Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disorder in which motor neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex degenerate. Although the majority of ALS cases are sporadic, mutations in Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) are causative for 10–20% of familial ALS (fALS), and recent findings show that a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene may account for >30% of fALS cases in Europe. SOD1G93A transgenic mice have a phenotype and pathology similar to human ALS. In both ALS patients and SOD1G93A mice, the first pathological features of disease manifest at the neuromuscular junction, where significant denervation occurs prior to motor neuron degeneration. Strategies aimed at preventing or delaying denervation may therefore be of benefit in ALS. In this study, we show that Nogo-A levels increase in muscle fibres of SOD1G93A mice along with the elevation of markers of neuromuscular dysfunction (CHRNA1/MUSK). Symptomatic treatment of SOD1G93A mice from 70 days of age with an anti-Nogo-A antibody (GSK577548) significantly improves hindlimb muscle innervation at 90 days, a late symptomatic stage of disease, resulting in increased muscle force and motor unit survival and a significant increase in motor neuron survival. However, not all aspects of this improvement in anti-Nogo-A antibody-treated SOD1G93A mice were maintained at end-stage disease. These results show that treatment with anti-Nogo-A antibody significantly improves neuromuscular function in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS, at least during the earlier stages of disease and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of Nogo-A may be a disease-modifying approach in ALS.
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms for activating its physiological function are not known, hindering identification of the biological role of endogenous LRRK2. The recent discovery that LRRK2 is highly expressed in cells of the innate immune system and genetic association is a risk factor for autoimmune disorders implies an important role for LRRK2 in pathology outside of the central nervous system. Thus, an examination of endogenous LRRK2 in immune cells could provide insight into the protein's function. Here, we establish that stimulation of specific Toll-like receptors results in a complex biochemical activation of endogenous LRRK2, with early phosphorylation of LRRK2 preceding its dimerization and membrane translocation. Membrane-associated LRRK2 co-localized to autophagosome membranes following either TLR4 stimulation or mTOR inhibition with rapamycin. Silencing of endogenous LRRK2 expression resulted in deficits in the induction of autophagy and clearance of a well-described macroautophagy substrate, demonstrating the critical role of endogenous LRRK2 in regulating autophagy. Inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity also reduced autophagic degradation and suggested the importance of the kinase domain in the regulation of autophagy. Our results demonstrate a well-orchestrated series of biochemical events involved in the activation of LRRK2 important to its physiological function. With similarities observed across multiple cell types and stimuli, these findings are likely relevant in all cell types that natively express endogenous LRRK2, and provide insights into LRRK2 function and its role in human disease.
Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a congenital anomaly disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies including velo-pharyngeal insufficiency, facial muscle hypotonia and feeding difficulties, in part due to hypoplasia of the branchiomeric muscles. Inactivation of both alleles of mouse Tbx1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, deleted on chromosome 22q11.2, results in reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles. To identify downstream pathways, we performed gene profiling of microdissected pharyngeal arch one (PA1) from Tbx1+/+ and Tbx1–/– embryos at stages E9.5 (somites 20–25) and E10.5 (somites 30–35). Basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors were reduced, while secondary heart field genes were increased in expression early and were replaced by an increase in expression of cellular stress response genes later, suggesting a change in gene expression patterns or cell populations. Lineage tracing studies using Mesp1Cre and T-Cre drivers showed that core mesoderm cells within PA1 were present at E9.5 but were greatly reduced by E10.5 in Tbx1–/– embryos. Using Tbx1Cre knock-in mice, we found that cells are lost due to apoptosis, consistent with increase in expression of cellular stress response genes at E10.5. To determine whether Tbx1 is required autonomously in the core mesoderm, we used Mesp1Cre and T-Cre mesodermal drivers in combination with inactivate Tbx1 and found reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles from PA1. These mechanistic studies inform us that Tbx1 is required upstream of key myogenic genes needed for core mesoderm cell survival and fate, between E9.5 and E10.5, resulting in formation of the branchiomeric muscles.
The MRE11/RAD50/NBN (MRN) complex plays a key role in detecting DNA double-strand breaks, recruiting and activating ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and in processing the breaks. Members of this complex also act as adaptor molecules for downstream signaling to the cell cycle and other cellular processes. Somewhat more controversial are the results to support a role for MRN in the ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) activation and signaling. We provide evidence that RAD50 is required for ATR activation in mammalian cells in response to DNA replication stress. It is in turn phosphorylated at a specific site (S635) by ATR, which is required for ATR signaling through Chk1 and other downstream substrates. We find that RAD50 phosphorylation is essential for DNA replication restart by promoting loading of cohesin at these sites. We also demonstrate that replication stress-induced RAD50 phosphorylation is functionally significant for cell survival and cell cycle checkpoint activation. These results highlight the importance of the adaptor role for a member of the MRN complex in all aspects of the response to DNA replication stress.
Mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN1) gene lead to the neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although SMA is primarily considered as a motor neuron disease, the importance of muscle defects in its pathogenesis has not been fully examined. We use both primary cell culture and two different SMA model mice to demonstrate that reduced levels of Smn lead to a profound disruption in the expression of myogenic genes. This disruption was associated with a decrease in myofiber size and an increase in immature myofibers, suggesting that Smn is crucial for myogenic gene regulation and early muscle development. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A treatment of SMA model mice increased myofiber size, myofiber maturity and attenuated the disruption of the myogenic program in these mice. Taken together, our work highlights the important contribution of myogenic program dysregulation to the muscle weakness observed in SMA.
The Maf-family leucine zipper transcription factor NRL is essential for rod photoreceptor development and functional maintenance in the mammalian retina. Mutations in NRL are associated with human retinopathies, and loss of Nrl in mice leads to a cone-only retina with the complete absence of rods. Among the highly down-regulated genes in the Nrl–/– retina, we identified receptor expression enhancing protein 6 (Reep6), which encodes a member of a family of proteins involved in shaping of membrane tubules and transport of G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we demonstrate the expression of a novel Reep6 isoform (termed Reep6.1) in the retina by exon-specific Taqman assay and rapid analysis of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) ends (5'-RACE). The REEP6.1 protein includes 27 additional amino acids encoded by exon 5 and is specifically expressed in rod photoreceptors of developing and mature retina. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay identified NRL binding within the Reep6 intron 1. Reporter assays in cultured cells and transfections in retinal explants mapped an intronic enhancer sequence that mediated NRL-directed Reep6.1 expression. We also demonstrate that knockdown of Reep6 in mouse and zebrafish resulted in death of retinal cells. Our studies implicate REEP6.1 as a key functional target of NRL-centered transcriptional regulatory network in rod photoreceptors.
Recurrent 2q13 deletion syndrome is associated with incompletely penetrant severe cardiac defects and craniofacial anomalies. We used an atypical, overlapping 1.34 Mb 2q13 deletion in a patient with pathogenically similar congenital heart defects (CHD) to narrow the putative critical region for CHD to 474 kb containing six genes. To determine which of these genes is responsible for severe cardiac and craniofacial defects noted in the patients with the deletions, we used zebrafish morpholino knockdown to test the function of each orthologue during zebrafish development. Morpholino-antisense-mediated depletion of fibulin-7B, a zebrafish orthologue of fibulin-7 (FBLN7), resulted in cardiac hypoplasia, deficient craniofacial cartilage deposition and impaired branchial arch development. TMEM87B depletion likewise resulted in cardiac hypoplasia but with preserved branchial arch development. Depletion of both fibulin-7B and TMEM87B resulted in more severe defects of cardiac development, suggesting that their concurrent loss may enhance the risk of a severe cardiac defect. We postulate that heterozygous loss of FBLN7 and TMEM87B account for some of the clinical features, including cardiac defects and craniofacial abnormalities associated with 2q13 deletion syndrome.
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central to the molecular pathology of many human diseases. Riboflavin responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (RR-MADD) is in most cases caused by variations in the gene coding for electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). Currently, patients with RR-MADD are treated with high doses of riboflavin resulting in improvements of the clinical and biochemical profiles. However, in our recent studies of RR-MADD, we have shown that riboflavin treatment cannot fully correct the molecular defect in patient cells producing increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the current study, we aim to elucidate the cellular consequences of increased ROS by studying the cellular ROS adaption systems including antioxidant system, mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic reprogramming. We have included fibroblasts from six unrelated RR-MADD patients and two control fibroblasts cultivated under supplemented and depleted riboflavin conditions and with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) treatment. We demonstrated inhibition of mitochondrial fusion with increased fractionation and mitophagy in the patient fibroblasts. Furthermore, we indicated a shift in the energy metabolism by decreased protein levels of SIRT3 and decreased expression of fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes in the patient fibroblasts. Finally, we showed that CoQ10 treatment has a positive effect on the mitochondrial dynamic in the patient fibroblasts, indicated by increased mitochondrial fusion marker and reduced mitophagy. In conclusion, our results indicate that RR-MADD patient fibroblasts suffer from a general mitochondria dysfunction, probably initiated as a rescue mechanism for the patient cells to escape apoptosis as a result of the oxidative stress.
Urofacial syndrome (UFS; previously Ochoa syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by incomplete bladder emptying during micturition. This is associated with a dyssynergia in which the urethral walls contract at the same time as the detrusor smooth muscle in the body of the bladder. UFS is also characterized by an abnormal facial expression upon smiling, and bilateral weakness in the distribution of the facial nerve has been reported. Biallelic mutations in HPSE2 occur in UFS. This gene encodes heparanase 2, a protein which inhibits the activity of heparanase. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, an in vivo developmental role for heparanase 2. We identified the Xenopus orthologue of heparanase 2 and showed that the protein is localized to the embryonic ventrolateral neural tube where motor neurons arise. Morpholino-induced loss of heparanase 2 caused embryonic skeletal muscle paralysis, and morphant motor neurons had aberrant morphology including less linear paths and less compactly-bundled axons than normal. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that loss of heparanase 2 led to upregulation of fibroblast growth factor 2/phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase signalling and to alterations in levels of transcripts encoding neural- and muscle-associated molecules. Thus, a key role of heparanase 2 is to buffer growth factor signalling in motor neuron development. These results shed light on the pathogenic mechanisms underpinning the clinical features of UFS and support the contention that congenital peripheral neuropathy is a key feature of this disorder.
RASopathies, a family of disorders characterized by cardiac defects, defective growth, facial dysmorphism, variable cognitive deficits and predisposition to certain malignancies, are caused by constitutional dysregulation of RAS signalling predominantly through the RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) cascade. We report on two germline mutations (p.Gly39dup and p.Val55Met) in RRAS, a gene encoding a small monomeric GTPase controlling cell adhesion, spreading and migration, underlying a rare (2 subjects among 504 individuals analysed) and variable phenotype with features partially overlapping Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. We also identified somatic RRAS mutations (p.Gly39dup and p.Gln87Leu) in 2 of 110 cases of non-syndromic juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia, a childhood myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disease caused by upregulated RAS signalling, defining an atypical form of this haematological disorder rapidly progressing to acute myeloid leukaemia. Two of the three identified mutations affected known oncogenic hotspots of RAS genes and conferred variably enhanced RRAS function and stimulus-dependent MAPK activation. Expression of an RRAS mutant homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans enhanced RAS signalling and engendered protruding vulva, a phenotype previously linked to the RASopathy-causing SHOC2S2G mutant. Overall, these findings provide evidence of a functional link between RRAS and MAPK signalling and reveal an unpredicted role of enhanced RRAS function in human disease.
Neuroinflammation is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD). HD is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by an expanded CAG repeat in exon 1 of the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Previous studies demonstrated that levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were higher in the plasma and brain tissues of mice and patients with HD, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to HD progression. To evaluate the pathological role of TNF-α in HD pathogenesis, we blocked TNF-α signaling using a dominant negative inhibitor of soluble TNF-α (XPro1595). XPro1595 effectively suppressed the inflammatory responses of primary astrocytes-enriched culture isolated from a transgenic mouse model (R6/2) and human astrocytes-enriched culture derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of HD patients evoked by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines, respectively. Moreover, XPro1595 protected the cytokine-induced toxicity of primary R6/2 neurons and human neurons derived from iPSCs of HD patients. To assess the beneficial effect of XPro1595 in vivo, an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion was provided with an osmotic minipump. ELISA analyses showed that i.c.v. infusion of XPro1595 decreased elevated levels of TNFα in the cortex and striatum, improved motor function, reduced caspase activation, diminished the amount of mutant HTT aggregates, increased neuronal density and decreased gliosis in brains of R6/2 mice. Moreover, reducing the peripheral inflammatory response by a systemic injection of XPro1595 improved the impaired motor function of R6/2 mice but did not affect caspase activation. Collectively, our findings suggest that an effective and selective anti-inflammatory treatment targeting the abnormal brain inflammatory response is a potential therapeutic strategy for HD.
TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major component protein of inclusions found in brains of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). However, the molecular mechanisms by which TDP-43 causes neuronal dysfunction and death remain unknown. Here, we report distinct cytotoxic effects of full-length TDP-43 (FL-TDP) and its C-terminal fragment (CTF) in SH-SY5Y cells. When FL-TDP was overexpressed in the cells using a lentiviral system, exogenous TDP-43, like endogenous TDP-43, was expressed mainly in nuclei of cells without any intracellular inclusions. However, these cells showed striking cell death, caspase activation and growth arrest at G2/M phase, indicating that even simple overexpression of TDP-43 induces cellular dysfunctions leading to apoptosis. On the other hand, cells expressing TDP-43 CTF showed cytoplasmic aggregates but without significant cell death, compared with cells expressing FL-TDP. Confocal microscopic analyses revealed that RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) and several transcription factors, such as specificity protein 1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein, were co-localized with the aggregates of TDP-43 CTF, suggesting that sequestration of these factors into TDP-43 aggregates caused transcriptional dysregulation. Indeed, accumulation of RNA pol II at TDP-43 inclusions was detected in brains of patients with FTLD-TDP. Furthermore, apoptosis was not observed in affected neurons of FTLD-TDP brains containing phosphorylated and aggregated TDP-43 pathology. Our results suggest that different pathways of TDP-43-induced cellular dysfunction may contribute to the degeneration cascades involved in the onset of ALS and FTLD-TDP.
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions affecting the central nervous system. CCM occurs either sporadically or in an inherited, autosomal dominant manner. Constitutional (germline) mutations in any of three genes, KRIT1, CCM2 and PDCD10, can cause the inherited form. Analysis of CCM lesions from inherited cases revealed biallelic somatic mutations, indicating that CCM follows a Knudsonian two-hit mutation mechanism. It is still unknown, however, if the sporadic cases of CCM also follow this genetic mechanism. We extracted DNA from 11 surgically excised lesions from sporadic CCM patients, and sequenced the three CCM genes in each specimen using a next-generation sequencing approach. Four sporadic CCM lesion samples (36%) were found to contain novel somatic mutations. Three of the lesions contained a single somatic mutation, and one lesion contained two biallelic somatic mutations. Herein, we also describe evidence of somatic mosaicism in a patient presenting with over 130 CCM lesions localized to one hemisphere of the brain. Finally, in a lesion regrowth sample, we found that the regrown CCM lesion contained the same somatic mutation as the original lesion. Together, these data bolster the idea that all forms of CCM have a genetic underpinning of the two-hit mutation mechanism in the known CCM genes. Recent studies have found aberrant Rho kinase activation in inherited CCM pathogenesis, and we present evidence that this pathway is activated in sporadic CCM patients. These results suggest that all CCM patients, including those with the more common sporadic form, are potentially amenable to the same therapy.
Mutant α-adducin and endogenous ouabain levels exert a causal role in hypertension by affecting renal Na–K ATPase. In addition, mutant β-adducin is involved in glomerular damage through nephrin down-regulation. Recently, the salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been shown to exert a permissive role on mutant α-adducin effects on renal Na–K ATPase activity involved in blood pressure (BP) regulation and a SIK1 rs3746951 polymorphism has been associated with changes in vascular Na–K ATPase activity and BP. Here, we addressed the role of SIK1 on nephrin and glomerular functional modifications induced by mutant β-adducin and ouabain, by using congenic substrains of the Milan rats expressing either mutant α- or β-adducin, alone or in combination, ouabain hypertensive rats (OHR) and hypertensive patients. SIK1 co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with nephrin from glomerular podocytes and associated with caveolar nephrin signaling. In cultured podocytes, nephrin-gene silencing decreased SIK1 expression. In mutant β-adducin congenic rats and in OHR, the podocyte damage was associated with decreased nephrin and SIK1 expression. Conversely, when the effects of β-adducin on podocytes were blocked by the presence of mutant α-adducin, nephrin and SIK1 expressions were restored. Ouabain effects were also reproduced in cultured podocytes. In hypertensive patients, nephrinuria, but not albuminuria, was higher in carriers of mutant SIK1 rs3746951 than in wild-type, implying a more direct effect of SIK1 on glomerular damage. These results demonstrate that, through nephrin, SIK1 is involved in the glomerular effects of mutant adducin and ouabain and a direct effect of SIK1 is also likely to occur in humans.
We identify Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP) as a novel component of neuronal synapses whose absence increases dendritic spine size and filamentous actin levels in an N-WASP/Arp2/3-independent, RhoA/ROCK/profilinIIa-dependent manner. These effects depend on the reduction of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) due to transcriptional upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase (NSM) through active RhoA; this enhances RhoA binding to the membrane, raft partitioning and activation in steady state but prevents RhoA changes in response to stimulus. Inhibition of NSM or SM addition reverses RhoA, filamentous actin and functional anomalies in synapses lacking WIP. Our findings characterize WIP as a link between membrane lipid composition and actin cytoskeleton at dendritic spines. They also contribute to explain cognitive deficits shared by individuals bearing mutations in the region assigned to the gene encoding for WIP.
CHARGE syndrome is a complex developmental disorder caused by mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding gene CHD7. Kabuki syndrome, another developmental disorder, is characterized by typical facial features in combination with developmental delay, short stature, prominent digit pads and visceral abnormalities. Mutations in the KMT2D gene, which encodes a H3K4 histone methyltransferase, are the major cause of Kabuki syndrome.
Here, we report a patient, who was initially diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome based on the spectrum of inner organ malformations like choanal hypoplasia, heart defect, anal atresia, vision problems and conductive hearing impairment. While sequencing and MLPA analysis of all coding exons of CHD7 revealed no pathogenic mutation, sequence analysis of the KMT2D gene identified the heterozygous de novo nonsense mutation c.5263C > T (p.Gln1755*). Thus, our patient was diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome. By using co-immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry and direct yeast two hybrid assays, we could show that, like KMT2D, CHD7 interacts with members of the WAR complex, namely WDR5, ASH2L and RbBP5. We therefore propose that CHD7 and KMT2D function in the same chromatin modification machinery, thus pointing out a mechanistic connection, and presenting a probable explanation for the phenotypic overlap between Kabuki and CHARGE syndromes.
Mitochondrial dysfunction, which is consistently observed in Down syndrome (DS) cells and tissues, might contribute to the severity of the DS phenotype. Our recent studies on DS fetal hearts and fibroblasts have suggested that one of the possible causes of mitochondrial dysfunction is the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α or PPARGC1A)—a key modulator of mitochondrial function—and of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes (NEMGs). Re-analysis of publicly available expression data related to manipulation of chromosome 21 (Hsa21) genes suggested the nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (NRIP1 or RIP140) as a good candidate Hsa21 gene for NEMG downregulation. Indeed, NRIP1 is known to affect oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by negatively controlling mitochondrial pathways regulated by PGC-1α. To establish whether NRIP1 overexpression in DS downregulates both PGC-1α and NEMGs, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction, we used siRNAs to decrease NRIP1 expression in trisomic human fetal fibroblasts. Levels of PGC-1α and NEMGs were increased and mitochondrial function was restored, as shown by reactive oxygen species decrease, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) production and mitochondrial activity increase. These findings indicate that the Hsa21 gene NRIP1 contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction observed in DS. Furthermore, they suggest that the NRIP1-PGC-1α axe might represent a potential therapeutic target for restoring altered mitochondrial function in DS.
The genetic contribution to the variation in human lifespan is ~25%. Despite the large number of identified disease-susceptibility loci, it is not known which loci influence population mortality. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 7729 long-lived individuals of European descent (≥85 years) and 16 121 younger controls (<65 years) followed by replication in an additional set of 13 060 long-lived individuals and 61 156 controls. In addition, we performed a subset analysis in cases aged ≥90 years. We observed genome-wide significant association with longevity, as reflected by survival to ages beyond 90 years, at a novel locus, rs2149954, on chromosome 5q33.3 (OR = 1.10, P = 1.74 x 10–8). We also confirmed association of rs4420638 on chromosome 19q13.32 (OR = 0.72, P = 3.40 x 10–36), representing the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 locus. In a prospective meta-analysis (n = 34 103), the minor allele of rs2149954 (T) on chromosome 5q33.3 associates with increased survival (HR = 0.95, P = 0.003). This allele has previously been reported to associate with low blood pressure in middle age. Interestingly, the minor allele (T) associates with decreased cardiovascular mortality risk, independent of blood pressure. We report on the first GWAS-identified longevity locus on chromosome 5q33.3 influencing survival in the general European population. The minor allele of this locus associates with low blood pressure in middle age, although the contribution of this allele to survival may be less dependent on blood pressure. Hence, the pleiotropic mechanisms by which this intragenic variation contributes to lifespan regulation have to be elucidated.
Genetic factors are thought to be an important determinant of thyroid function and autoimmunity. However, there are limited data on genetic variants in Asians. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentration and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody positivity in 4238 Korean subjects. In the Stage 1 genome scan, 3396 participants from the Ansung cohort were investigated using 1.42 million genotyped or imputed markers. In the Stage 2 follow-up, 10 markers were genotyped in 842 participants from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging cohort. An intronic variant in VAV3, rs12126655, which has been reported in Europeans, was significantly associated with plasma TSH concentration in the joint Stages 1 and 2 analyses (P = 2.2 x 10–8). We observed that a novel variant, rs2071403, located 75 bp proximal to the translational start site of TPO was significantly associated with plasma anti-TPO antibody positivity in the joint Stages 1 and 2 analyses (P = 1.3 x 10–10). This variant had a marginal sex-specific effect, and its association was more significant in females. Subjects possessing the rs2071403A allele, associated with an absence of the anti-TPO antibody, had decreased TPO mRNA expression in their thyroid tissue. Another intronic variant of HLA-DPB2, rs733208, had a suggestive association with anti-TPO antibody positivity (P = 4.2 x 10–7). In conclusion, we have identified genetic variants that are strongly associated with TSH level and anti-TPO antibody positivity in Koreans. Further replications and meta-analysis are required to confirm these findings.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) containing the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II genes is among the most polymorphic and diverse regions in the human genome. Despite the clinical importance of identifying the HLA types, very few databases jointly characterize densely genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and HLA alleles in the same samples. To date, the HapMap presents the only public resource that provides a SNP reference panel for predicting HLA alleles, constructed with four collections of individuals of north-western European, northern Han Chinese, cosmopolitan Japanese and Yoruba Nigerian ancestry. Owing to complex patterns of linkage disequilibrium in this region, it is unclear whether the HapMap reference panels can be appropriately utilized for other populations. Here, we describe a public resource for the Singapore Genome Variation Project with: (i) dense genotyping across ~9000 SNPs in the MHC; (ii) four-digit HLA typing for eight Class I and Class II loci, in 96 southern Han Chinese, 89 Southeast Asian Malays and 83 Tamil Indians. This resource provides population estimates of the frequencies of HLA alleles at these eight loci in the three population groups, particularly for HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 that were not assayed in HapMap. Comparing between population-specific reference panels and a cosmopolitan panel created from all four HapMap populations, we demonstrate that more accurate imputation is obtained with population-specific panels than with the cosmopolitan panel, especially for the Malays and Indians but even when imputing between northern and southern Han Chinese. As with SNP imputation, common HLA alleles were imputed with greater accuracy than low-frequency variants.
Little is known about genes regulating male puberty. Further, while many identified pubertal timing variants associate with age at menarche, a late manifestation of puberty, and body mass, little is known about these variants' relationship to pubertal initiation or tempo. To address these questions, we performed genome-wide association meta-analysis in over 11 000 European samples with data on early pubertal traits, male genital and female breast development, measured by the Tanner scale. We report the first genome-wide significant locus for male sexual development upstream of myocardin-like 2 (MKL2) (P = 8.9 x 10–9), a menarche locus tagging a developmental pathway linking earlier puberty with reduced pubertal growth (P = 4.6 x 10–5) and short adult stature (p = 7.5 x 10–6) in both males and females. Furthermore, our results indicate that a proportion of menarche loci are important for pubertal initiation in both sexes. Consistent with epidemiological correlations between increased prepubertal body mass and earlier pubertal timing in girls, body mass index (BMI)-increasing alleles correlated with earlier breast development. In boys, some BMI-increasing alleles associated with earlier, and others with delayed, sexual development; these genetic results mimic the controversy in epidemiological studies, some of which show opposing correlations between prepubertal BMI and male puberty. Our results contribute to our understanding of the pubertal initiation program in both sexes and indicate that although mechanisms regulating pubertal onset in males and females may largely be shared, the relationship between body mass and pubertal timing in boys may be complex and requires further genetic studies.