled and treated with doses ranging from 12 mg once daily to 300 mg BID in 10 cohorts. Pharmacokinetic assessment of dabrafenib demonstrated a less-than-dose-proportional increase in exposure after repeat dosing above 150 mg BID. Similar to parent drug concentrations, exposure for all metabolites demonstrated less-than-dose-proportional increases. Predicted target inhibition of pERK (>80%) was achieved at 150 mg BID, with a similar magnitude of inhibition at higher doses in BRAFV600 mutation melanoma biopsy samples. Although there was large variability between patients, FDG uptake decreased with higher daily doses in patients with BRAFV600 mutation–positive melanoma. A favorable activity and tolerability profile was demonstrated at 150 mg BID. There was no improvement with TID dosing compared with BID dosing, based on FDG-PET and tumor response analyses in patients with melanoma.

Conclusion: The RP2D of dabrafenib was determined to be 150 mg BID after considering multiple factors, including pharmacokinetics, tissue pharmacodynamics, FDG-PET pharmacodynamics, and the dose–response relationship. A maximum tolerated dose for dabrafenib was not determined. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4449–58. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: To conduct a phase I trial of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine delivering wild-type human p53 (p53MVA) in patients with refractory gastrointestinal cancers.

Experimental Design: Three patients were vaccinated with 1.0 x 108 plaque-forming unit (pfu) p53MVA followed by nine patients at 5.6 x 108 pfu. Toxicity was classified using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria and clinical responses were assessed by CT scan. Peripheral blood samples were collected pre- and post-immunization for immunophenotyping, monitoring of p53MVA-induced immune response, and examination of PD1 checkpoint inhibition in vitro.

Results: p53MVA immunization was well tolerated at both doses, with no adverse events above grade 2. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showing enhanced recognition of a p53 overlapping peptide library were detectable after the first immunization, particularly in the CD8+ T-cell compartment (P = 0.03). However, in most patients, this did not expand further with the second and third immunization. The frequency of PD1+ T cells detectable in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Furthermore, the frequency of PD1+ CD8+ T cells showed an inverse correlation with the peak CD8+ p53 response (P = 0.02) and antibody blockade of PD1 in vitro increased the p53 immune responses detected after the second or third immunizations. Induction of strong T-cell and antibody responses to the MVA backbone were also apparent.

Conclusion: p53MVA was well tolerated and induced robust CD8+ T-cell responses. Combination of p53MVA with immune checkpoint inhibition could help sustain immune responses and lead to enhanced clinical benefit. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4459–70. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: We conducted a phase I multicenter trial in naïve metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients with escalating inecalcitol dosages, combined with docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Inecalcitol is a novel vitamin D receptor agonist with higher antiproliferative effects and a 100-fold lower hypercalcemic activity than calcitriol.

Experimental Design: Safety and efficacy were evaluated in groups of three to six patients receiving inecalcitol during a 21-day cycle in combination with docetaxel (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks) and oral prednisone (5 mg twice a day) up to six cycles. Primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) defined as grade 3 hypercalcemia within the first cycle. Efficacy endpoint was ≥30% PSA decline within 3 months.

Results: Eight dose levels (40–8,000 μg) were evaluated in 54 patients. DLT occurred in two of four patients receiving 8,000 μg/day after one and two weeks of inecalcitol. Calcemia normalized a few days after interruption of inecalcitol. Two other patients reached grade 2, and the dose level was reduced to 4,000 μg. After dose reduction, calcemia remained within normal range and grade 1 hypercalcemia. The maximum tolerated dose was 4,000 μg daily. Respectively, 85% and 76% of the patients had ≥30% PSA decline within 3 months and ≥50% PSA decline at any time during the study. Median time to PSA progression was 169 days.

Conclusion: High antiproliferative daily inecalcitol dose has been safely used in combination with docetaxel and shows encouraging PSA response (≥30% PSA response: 85%; ≥50% PSA response: 76%). A randomized phase II study is planned. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4471–7. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: To explore in a panel of patient-derived xenograft models of human non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whether high EGFR expression, was associated with cetuximab activity.

Experimental Design: NSCLC patient-derived xenograft models (n = 45) were implanted subcutaneously into panels of nude mice and randomization cohorts were treated with either cetuximab, cisplatin, cisplatin plus cetuximab, vehicle control, or else were left untreated. Responses according to treatment were assessed at week 3 by analyzing the relative change in tumor volume and an experimental analogue of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. An EGFR IHC score was calculated for each patient-derived xenograft model and response was assessed according to EGFR expression level.

Results: When tumors were stratified into high and low EGFR expression groups (IHC score threshold 200; scale 0–300), a stronger antitumor activity was seen in the high EGFR expression group compared with the low EGFR expression group in both the cetuximab monotherapy and cisplatin plus cetuximab combination therapy settings. For tumors treated with cisplatin plus cetuximab, the objective response rate was significantly higher in the high EGFR expression group compared with the low EGFR expression group (68% vs. 29%). Objective response rates were similar in high and low expression groups for tumors treated with cisplatin alone (27% vs. 24%, respectively).

Conclusion: Cetuximab activity in NSCLC patient-derived xenograft models was demonstrated clearly only in tumors that expressed high levels of EGFR, as defined by an IHC score of ≥200. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4478–87. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: In a recent phase II study of onartuzumab (MetMAb), patients whose non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue scored as positive for MET protein by immunohistochemistry (IHC) experienced a significant benefit with onartuzumab plus erlotinib (O+E) versus erlotinib. We describe development and validation of a standardized MET IHC assay and, retrospectively, evaluate multiple biomarkers as predictors of patient benefit.

Experimental Design: Biomarkers related to MET and/or EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling were measured by IHC, FISH, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, mutation detection techniques, and ELISA.

Results: A positive correlation between IHC, Western blotting, and MET mRNA expression was observed in NSCLC cell lines/tissues. An IHC scoring system of MET expression taking proportional and intensity-based thresholds into consideration was applied in an analysis of the phase II study and resulted in the best differentiation of outcomes. Further analyses revealed a nonsignificant overall survival (OS) improvement with O+E in patients with high MET copy number (mean ≥5 copies/cell by FISH); however, benefit was maintained in "MET IHC-positive"/MET FISH-negative patients (HR, 0.37; P = 0.01). MET, EGFR, amphiregulin, epiregulin, or HGF mRNA expression did not predict a significant benefit with onartuzumab; a nonsignificant OS improvement was observed in patients with high tumor MET mRNA levels (HR, 0.59; P = 0.23). Patients with low baseline plasma hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exhibited an HR for OS of 0.519 (P = 0.09) in favor of onartuzumab treatment.

Conclusions: MET IHC remains the most robust predictor of OS and progression-free survival benefit from O+E relative to all examined exploratory markers. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4488–98. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: An inherited mutation in KRAS (LCS6-variant or rs61764370) results in altered control of the KRAS oncogene. We studied this biomarker's correlation to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Experimental Design: LCS6-variant and KRAS/BRAF mutational status was determined in 512 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with salvage anti-EGFR mAb therapy, and findings correlated with outcome. Reporters were tested in colon cancer cell lines to evaluate the differential response of the LCS6-variant allele to therapy exposure.

Results: In this study, 21.2% (109 of 512) of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer had the LCS6-variant (TG/GG), which was found twice as frequently in the BRAF-mutated versus the wild-type (WT) group (P = 0.03). LCS6-variant patients had significantly longer progression- free survival (PFS) with anti-EGFR mAb monotherapy treatment in the whole cohort (16.85 vs. 7.85 weeks; P = 0.019) and in the double WT (KRAS and BRAF) patient population (18 vs. 10.4 weeks; P = 0.039). Combination therapy (mAbs plus chemotherapy) led to improved PFS and overall survival (OS) for nonvariant patients, and brought their outcome to levels comparable with LCS6-variant patients receiving anti-EGFR mAb monotherapy. Combination therapy did not lead to improved PFS or OS for LCS6-variant patients. Cell line studies confirmed a unique response of the LCS6-variant allele to both anti-EGFR mAb monotherapy and chemotherapy.

Conclusions: LCS6-variant patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have an excellent response to anti-EGFR mAb monotherapy, without any benefit from the addition of chemotherapy. These findings further confirm the importance of this mutation as a biomarker of anti-EGFR mAb response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and warrant further prospective confirmation. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4499–510. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: FcR polymorphisms have been reported to enhance the immune-mediated effects of cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. There are no data on the relationship between these polymorphisms and cetuximab in the early-stage setting. We performed a pharmacogenomic analysis of EXPERT-C, a randomized phase II trial of neoadjuvant CAPOX followed by chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant CAPOX ± cetuximab in high-risk, locally advanced rectal cancer.

Experimental Design: FcRIIa-H131R and FcRIIIa-V158F polymorphisms were analyzed on DNA from peripheral blood samples. Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate survival estimates and compare treatment arms.

Results: Genotyping was successfully performed in 105 of 164 (64%) patients (CAPOX = 54, CAPOX-C = 51). No deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium or association of these polymorphisms with tumor RAS status was observed. FcRIIa-131R (HR, 0.38; P = 0.058) and FcRIIIa-158F alleles (HR, 0.21; P = 0.007) predicted improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients treated with cetuximab. In the CAPOX-C arm, carriers of both 131R and 158F alleles had a statistically significant improvement in PFS (5 years: 78.4%; HR, 0.22; P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; 5 years: 86.4%; HR, 0.24; P = 0.018) when compared with patients homozygous for 131H and/or 158V (5-year PFS: 35.7%; 5-year OS: 57.1%). An interaction between cetuximab benefit and 131R and 158F alleles was found for PFS (P = 0.017) and remained significant after adjusting for prognostic variables (P = 0.003).

Conclusion: This is the first study investigating FcRIIa and FcRIIIa polymorphisms in patients with early-stage colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. We showed an increased clinical benefit from cetuximab in the presence of 131R and 158F alleles. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4511–9. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Predictive biomarkers are required to identify patients who may benefit from the use of BH3 mimetics such as ABT-263. This study investigated the efficacy of ABT-263 against a panel of patient-derived pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) xenografts and utilized cell and molecular approaches to identify biomarkers that predict in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity.

Experimental Design: The in vivo efficacy of ABT-263 was tested against a panel of 31 patient-derived ALL xenografts composed of MLL-, BCP-, and T-ALL subtypes. Basal gene expression profiles of ALL xenografts were analyzed and confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, protein expression and BH3 profiling. An in vitro coculture assay with immortalized human mesenchymal cells was utilized to build a predictive model of in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity.

Results: ABT-263 demonstrated impressive activity against pediatric ALL xenografts, with 19 of 31 achieving objective responses. Among BCL2 family members, in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity correlated best with low MCL1 mRNA expression levels. BH3 profiling revealed that resistance to ABT-263 correlated with mitochondrial priming by NOXA peptide, suggesting a functional role for MCL1 protein. Using an in vitro coculture assay, a predictive model of in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity was built. Testing this model against 11 xenografts predicted in vivo ABT-263 responses with high sensitivity (50%) and specificity (100%).

Conclusion: These results highlight the in vivo efficacy of ABT-263 against a broad range of pediatric ALL subtypes and shows that a combination of in vitro functional assays can be used to predict its in vivo efficacy. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4520–31. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor occurring in childhood and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric oncology. More intense treatment strategies are recommended for patients displaying high-risk factors; however, considerable variation in outcome remains, indicating a need for improved predictive markers. In this study, 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to investigate noninvasive molecular biomarkers of survival in medulloblastoma.

Experimental Design: MRS was performed on a series of 35 biopsy-confirmed medulloblastoma cases. One case was excluded because of poor quality MRS. The prognostic value of MRS detectable biomarkers was investigated using Cox regression, retrospectively (N = 15). A subsequent validation analysis (N = 19) was also performed to reduce the chance of type I errors. Where available, high-resolution ex vivo MRS of biopsy tissue was used to confirm biomarker assignments.

Results: The retrospective analysis revealed that creatine, glutamate, and glycine were markers of survival (P < 0.01). The validation analysis showed that glutamate was a robust marker, with a hazard ration (HR) of 8.0 for the full dataset (P = 0.0003, N = 34). A good correlation between in vivo and ex vivo MRS glutamate/total-choline was found (P = 0.001), validating the in vivo assignment. Ex vivo glutamate/total-choline was also associated with survival (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The identification of glutamate as a predictive biomarker of survival in pediatric medulloblastoma provides a clinically viable risk factor and highlights the importance of more detailed studies into the metabolism of this disease. Noninvasive biomarker detection using MRS may offer improved disease monitoring and potential for widespread use following multicenter validation. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4532–9. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes (IGH) in unselected clinical samples for minimal residual disease (MRD) in B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) has not been tested. As current MRD-detecting methods such as flow cytometry or patient-specific qPCR are complex or difficult to standardize in the clinical laboratory, sequencing may enhance clinical prognostication.

Experimental Design: We sequenced IGH in paired pretreatment and day 29 post-treatment samples using residual material from consecutive, unselected samples from the Children's Oncology Group AALL0932 trial to measure MRD as compared with flow cytometry. We assessed the impact of ongoing recombination at IGH on MRD detection in post-treatment samples. Finally, we evaluated a subset of cases with discordant MRD results between flow cytometry and sequencing.

Results: We found clonal IGH rearrangements in 92 of 98 pretreatment patient samples. Furthermore, while ongoing recombination of IGH was evident, index clones typically prevailed in MRD-positive post-treatment samples, suggesting that clonal evolution at IGH does not contribute substantively to tumor fitness. MRD was detected by sequencing in all flow cytometry–positive cases with no false-negative results. In addition, in a subset of patients, MRD was detected by sequencing, but not by flow cytometry, including a fraction with MRD levels within the sensitivity of flow cytometry. We provide data that suggest that this discordance in some patients may be due to the phenotypic maturation of the transformed cell.

Conclusion: Our results provide strong support for HTS of IGH to enhance clinical prognostication in B-ALL. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4540–8. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Randomized ovarian cancer trials, including ICON7, have reported improved progression-free survival (PFS) when bevacizumab was added to conventional cytotoxic therapy. The improvement was modest prompting the search for predictive biomarkers for bevacizumab.

Experimental Design: Pretreatment training (n = 91) and validation (n = 114) blood samples were provided by ICON7 patients. Plasma concentrations of 15 angio-associated factors were determined using validated multiplex ELISAs. Our statistical approach adopted PFS as the primary outcome measure and involved (i) searching for biomarkers with prognostic relevance or which related to between-individual variation in bevacizumab effect; (ii) unbiased determination of cutoffs for putative biomarker values; (iii) investigation of biologically meaningfully predictive combinations of putative biomarkers; and (iv) replicating the analysis on candidate biomarkers in the validation dataset.

Results: The combined values of circulating Ang1 (angiopoietin 1) and Tie2 (Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase 2) concentrations predicted improved PFS in bevacizumab-treated patients in the training set. Using median concentrations as cutoffs, high Ang1/low Tie2 values were associated with significantly improved PFS for bevacizumab-treated patients in both datasets (median, 23.0 months vs. 16.2; P = 0.003) for the interaction of Ang1–Tie2 treatment in Cox regression analysis. The prognostic indices derived from the training set also distinguished high and low probability for progression in the validation set (P = 0.008), generating similar values for HR (0.21 vs. 0.27) between treatment and control arms for patients with high Ang1 and low Tie2 values.

Conclusions: The combined values of Ang1 and Tie2 are predictive biomarkers for improved PFS in bevacizumab-treated patients with ovarian cancer. These findings need to be validated in larger trials due to the limitation of sample size in this study. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4549–58. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) therapy is currently considered as the standard treatment for HER2-positive (HER2+) advanced gastric cancer. However, as seen in recent clinical trials, most of HER2+ gastric cancer are actually unresponsive to HER2-targeted agents, including lapatinib. The aim of this study is to identify the responsible receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) potentially conferring lapatinib unresponsiveness in HER2+ gastric cancer and elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this RTKs-induced resistance.

Experimental Design: A functional RNAi screen targeting human RTKs and related growth factors was used to identify candidate RTKs conferring lapatinib unresponsiveness in HER2+ gastric cancer cells. Independent siRNAs transfection and corresponding ligands supplement were performed to validate the effects of candidate RTKs on lapatinib sensitivity. Cross-talks of pathways involved were analyzed via Western blot analysis. Cell apoptosis and cell motility were detected using FACS system and Transwell assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze protein expression in clinical samples.

Results: MET, HER3, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1R, and INSR were identified to mediate lapatinib unresponsiveness in HER2+ gastric cancer cells. Activation of these bypass RTKs attenuated lapatinib-induced apoptosis and suppression of cell motility, mechanistically because of restimulating the shared downstream AKT or ERK signaling, as well as restimulating WNT signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)–like process. Patients' specimens revealed that these unresponsiveness-conferring RTKs were particularly enriched in the majority of patients with HER2+ gastric cancer.

Conclusions: MET, HER3, IGF1R, and INSR pathways activation represent novel mechanism underlying lapatinib unresponsiveness in HER2+ gastric cancer. Combination strategy may be recommended in treating patients with HER2+ gastric cancer with these pathways activation. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4559–73. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: The CD38 cell surface antigen is expressed in diverse hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and T-cell ALL. Here, we assessed the antitumor activity of the anti-CD38 antibody SAR650984.

Experimental Design: Activity of SAR650984 was examined on lymphoma, leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines, primary multiple myeloma samples, and multiple myeloma xenograft models in immunodeficient mice.

Results: We identified a humanized anti-CD38 antibody with strong proapoptotic activity independent of cross-linking agents, and potent effector functions including complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), equivalent in vitro to rituximab in CD20+ and CD38+ models. This unique antibody, termed SAR650984, inhibited the ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity of CD38, likely through an allosteric antagonism as suggested by 3D structure analysis of the complex. In vivo, SAR650984 was active in diverse NHL, ALL, and multiple myeloma CD38+ tumor xenograft models. SAR650984 demonstrated single-agent activity comparable with rituximab or cyclophosphamide in Daudi or SU-DHL-8 lymphoma xenograft models with induction of the proapoptotic marker cleaved capase-7. In addition, SAR650984 had more potent antitumor activity than bortezomib in NCI-H929 and Molp-8 multiple myeloma xenograft studies. Consistent with its mode of action, SAR650984 demonstrated potent proapoptotic activity against CD38+ human primary multiple myeloma cells.

Conclusion: These results validate CD38 as a therapeutic target and support the current evaluation of this unique CD38-targeting functional antibody in phase I clinical trials in patients with CD38+ B-cell malignancies. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4574–83. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Ewing sarcoma is a pediatric bone tumor that absolutely relies on the transcriptional activity of the EWS/ETS family of fusion oncoproteins. While the most common fusion, EWS/FLI, utilizes lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) to repress critical tumor suppressors, small-molecule blockade of LSD1 has not yet been thoroughly explored as a therapeutic approach for Ewing sarcoma. We therefore evaluated the translational potential of potent and specific LSD1 inhibition with HCI2509 on the transcriptional program of both EWS/FLI and EWS/ERG as well as the downstream oncogenic phenotypes driven by EWS/ETS fusions in both in vitro and in vivo models of Ewing sarcoma.

Experimental Design: RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptional profiles of EWS/FLI, EWS/ERG, and treatment with HCI2509 in both EWS/FLI- and EWS/ERG-containing cell lines. We then evaluated morphologic phenotypes of treated cells with immunofluorescence. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated using caspase-3/7 activation and TUNEL staining. Colony forming assays were used to test oncogenic transformation and xenograft studies with patient-derived cell lines were used to evaluate the effects of HCI2509 on tumorigenesis.

Results: HCI2509 caused a dramatic reversal of both the up- and downregulated transcriptional profiles of EWS/FLI and EWS/ERG accompanied by the induction of apoptosis and disruption of morphologic and oncogenic phenotypes modulated by EWS/FLI. Importantly, HCI2509 displayed single-agent efficacy in multiple xenograft models.

Conclusions: These data support epigenetic modulation with HCI2509 as a therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma, and highlight a critical dual role for LSD1 in the oncogenic transcriptional activity of EWS/ETS proteins. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4584–97. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Metastasis is the leading cause of death for gastric carcinoma. An epigenetic biomarker panel for predicting gastric carcinoma metastasis could have significant clinical impact on the care of patients with gastric carcinoma. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the methylation differences between gastric carcinomas with and without metastasis.

Experimental Design: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between 4 metastatic and 4 nonmetastatic gastric carcinomas and their surgical margins (SM) were analyzed using methylated-CpG island amplification with microarray. The methylation states of 73 candidate genes were further analyzed in patients with gastric carcinoma in a discovery cohort (n = 108) using denatured high performance liquid chromatography, bisulfite-sequencing, and MethyLight. The predictive values of potential metastasis-methylation biomarkers were validated in cohorts of patients with gastric carcinoma in China (n = 330), Japan (n = 129), and Korea (n = 153).

Results: The gastric carcinoma genome showed significantly higher proportions of hypomethylation in the promoter and exon-1 regions, as well as increased hypermethylation of intragenic fragments when compared with SMs. Significant differential methylation was validated in the CpG islands of 15 genes (P < 0.05) and confirmed using bisulfite sequencing. These genes included BMP3, BNIP3, CDKN2A, ECEL1, ELK1, GFRA1, HOXD10, KCNH1, PSMD10, PTPRT, SIGIRR, SRF, TBX5, TFPI2, and ZNF382. Methylation changes of GFRA1, SRF, and ZNF382 resulted in up- or downregulation of their transcription. Most importantly, the prevalence of GFRA1, SRF, and ZNF382 methylation alterations was consistently and coordinately associated with gastric carcinoma metastasis and the patients' overall survival throughout discovery and validation cohorts in China, Japan, and Korea.

Conclusion: Methylation changes of GFRA1, SRF, and ZNF382 may be a potential biomarker set for prediction of gastric carcinoma metastasis. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4598–612. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Tumor somatic mutation analysis is part of the standard management of metastatic lung cancer. However, physicians often have to deal with small biopsies and consequently with challenging mutation testing. Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising tool for accessing the tumor genome as a liquid biopsy. Here, we evaluated next-generation sequencing (NGS) on cfDNA samples obtained from a consecutive series of patients for the screening of a range of clinically relevant mutations.

Experimental Design: A total of 107 plasma samples were collected from the BioCAST/IFCT-1002 lung cancer study (never-smokers cohort). Matched tumor DNA (tDNA) was obtained for 68 cases. Multiplex PCR-based assays were designed to target specific coding regions in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2, and PI3KCA genes, and amplicon sequencing was performed at deep coverage on the cfDNA/tDNA pairs using the NGS IonTorrent Personal Genome Machine Platform.

Results: CfDNA concentration in plasma was significantly associated with both stage and number of metastatic sites. In tDNA, 50 mutations (36 EGFR, 5 ERBB2, 4 KRAS, 3 BRAF, and 2 PIK3CA) were identified, of which 26 were detected in cfDNA. Sensitivity of the test was 58% (95% confidence interval, 43%–71%) and the estimated specificity was 87% (62%–96%).

Conclusion: These data demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of mutation screening in cfDNA using IonTorrent NGS for the detection of a range of tumor biomarkers in patients with metastatic lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4613–24. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Genes of androgen and estrogen signaling cells and stem cell–like cells play crucial roles in prostate cancer. This study aimed to predict clinical failure by identifying these prostate cancer-related genes.

Experimental Design: We developed models to predict clinical failure using biopsy samples from a training set of 46 and an independent validation set of 30 patients with treatment-naïve prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Cancerous and stromal tissues were separately collected by laser-captured microdissection. We analyzed the association between clinical failure and mRNA expression of the following genes androgen receptor (AR) and its related genes (APP, FOX family, TRIM 36, Oct1, and ACSL 3), stem cell–like molecules (Klf4, c-Myc, Oct 3/4, and Sox2), estrogen receptor (ER), Her2, PSA, and CRP.

Results: Logistic analyses to predict prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 1.0 in both sets for Sox2, Her2, and CRP expression in cancer cells, AR and ERα expression in stromal cells, and clinical parameters. We identified 10 prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival (CSS): Oct1, TRIM36, Sox2, and c-Myc expression in cancer cells; AR, Klf4, and ERα expression in stromal cells; and PSA, Gleason score, and extent of disease. On the basis of these factors, patients were divided into favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups according to the number of factors present. Five-year CSS rates for the 3 groups were 90%, 32%, and 12% in the training set and 75%, 48%, and 0% in the validation set, respectively.

Conclusions: Expression levels of androgen- and estrogen signaling components and stem cell markers are powerful prognostic tools. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4625–35. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: miR-409-3p/-5p is a miRNA expressed by embryonic stem cells, and its role in cancer biology and metastasis is unknown. Our pilot studies demonstrated elevated miR-409-3p/-5p expression in human prostate cancer bone metastatic cell lines; therefore, we defined the biologic impact of manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p on prostate cancer progression and correlated the levels of its expression with clinical human prostate cancer bone metastatic specimens.

Experimental Design: miRNA profiling of a prostate cancer bone metastatic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cell line model was performed. A Gleason score human tissue array was probed for validation of specific miRNAs. In addition, genetic manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p was performed to determine its role in tumor growth, EMT, and bone metastasis in mouse models.

Results: Elevated expression of miR-409-3p/-5p was observed in bone metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissues with higher Gleason scores. Elevated miR-409-3p expression levels correlated with progression-free survival of patients with prostate cancer. Orthotopic delivery of miR-409-3p/-5p in the murine prostate gland induced tumors where the tumors expressed EMT and stemness markers. Intracardiac inoculation (to mimic systemic dissemination) of miR-409-5p inhibitor–treated bone metastatic ARCaPM prostate cancer cells in mice led to decreased bone metastasis and increased survival compared with control vehicle–treated cells.

Conclusion: miR-409-3p/-5p plays an important role in prostate cancer biology by facilitating tumor growth, EMT, and bone metastasis. This finding bears particular translational importance as miR-409-3p/-5p appears to be an attractive biomarker and/or possibly a therapeutic target to treat bone metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4636–46. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: TP53 mutations in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with worse survival but their prognostic role in advanced NSCLC is controversial. In addition, it remains unclear whether mutated patients represent a clinically homogeneous group.

Experimental Design: We retrospectively examined TP53 mutations and outcome in a training cohort of 318 patients with stage IIIB–IV NSCLC: 125 epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type (wt) and 193 EGFR mutated (mut). An independent validation cohort of 64 EGFR-mut patients was subsequently analyzed. Mutations were classified as "disruptive" and "nondisruptive" according to their predicted degree of disturbance of the p53 protein structure and function.

Results: In the training cohort, TP53 mutations were found in 43 of the 125 EGFR-wt patients (34.4%). Of these, 28 had nondisruptive TP53 mutations and a median overall survival (OS) of 8.5 months, compared with 15.6 months for the remaining 97 patients (P = 0.003). In the EGFR-mut group, TP53 mutations were found in 50 of the 193 patients (25.9%). The OS for the 26 patients with TP53 nondisruptive mutations was 17.8 months versus 28.4 months for the remaining 167 patients (P = 0.04). In the validation cohort, the 11 patients with nondisruptive TP53 mutations had a median OS of 18.1 months compared with 37.8 months for the 53 remaining patients (P = 0.006). In multivariate analyses, nondisruptive TP53 mutations had an independent, significant association with a shorter OS.

Conclusions: Nondisruptive mutations in the TP53 gene are an independent prognostic factor of shorter survival in advanced NSCLC. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4647–59. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: TAZ, also known as WWTR1, has recently been suggested as an oncogene in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the clinical relevance of TAZ expression and its functional role in NSCLC tumorigenesis.

Experimental Design: We characterized TAZ at the DNA (n = 192), mRNA (n = 196), and protein levels (n = 345) in an NSCLC patient cohort. Gene expression analysis was complemented by a meta-analysis of public datasets (n = 1,382). The effects of TAZ on cell proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed in cell cultures and on tumor growth in mice. TAZ-dependent microarray-based expression profiles in NSCLC cells were combined with molecular profiles in human NSCLC tissues for in silico analysis.

Results: Higher TAZ mRNA and protein levels were associated with shorter patient survival. Transduction of TAZ enhanced cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in bronchial epithelial cells, whereas TAZ silencing suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in NSCLC cells. Microarray and cell culture experiments showed that ErbB ligands (amphiregulin, epiregulin, and neuregulin 1) are downstream targets of TAZ. Our in silico analysis revealed a TAZ signature that substantiated the clinical impact of TAZ and confirmed its relationship to the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway.

Conclusion: TAZ expression defines a clinically distinct subgroup of patients with NSCLC. ErbB ligands are suggested to mediate the effects of TAZ on lung cancer progression. Our findings emphasize the tumorigenic role of TAZ and may serve as the basis for new treatment strategies. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4660–72. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with cancer. However, the mechanisms that underlie metastatic progression remain unclear. We examined TMEM16A (ANO1) expression as a key factor shifting tumors between growth and metastasis.

Experimental Design: We evaluated 26 pairs of primary and metastatic lymph node (LN) tissue from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) for differential expression of TMEM16A. In addition, we identified mechanisms by which TMEM16A expression influences tumor cell motility via proteomic screens of cell lines and in vivo mouse studies of metastasis.

Results: Compared with primary tumors, TMEM16A expression decreases in metastatic LNs of patients with SCCHN. Stable reduction of TMEM16A expression enhances cell motility and increases metastases while decreasing tumor proliferation in an orthotopic mouse model. Evaluation of human tumor tissues suggests an epigenetic mechanism for decreasing TMEM16A expression through promoter methylation that correlated with a transition between an epithelial and a mesenchymal phenotype. These effects of TMEM16A expression on tumor cell size and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required the amino acid residue serine 970 (S970); however, mutation of S970 to alanine does not disrupt the proliferative advantages of TMEM16A overexpression. Furthermore, S970 mediates the association of TMEM16A with Radixin, an actin-scaffolding protein implicated in EMT.

Conclusions: Together, our results identify TMEM16A, an eight transmembrane domain Ca2+-activated Cl channel, as a primary driver of the "Grow" or "Go" model for cancer progression, in which TMEM16A expression acts to balance tumor proliferation and metastasis via its promoter methylation. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4673–88. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: The role and clinical implication of the transmembrane protein with EGF and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) in gastric cancer is poorly understood.

Experimental Design: Gene expression profile analyses were performed and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to explore its gene signatures. AGS and MKN45 cells were transfected with TMEFF2 or control plasmids and analyzed for gene expression patterns, proliferation, and apoptosis. TMEFF2 expression was knocked down with shRNAs, and the effects on genome stability were assessed. Interactions between TMEFF2 and SHP-1 were determined by mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation assays.

Results: Integrated analysis revealed that TMEFF2 expression was significantly decreased in gastric cancer cases and its expression was negatively correlated with the poor pathologic stage, large tumor size, and poor prognosis. GSEA in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Jilin datasets revealed that cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA damage–related genes were enriched in TMEFF2 lower expression patients. Gain of TMEFF2 function decreased cell proliferation by increasing of apoptosis and blocking of cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 was identified as a binding partner of TMEEF2 and mediator of TMEFF2 function. TMEFF2 expression positively correlated with SHP-1, and a favorable prognosis was more likely in patients with gastric cancer with higher levels of both TMEFF2 and SHP-1.

Conclusion: TMEFF2 acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer through direct interaction with SHP-1 and can be a potential biomarker of carcinogenesis. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4689–704. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role and mechanism of miR216a in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Experimental Design: The expression of miR216a in NSCLC cell lines and from NSCLC patient specimens was measured by real-time qRT-PCR. The correlation between gene expression and patient survival was analyzed using Kaplan–Meier methods. The effects of miR216a on NSCLC cell growth and metastasis were examined both in vitro and in vivo by overexpressing or inhibiting miR216a. Finally, the effect of miR216a on chemoresistance was investigated by MTT assay and flow cytometry.

Results: miR216a expression was downregulated in specimens from patients with NSCLC compared with corresponding nontumor lung tissues. Clinical data indicate that decreased miR216a expression is inversely correlated with cancer stage, metastasis, and poor survival in patients with NSCLC. Our data also show that overexpression of miR216a suppresses NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, and enhances cisplatin-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. In contrast, inhibition of miR216a stimulates NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, and suppresses cisplatin-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR216a exerts its role by directly targeting eIF4B and ZEB1.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that miR216a is a cancer suppressor miRNA and that overexpression of miR216a is a novel NSCLC treatment strategy. In addition, our clinical data indicate that miR216a may be a useful biomarker for predicting NSCLC progression. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4705–16. ©2014 AACR.

Purpose: NAT10 (N-acetyltransferase 10) is a nucleolar protein, but may show subcellular redistribution in colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated membranous staining of NAT10 in colorectal carcinoma and its clinical implications, and explored the mechanism of regulation of NAT10 redistribution.

Experimental Design: The expression and subcellular redistribution of NAT10, β-catenin, E-cadherin, and GSK-3β were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 222 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Regulation of NAT10 and its influence on cell motility were analyzed with inhibitors of GSK-3β, transfection of wild-type or kinase-inactivated GSK-3β, or expression of various domains of NAT10, and evaluated with immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and Transwell assays.

Results: NAT10 localized mainly in the nucleoli of normal tissues, and was redistributed to the membrane in cancer cells, particularly at the invasive "leading edge" of the tumor. This correlated well with nuclear accumulation of β-catenin (P < 0.001; 2 = 68.213). In addition, NAT10 membrane staining reflected the depth of invasion and tendency to metastasize (all P values < 0.001), and was associated with a poorer prognosis (P = 0.023; 2 = 5.161). Evaluation of the mechanism involved demonstrated that subcellular redistribution of NAT10 may result from its increased stability and nuclear export, which is brought about by inhibition of GSK-3β. Moreover, redistribution of NAT10 induces alteration of cytoskeletal dynamics and increases cancer cell motility.

Conclusion: The subcellular redistribution of NAT10 can be induced by decreases in GSK-3β activity. This redistribution increases cancer cell motility, and is, thus, correlated with invasive potential and poorer clinical outcome. This finding suggests that NAT10 may be a useful prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 20(17); 4717–29. ©2014 AACR.