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Genes & Development

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Genes & Development

In mammals, Wnt/β-catenin signaling features prominently in stem cells and cancers, but how and for what purposes have been matters of much debate. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its downstream transcriptional regulators in normal and malignant stem cells. We centered this review largely on three types of stem cells—embryonic stem cells, hair follicle stem cells, and intestinal epithelial stem cells—in which the roles of Wnt/β-catenin have been extensively studied. Using these models, we unravel how many controversial issues surrounding Wnt signaling have been resolved by dissecting the diversity of its downstream circuitry and effectors, often leading to opposite outcomes of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated regulation and differences rooted in stage- and context-dependent effects.


Protein quality control is essential in all organisms and regulated by the proteostasis network (PN) and cell stress response pathways that maintain a functional proteome to promote cellular health. In this review, we describe how metazoans employ multiple modes of cell-nonautonomous signaling across tissues to integrate and transmit the heat-shock response (HSR) for balanced expression of molecular chaperones. The HSR and other cell stress responses such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) can function autonomously in single-cell eukaryotes and tissue culture cells; however, within the context of a multicellular animal, the PN is regulated by cell-nonautonomous signaling through specific sensory neurons and by the process of transcellular chaperone signaling. These newly identified forms of stress signaling control the PN between neurons and nonneuronal somatic tissues to achieve balanced tissue expression of chaperones in response to environmental stress and to ensure that metastable aggregation-prone proteins expressed within any single tissue do not generate local proteotoxic risk. Transcellular chaperone signaling leads to the compensatory expression of chaperones in other somatic tissues of the animal, perhaps preventing the spread of proteotoxic damage. Thus, communication between subcellular compartments and across different cells and tissues maintains proteostasis when challenged by acute stress and upon chronic expression of metastable proteins. We propose that transcellular chaperone signaling provides a critical control step for the PN to maintain cellular and organismal health span.


During development, mammalian germ cells reprogram their epigenomes via a genome-wide erasure and de novo rewriting of DNA methylation marks. We know little of how methylation patterns are specifically determined. The piRNA pathway is thought to target the bulk of retrotransposon methylation. Here we show that most retrotransposon sequences are modified by default de novo methylation. However, potentially active retrotransposon copies evade this initial wave, likely mimicking features of protein-coding genes. These elements remain transcriptionally active and become targets of piRNA-mediated methylation. Thus, we posit that these two waves play essential roles in resetting germ cell epigenomes at each generation.


The TCT core promoter element is present in most ribosomal protein (RP) genes in Drosophila and humans. Here we show that TBP (TATA box-binding protein)-related factor TRF2, but not TBP, is required for transcription of the TCT-dependent RP genes. In cells, TCT-dependent transcription, but not TATA-dependent transcription, increases or decreases upon overexpression or depletion of TRF2. In vitro, purified TRF2 activates TCT but not TATA promoters. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing) experiments revealed the preferential localization of TRF2 at TCT versus TATA promoters. Hence, a specialized TRF2-based RNA polymerase II system functions in the synthesis of RPs and complements the RNA polymerase I and III systems.


In eukaryotes and archaea, tRNA splicing generates free intron molecules. Although ~600,000 introns are produced per generation in yeast, they are barely detectable in cells, indicating efficient turnover of introns. Through a genome-wide search for genes involved in tRNA biology in yeast, we uncovered the mechanism for intron turnover. This process requires healing of the 5' termini of linear introns by the tRNA ligase Rlg1 and destruction by the cytoplasmic tRNA quality control 5'-to-3' exonuclease Xrn1, which has specificity for RNAs with 5' monophosphate.


RXR signaling is predicted to have a major impact in macrophages, but neither the biological consequence nor the genomic basis of its ligand activation is known. Comprehensive genome-wide studies were carried out to map liganded RXR-mediated transcriptional changes, active binding sites, and cistromic interactions in the context of the macrophage genome architecture. The macrophage RXR cistrome has 5200 genomic binding sites, which are not impacted by ligand. Active enhancers are characterized by PU.1 binding, an increase of enhancer RNA, and P300 recruitment. Using these features, 387 liganded RXR-bound enhancers were linked to 226 genes, which predominantly reside in CTCF/cohesin-limited functional domains. These findings were molecularly validated using chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C combined with sequencing (3C-seq), and we show that selected long-range enhancers communicate with promoters via stable or RXR-induced loops and that some of the enhancers interact with each other, forming an interchromosomal network. A set of angiogenic genes, including Vegfa, has liganded RXR-controlled enhancers and provides the macrophage with a novel inducible program.


Lineage or cell of origin of cancers is often unknown and thus is not a consideration in therapeutic approaches. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is an aggressive childhood cancer for which the cell of origin remains debated. We used conditional genetic mouse models of aRMS to activate the pathognomonic Pax3:Foxo1 fusion oncogene and inactivate p53 in several stages of prenatal and postnatal muscle development. We reveal that lineage of origin significantly influences tumor histomorphology and sensitivity to targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, we uncovered differential transcriptional regulation of the Pax3:Foxo1 locus by tumor lineage of origin, which led us to identify the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat as a pharmacological agent for the potential conversion of Pax3:Foxo1-positive aRMS to a state akin to fusion-negative RMS through direct transcriptional suppression of Pax3:Foxo1.


Primitive lymphatic vessels are remodeled into functionally specialized initial and collecting lymphatics during development. Lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) junctions in initial lymphatics transform from a zipper-like to a button-like pattern during collecting vessel development, but what regulates this process is largely unknown. Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) deficiency leads to abnormal lymphatic vessels. Here we found that an ANG2-blocking antibody inhibited embryonic lymphangiogenesis, whereas endothelium-specific ANG2 overexpression induced lymphatic hyperplasia. ANG2 inhibition blocked VE-cadherin phosphorylation at tyrosine residue 685 and the concomitant formation of button-like junctions in initial lymphatics. The defective junctions were associated with impaired lymph uptake. In collecting lymphatics, adherens junctions were disrupted, and the vessels leaked upon ANG2 blockade or gene deletion. ANG2 inhibition also suppressed the onset of lymphatic valve formation and subsequent valve maturation. These data identify ANG2 as the first essential regulator of the functionally important interendothelial cell–cell junctions that form during lymphatic development.


A key function of the cellular DNA damage response is to facilitate the bypass of replication fork-stalling DNA lesions. Template switch reactions allow such a bypass and involve the formation of DNA joint molecules (JMs) between sister chromatids. These JMs need to be resolved before cell division; however, the regulation of this process is only poorly understood. Here, we identify a regulatory mechanism in yeast that critically controls JM resolution by the Mus81–Mms4 endonuclease. Central to this regulation is a conserved complex comprising the scaffold proteins Dpb11 and Slx4 that is under stringent control. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Slx4 by Cdk1 promotes the Dpb11–Slx4 interaction, while in mitosis, phosphorylation of Mms4 by Polo-like kinase Cdc5 promotes the additional association of Mus81–Mms4 with the complex, thereby promoting JM resolution. Finally, the DNA damage checkpoint counteracts Mus81–Mms4 binding to the Dpb11–Slx4 complex. Thus, Dpb11–Slx4 integrates several cellular inputs and participates in the temporal program for activation of the JM-resolving nuclease Mus81.


In enteric bacteria, the transcription factor E maintains membrane homeostasis by inducing synthesis of proteins involved in membrane repair and two small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that down-regulate synthesis of abundant membrane porins. Here, we describe the discovery of a third E-dependent sRNA, MicL (mRNA-interfering complementary RNA regulator of Lpp), transcribed from a promoter located within the coding sequence of the cutC gene. MicL is synthesized as a 308-nucleotide (nt) primary transcript that is processed to an 80-nt form. Both forms possess features typical of Hfq-binding sRNAs but surprisingly target only a single mRNA, which encodes the outer membrane lipoprotein Lpp, the most abundant protein of the cell. We show that the copper sensitivity phenotype previously ascribed to inactivation of the cutC gene is actually derived from the loss of MicL and elevated Lpp levels. This observation raises the possibility that other phenotypes currently attributed to protein defects are due to deficiencies in unappreciated regulatory RNAs. We also report that E activity is sensitive to Lpp abundance and that MicL and Lpp comprise a new E regulatory loop that opposes membrane stress. Together MicA, RybB, and MicL allow E to repress the synthesis of all abundant outer membrane proteins in response to stress.