In plants, serine residues in extensin, a cell wall protein, are glycosylated with O-linked galactose. However, the enzyme that is involved in the galactosylation of serine had not yet been identified. To identify the peptidyl serine O-α-galactosyltransferase (SGT), we chose Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model. We established an assay system for SGT activity using C. reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana cell extracts. SGT protein was partially purified from cell extracts of C. reinhardtii and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry to determine its amino acid sequence. The sequence matched the open reading frame XP_001696927 in the C. reinhardtii proteome database, and a corresponding DNA fragment encoding 748 amino acids (BAL63043) was cloned from a C. reinhardtii cDNA library. The 748-amino acid protein (CrSGT1) was produced using a yeast expression system, and the SGT activity was examined. Hydroxylation of proline residues adjacent to a serine in acceptor peptides was required for SGT activity. Genes for proteins containing conserved domains were found in various plant genomes, including A. thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The AtSGT1 and NtSGT1 proteins also showed SGT activity when expressed in yeast. In addition, knock-out lines of AtSGT1 and knockdown lines of NtSGT1 showed no or reduced SGT activity. The SGT1 sequence, which contains a conserved DXD motif and a C-terminal membrane spanning region, is the first example of a glycosyltransferase with type I membrane protein topology, and it showed no homology with known glycosyltransferases, indicating that SGT1 belongs to a novel glycosyltransferase gene family existing only in the plant kingdom.
♦ See referenced article, J. Biol. Chem. 2014, 289, 20405–20420
Protein O-glycosylation in plants is not very well understood. Researchers know that serine residues in a plant cell wall protein are glycosylated with O-galactose. However, the enzyme responsible for the post-translational modification is not known. In this Paper of the Week, a team led by Yoh-ichi Shimma at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Japan identified and analyzed the gene family for the serine O-α-galactosyltransferases. The investigators obtained the genes from both the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. From their sequence and other analyses, the investigators concluded that serine O-α-galactosyltransferases are a new class of glycosyltransferases that appear only in plants. They also showed that the enzymes required a hydroxylated proline adjacent to the serine to be O-glycosylated and are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The authors say, “The identification of novel glycosyltransferases contributes to elucidation of how protein glycosylation has evolved in plants.”
Schematic diagram of the serine α-galactosyltransferase reaction.
Many Gram-positive bacteria coordinate cellular processes by signaling through Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs), but the architecture of these phosphosignaling cascades is unknown. To investigate the network structure of a prokaryotic STPK system, we comprehensively explored the pattern of signal transduction in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinome. Autophosphorylation is the dominant mode of STPK activation, but the 11 M. tuberculosis STPKs also show a specific pattern of efficient cross-phosphorylation in vitro. The biochemical specificity intrinsic to each kinase domain was used to map the provisional signaling network, revealing a three-layer architecture that includes master regulators, signal transducers, and terminal substrates. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the STPKs are specifically localized in the cell. Master STPKs are concentrated at the same subcellular sites as their substrates, providing additional support for the biochemically defined network. Together, these studies imply a branched functional architecture of the M. tuberculosis Ser/Thr kinome that could enable horizontal signal spreading. This systems-level approach provides a biochemical and spatial framework for understanding Ser/Thr phospho-signaling in M. tuberculosis, which differs fundamentally from previously defined linear histidine kinase cascades.
♦ See referenced article, J. Biol. Chem. 2014, 289, 20422–20433
Gram-positive bacteria, such as the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rely on serine/threonine protein kinases (STPK) to regulate signaling pathways. However, the coordination between these signaling pathways remains unclear. In this Paper of the Week, Christina Baer at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and colleagues mapped the network for serine/threonine phosphorylation in M. tuberculosis. Although autophosphorylation is the major form of activation for the STPKs, several of these proteins cross-talk by phosphorylating each other. The investigators discovered that the STPKs that cross-talk spatially localize to the same part of the cell, suggesting that these interactions may occur in vivo. The authors concluded that the complex intertwined network of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the bacterium “provides a biochemical and spatial framework for understanding Ser/Thr phospho-signaling.” They add that this serine/threonine network structure is drastically different from the linear histidine phosphorylation signaling cascades that control many bacterial cellular processes. Dissecting these networks may reveal new treatment strategies for tuberculosis, which is notoriously difficult to treat.
The provisional Mycobacterium tuberculosis STPK interaction network.
Metformin is a first-line antidiabetic agent taken by 150 million people across the world every year, yet its mechanism remains only partially understood and controversial. It was proposed that suppression of glucose production in hepatocytes by metformin is AMPK-independent; however, unachievably high concentrations of metformin were employed in these studies. In the current study, we find that metformin, via an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism, suppresses glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression in primary hepatocytes at concentrations found in the portal vein of animals (60–80 μm). Metformin also inhibits gluconeogenic gene expression in the liver of mice administered orally with metformin. Furthermore, the cAMP-PKA pathway negatively regulates AMPK activity through phosphorylation at Ser-485/497 on the α subunit, which in turn reduces net phosphorylation at Thr-172. Because diabetic patients often have hyperglucagonemia, AMPKα phosphorylation at Ser-485/497 is a therapeutic target to improve metformin efficacy.
♦ See referenced article, J. Biol. Chem. 2014, 289, 20435–20446
More than 150 million people around the world take the antidiabetic drug metformin each year. Despite its widespread use, the drug's mechanism of action is poorly understood and controversial. Previous studies have suggested that metformin does not rely on a pathway that involves AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to suppress glucose production in hepatocytes, a type of liver cell. However, these studies used unusually high concentrations of the drug. In this Paper of the Week, a team led by Ling He at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of metformin suppressed glucose production and gluconeogenic expression in primary hepatocytes through AMPK. Moreover, oral administration of metformin suppressed gluconeogenic gene expression in the livers of mice. The investigators also found that phosphorylation of AMPKα at Ser-485/497 by cAMP-PKA decreased the activation of AMPK by metformin. The authors say, “Because diabetic patients often have hyperglucagonemia, AMPKα phosphorylation at Ser-485/497 is a therapeutic target to improve metformin efficacy.”
Metformin suppressed gluconeogenic gene expression in the liver of mice.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling promotes tumor invasiveness in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other cancers. In clear cell RCC, VHL loss generates pseudohypoxia that exacerbates HGF-driven invasion through β-catenin deregulation. Hypoxia also enhances HGF-driven invasiveness by papillary RCC cells, but in the absence of VHL, loss signaling integration involves three parallel routes: 1) hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species production and decreased DUSP2 expression, leading to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activation; 2) reactive oxygen species-induced diacylglycerol production by phospholipase Cγ, leading to protein kinase C activation and increased protein phosphatase-2A activity, thereby suppressing HGF-induced Akt activation; and 3) a profound shift from HGF-enhanced, proliferation-oriented metabolism to autophagy-dependent invasion and suppression of proliferation. This tripartite signaling integration was not unique to RCC or HGF; in RCC cells, invasive synergy induced by the combination of hypoxia and epidermal growth factor occurred through the same mechanism, and in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, this mechanism was suppressed in the absence of estrogen. These results define the molecular basis of growth factor and hypoxia invasive synergy in VHL-competent papillary RCC cells, illustrate the plasticity of invasive and proliferative tumor cell states, and provide signaling profiles by which they may be predicted.
Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism are altered in metabolic disease (e.g. obesity, metabolic syndrome, and Type 2 diabetes). Insulin-dependent regulation of glucose metabolism is impaired. In contrast, lipogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis are increased. Because insulin promotes lipogenesis and liver fat accumulation, to explain the elevation in plasma and tissue lipids, investigators have suggested the presence of pathway-selective insulin resistance. In this model, insulin signaling to glucose metabolism is impaired, but insulin signaling to lipid metabolism is intact. We discuss the evidence for the differential regulation of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. We suggest that the primary phenotypic driver is altered substrate delivery to the liver, as well as the repartitioning of hepatic nutrient handling. Specific alterations in insulin signaling serve to amplify the alterations in hepatic substrate metabolism. Thus, hyperinsulinemia and its resultant increased signaling may facilitate lipogenesis, but are not the major drivers of the phenotype of pathway-selective insulin resistance.
The host defense of the model organism Drosophila is under the control of two major signaling cascades controlling transcription factors of the NF-κB family, the Toll and the immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. The latter shares extensive similarities with the mammalian TNF-R pathway and was initially discovered for its role in anti-Gram-negative bacterial reactions. A previous interactome study from this laboratory reported that an unexpectedly large number of proteins are binding to the canonical components of the IMD pathway. Here, we focus on DNA methyltransferase-associated protein 1 (DMAP1), which this study identified as an interactant of Relish, a Drosophila transcription factor reminiscent of the mammalian p105 NF-κB protein. We show that silencing of DMAP1 expression both in S2 cells and in flies results in a significant reduction of Escherichia coli-induced expression of antimicrobial peptides. Epistatic analysis indicates that DMAP1 acts in parallel or downstream of Relish. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments further reveal that, in addition to Relish, DMAP1 also interacts with Akirin and the Brahma-associated protein 55 kDa (BAP55). Taken together, these results reveal that DMAP1 is a novel nuclear modulator of the IMD pathway, possibly acting at the level of chromatin remodeling.
HIV-1 replication in the presence of antiviral agents results in evolution of drug-resistant variants, motivating the search for additional drug classes. Here we report studies of GSK1264, which was identified as a compound that disrupts the interaction between HIV-1 integrase (IN) and the cellular factor lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75. GSK1264 displayed potent antiviral activity and was found to bind at the site occupied by LEDGF/p75 on IN by x-ray crystallography. Assays of HIV replication in the presence of GSK1264 showed only modest inhibition of the early infection steps and little effect on integration targeting, which is guided by the LEDGF/p75·IN interaction. In contrast, inhibition of late replication steps was more potent. Particle production was normal, but particles showed reduced infectivity. GSK1264 promoted aggregation of IN and preformed LEDGF/p75·IN complexes, suggesting a mechanism of inhibition. LEDGF/p75 was not displaced from IN during aggregation, indicating trapping of LEDGF/p75 in aggregates. Aggregation assays with truncated IN variants revealed that a construct with catalytic and C-terminal domains of IN only formed an open polymer associated with efficient drug-induced aggregation. These data suggest that the allosteric inhibitors of IN are promising antiviral agents and provide new information on their mechanism of action.
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The panel representing the actin-loading controls for the PKD3 Western blot in Fig. 2A was incorrect. A revised figure with the corrected actin panel is shown below. This correction does not affect the interpretation of the results or the conclusions of this work.
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The control lanes of the top panel of Fig. 1 were labeled incorrectly. The correct panel is provided below. This correction does not affect the interpretation of the results or the conclusions.
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The graph in Fig. 2D that was meant to represent EGF:phospho-Akt quantification was incorrect. The correct graph is shown below. This correction does not affect the interpretation of the results or the conclusions.
Cellular copper homeostasis requires transmembrane transport and compartmental trafficking while maintaining the cell essentially free of uncomplexed Cu2+/+. In bacteria, soluble cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones bind and deliver Cu+ to target transporters or metalloenzymes. Transmembrane Cu+-ATPases couple the hydrolysis of ATP to the efflux of cytoplasmic Cu+. Cytosolic Cu+ chaperones (CopZ) interact with a structural platform in Cu+-ATPases (CopA) and deliver copper into the ion permeation path. CusF is a periplasmic Cu+ chaperone that supplies Cu+ to the CusCBA system for efflux to the extracellular milieu. In this report, using Escherichia coli CopA and CusF, direct Cu+ transfer from the ATPase to the periplasmic chaperone was observed. This required the specific interaction of the Cu+-bound form of CopA with apo-CusF for subsequent metal transfer upon ATP hydrolysis. As expected, the reverse Cu+ transfer from CusF to CopA was not observed. Mutation of CopA extracellular loops or the electropositive surface of CusF led to a decrease in Cu+ transfer efficiency. On the other hand, mutation of Met and Glu residues proposed to be part of the metal exit site in the ATPase yielded enzymes with lower turnover rates, although Cu+ transfer was minimally affected. These results show how soluble chaperones obtain Cu+ from transmembrane transporters. Furthermore, by explaining the movement of Cu+ from the cytoplasmic pool to the extracellular milieu, these data support a mechanism by which cytoplasmic Cu+ can be precisely directed to periplasmic targets via specific transporter-chaperone interactions.
Although great advances have been made in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia, up to one of five patients will relapse, and their prognosis thereafter is dismal. We have previously identified recurrent deletions in TBL1XR1, which encodes for an F-box like protein responsible for regulating the nuclear hormone repressor complex stability. Here we model TBL1XR1 deletions in B-precursor ALL cell lines and show that TBL1XR1 knockdown results in reduced glucocorticoid receptor recruitment to glucocorticoid responsive genes and ultimately decreased glucocorticoid signaling caused by increased levels of nuclear hormone repressor 1 and HDAC3. Reduction in glucocorticoid signaling in TBL1XR1-depleted lines resulted in resistance to glucocorticoid agonists, but not to other chemotherapeutic agents. Importantly, we show that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor SAHA restores sensitivity to prednisolone in TBL1XR1-depleted cells. Altogether, our data indicate that loss of TBL1XR1 is a novel driver of glucocorticoid resistance in ALL and that epigenetic therapy may have future application in restoring drug sensitivity at relapse.
CXCL8 (IL-8) recruits and activates neutrophils through the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR1. We showed previously that elastase cleaves CXCR1 and thereby impairs antibacterial host defense. However, the molecular intracellular machinery involved in this process remained undefined. Here we demonstrate by using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, subcellular fractionation, co-immunoprecipitation, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer that combined α- and γ-secretase activities are functionally involved in elastase-mediated regulation of CXCR1 surface expression on human neutrophils, whereas matrix metalloproteases are dispensable. We further demonstrate that PAR-2 is stored in mobilizable compartments in neutrophils. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that secretases, PAR-2, and CXCR1 colocalize and physically interact in a novel protease/secretase-chemokine receptor network. PAR-2 blocking experiments provided evidence that elastase increased intracellular presenilin-1 expression through PAR-2 signaling. When viewed in combination, these studies establish a novel functional network of elastase, secretases, and PAR-2 that regulate CXCR1 expression on neutrophils. Interfering with this network could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in neutrophilic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis or rheumatoid arthritis.
Two lines of investigation have highlighted the importance of antibodies to the V1/V2 domain of gp120 in providing protection from HIV-1 infection. First, the recent RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial documented a correlation between non-neutralizing antibodies to the V2 domain and protection. Second, multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to the V1/V2 domain (e.g. PG9) have been isolated from rare infected individuals, termed elite neutralizers. Interestingly, the binding of both types of antibodies appears to depend on the same cluster of amino acids (positions 167–171) adjacent to the junction of the B and C strands of the four-stranded V1/V2 domain β-sheet structure. However, the broadly neutralizing mAb, PG9, additionally depends on mannose-5 glycans at positions 156 and 160 for binding. Because the gp120 vaccine immunogens used in previous HIV-1 vaccine trials were enriched for complex sialic acid-containing glycans, and lacked the high mannose structures required for the binding of PG9-like mAbs, we wondered if these immunogens could be improved by limiting glycosylation to mannose-5 glycans. Here, we describe the PG9 binding activity of monomeric gp120s from multiple strains of HIV-1 produced with mannose-5 glycans. We also describe the properties of glycopeptide scaffolds from the V1/V2 domain also expressed with mannose-5 glycans. The V1/V2 scaffold from the A244 isolate was able to bind the PG9, CH01, and CH03 mAbs with high affinity provided that the proper glycans were present. We further show that immunization with A244 V1/V2 fragments alone, or in a prime/boost regimen with gp120, enhanced the antibody response to sequences in the V1/V2 domain associated with protection in the RV144 trial.
Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), agonistic monoclonal antibodies to TRAIL receptors, and small molecule TRAIL receptor agonists are in various stages of preclinical and early phase clinical testing as potential anticancer drugs. Accordingly, there is substantial interest in understanding factors that affect sensitivity to these agents. In the present study we observed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors olaparib and veliparib sensitize the myeloid leukemia cell lines ML-1 and K562, the ovarian cancer line PEO1, non-small cell lung cancer line A549, and a majority of clinical AML isolates, but not normal marrow, to TRAIL. Further analysis demonstrated that PARP inhibitor treatment results in activation of the FAS and TNFRSF10B (death receptor 5 (DR5)) promoters, increased Fas and DR5 mRNA, and elevated cell surface expression of these receptors in sensitized cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated enhanced binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to the TNFRSF10B promoter in the presence of PARP inhibitor. Knockdown of PARP1 or PARP2 (but not PARP3 and PARP4) not only increased expression of Fas and DR5 at the mRNA and protein level, but also recapitulated the sensitizing effects of the PARP inhibition. Conversely, Sp1 knockdown diminished the PARP inhibitor effects. In view of the fact that TRAIL is part of the armamentarium of natural killer cells, these observations identify a new facet of PARP inhibitor action while simultaneously providing the mechanistic underpinnings of a novel therapeutic combination that warrants further investigation.
Bacteria encounter environmental stresses that regulate a gene expression program required for adaptation and survival. Here, we report the 1.8-Å crystal structure of the Escherichia coli toxin-antitoxin complex YafQ-(DinJ)2-YafQ, a key component of the stress response. The antitoxin DinJ dimer adopts a ribbon-helix-helix motif required for transcriptional autorepression, and toxin YafQ contains a microbial RNase fold whose proposed active site is concealed by DinJ binding. Contrary to previous reports, our studies indicate that equivalent levels of transcriptional repression occur by direct interaction of either YafQ-(DinJ)2-YafQ or a DinJ dimer at a single inverted repeat of its recognition sequence that overlaps with the −10 promoter region. Surprisingly, multiple YafQ-(DinJ)2-YafQ complexes binding to the operator region do not appear to amplify the extent of repression. Our results suggest an alternative model for transcriptional autorepression that may be novel to DinJ-YafQ.
Every day, shortly after light onset, photoreceptor cells shed approximately a tenth of their outer segment. The adjacent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells phagocytize and digest shed photoreceptor outer segment, which provides a rich source of fatty acids that could be utilized as an energy substrate. From a microarray analysis, we found that RPE cells express particularly high levels of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) compared with all other tissues (except the liver and colon), leading to the hypothesis that RPE cells, like hepatocytes, can produce β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) from fatty acids. Using primary human fetal RPE (hfRPE) cells cultured on Transwell filters with separate apical and basal chambers, we demonstrate that hfRPE cells can metabolize palmitate, a saturated fatty acid that constitutes ≈15% of all lipids in the photoreceptor outer segment, to produce β-HB. Importantly, we found that hfRPE cells preferentially release β-HB into the apical chamber and that this process is mediated primarily by monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 (MCT1). Using a GC-MS analysis of 13C-labeled metabolites, we showed that retinal cells can take up and metabolize 13C-labeled β-HB into various TCA cycle intermediates and amino acids. Collectively, our data support a novel mechanism of RPE-retina metabolic coupling in which RPE cells metabolize fatty acids to produce β-HB, which is transported to the retina for use as a metabolic substrate.
The mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) is negatively regulated by reversible phosphorylation. BCKDC kinase (BDK) inhibitors that augment BCKDC flux have been shown to reduce branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations in vivo. In the present study, we employed high-throughput screens to identify compound 3,6-dichlorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (BT2) as a novel BDK inhibitor (IC50 = 3.19 μm). BT2 binds to the same site in BDK as other known allosteric BDK inhibitors, including (S)-α-cholorophenylproprionate ((S)-CPP). BT2 binding to BDK triggers helix movements in the N-terminal domain, resulting in the dissociation of BDK from the BCKDC accompanied by accelerated degradation of the released kinase in vivo. BT2 shows excellent pharmacokinetics (terminal T½ = 730 min) and metabolic stability (no degradation in 240 min), which are significantly better than those of (S)-CPP. BT2, its analog 3-chloro-6-fluorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (BT2F), and a prodrug of BT2 (i.e. N-(4-acetamido-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-3,6-dichlorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (BT3)) significantly increase residual BCKDC activity in cultured cells and primary hepatocytes from patients and a mouse model of maple syrup urine disease. Administration of BT2 at 20 mg/kg/day to wild-type mice for 1 week leads to nearly complete dephosphorylation and maximal activation of BCKDC in heart, muscle, kidneys, and liver with reduction in plasma BCAA concentrations. The availability of benzothiophene carboxylate derivatives as stable BDK inhibitors may prove useful for the treatment of metabolic disease caused by elevated BCAA concentrations.
The objective of this study was to determine the role of FIH-1 in regulating HIF-1 activity in the nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and the control of this regulation by binding and sequestration of FIH-1 by Mint3. FIH-1 and Mint3 were both expressed in the NP and were shown to strongly co-localize within the cell nucleus. Although both mRNA and protein expression of FIH-1 decreased in hypoxia, only Mint3 protein levels were hypoxia-sensitive. Overexpression of FIH-1 was able to reduce HIF-1 function, as seen by changes in activities of hypoxia response element-luciferase reporter and HIF-1α-C-TAD and HIF-2α-TAD. Moreover, co-transfection of either full-length Mint3 or the N terminus of Mint3 abrogated FIH-1-dependent reduction in HIF-1 activity under both normoxia and hypoxia. Nuclear levels of FIH-1 and Mint3 decreased in hypoxia, and the use of specific nuclear import and export inhibitors clearly showed that cellular compartmentalization of overexpressed FIH-1 was critical for its regulation of HIF-1 activity in NP cells. Interestingly, microarray results after stable silencing of FIH-1 showed no significant changes in transcripts of classical HIF-1 target genes. However, expression of several other transcripts, including those of the Notch pathway, changed in FIH-1-silenced cells. Moreover, co-transfection of Notch-ICD could restore suppression of HIF-1-TAD activity by exogenous FIH-1. Taken together, these results suggest that, possibly due to low endogenous levels and/or preferential association with substrates such as Notch, FIH-1 activity does not represent a major mechanism by which NP cells control HIF-1-dependent transcription, a testament to their adaptation to a unique hypoxic niche.
Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes that encode a glycogen phosphatase, laforin, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, malin, respectively. Lafora disease is characterized by accumulation of insoluble, poorly branched, hyperphosphorylated glycogen in brain, muscle, heart, and liver. The laforin-malin complex has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism and protein quality control. We evaluated three arms of the protein degradation/quality control process (the autophago-lysosomal pathway, the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Epm2a−/−, Epm2b−/−, and Epm2a−/− Epm2b−/− mice. The levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy, were decreased in all knock-out cells as compared with wild type even though they still showed a slight response to starvation and rapamycin. Furthermore, ribosomal protein S6 kinase and S6 phosphorylation were increased. Under basal conditions there was no effect on the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in the knock-out cells, but ubiquitinated protein degradation was decreased during starvation or stress. Lack of malin (Epm2b−/− and Epm2a−/− Epm2b−/− cells) but not laforin (Epm2a−/− cells) decreased LAMP1, a lysosomal marker. CHOP expression was similar in wild type and knock-out cells under basal conditions or with ER stress-inducing agents. In conclusion, both laforin and malin knock-out cells display mTOR-dependent autophagy defects and reduced proteasomal activity but no defects in the ER stress response. We speculate that these defects may be secondary to glycogen overaccumulation. This study also suggests a malin function independent of laforin, possibly in lysosomal biogenesis and/or lysosomal glycogen disposal.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has multiple important physiological functions, including regulation of protein synthesis, cell growth, autophagy, and synaptic plasticity. Activation of mTOR is necessary for the many beneficial effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), including dendritic translation and memory formation in the hippocampus. At present, however, the role of mTOR in BDNF's support of survival is not clear. We report that mTOR activation is necessary for BDNF-dependent survival of primary rat hippocampal neurons, as either mTOR inhibition by rapamycin or genetic manipulation of the downstream molecule p70S6K specifically blocked BDNF rescue. Surprisingly, however, BDNF did not promote neuron survival by up-regulating mTOR-dependent protein synthesis or through mTOR-dependent suppression of caspase-3 activation. Instead, activated mTOR was responsible for BDNF's suppression of autophagic flux. shRNA against the autophagic machinery Atg7 or Atg5 prolonged the survival of neurons co-treated with BDNF and rapamycin, suggesting that suppression of mTOR in BDNF-treated cells resulted in excessive autophagy. Finally, acting as a physiological analog of rapamycin, IL-1β impaired BDNF signaling by way of inhibiting mTOR activation as follows: the cytokine induced caspase-independent neuronal death and accelerated autophagic flux in BDNF-treated cells. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of BDNF neuroprotection; BDNF not only prevents apoptosis through inhibiting caspase activation but also promotes neuron survival through modulation of autophagy. This protection mechanism is vulnerable under chronic inflammation, which deregulates autophagy through impairing mTOR signaling. These results may be relevant to age-related changes observed in neurodegenerative diseases.
BACE1 is a type I transmembrane aspartyl protease that cleaves amyloid precursor protein at the β-secretase site to initiate the release of β-amyloid peptide. As a secretase, BACE1 also cleaves additional membrane-bound molecules by exerting various cellular functions. In this study, we showed that BACE1 can effectively shed the membrane-anchored signaling molecule Jagged 1 (Jag1). We also mapped the cleavage sites of Jag1 by ADAM10 and ADAM17. Although Jag1 shares a high degree of homology with Jag2 in the ectodomain region, BACE1 fails to cleave Jag2 effectively, indicating a selective cleavage of Jag1. Abolished cleavage of Jag1 in BACE1-null mice leads to enhanced astrogenesis and, concomitantly, reduced neurogenesis. This characterization provides biochemical evidence that the Jag1-Notch pathway is under the control of BACE1 activity.
Accurate mitosis requires the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC) containing Aurora B kinase, borealin, INCENP, and survivin, which orchestrates chromosome dynamics. However, the chromatin factors that specify the CPC to the centromere remain elusive. Here we show that borealin interacts directly with heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) and that this interaction is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved PXVXL motif in the C-terminal borealin with the chromo shadow domain of HP1α. This borealin-HP1α interaction recruits the CPC to the centromere and governs an activation of Aurora B kinase judged by phosphorylation of Ser-7 in CENP-A, a substrate of Aurora B. Consistently, modulation of the motif PXVXL leads to defects in CPC centromere targeting and aberrant Aurora B activity. On the other hand, the localization of the CPC in the midzone is independent of the borealin-HP1α interaction, demonstrating the spatial requirement of HP1α in CPC localization to the centromere. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized but direct link between HP1α and CPC localization in the centromere and illustrate the critical role of borealin-HP1α interaction in orchestrating an accurate cell division.
Group II intron ribozymes catalyze the cleavage of (and their reinsertion into) DNA and RNA targets using a Mg2+-dependent reaction. The target is cleaved 3′ to the last nucleotide of intron binding site 1 (IBS1), one of three regions that form base pairs with the intron's exon binding sites (EBS1 to -3). We solved the NMR solution structure of the d3′ hairpin of the Sc.ai5γ intron containing EBS1 in its 11-nucleotide loop in complex with the dIBS1 DNA 7-mer and compare it with the analogous RNA·RNA contact. The EBS1·dIBS1 helix is slightly flexible and non-symmetric. NMR data reveal two major groove binding sites for divalent metal ions at the EBS1·dIBS1 helix, and surface plasmon resonance experiments show that low concentrations of Mg2+ considerably enhance the affinity of dIBS1 for EBS1. Our results indicate that identification of both RNA and DNA IBS1 targets, presentation of the scissile bond, and stabilization of the structure by metal ions are governed by the overall structure of EBS1·dIBS1 and the surrounding loop nucleotides but are irrespective of different EBS1·(d)IBS1 geometries and interstrand affinities.
The receptor-tyrosine kinase Ror2 acts as an alternative receptor or co-receptor for Wnt5a and mediates Wnt5a-induced convergent extension movements during embryogenesis in mice and Xenopus as well as the polarity and migration of several cell types during development. However, little is known about whether Ror2 function is conserved in other vertebrates or is involved in other non-canonical Wnt ligands in vivo. In this study we demonstrated that overexpression of dominant-negative ror2 (ror2-TM) mRNA in zebrafish embryos resulted in convergence and extension defects and incompletely separated eyes, which is consistent with observations from slb/wnt11 mutants or wnt11 knockdown morphants. Moreover, the co-injection of ror2-TM mRNA and a wnt11 morpholino or the coexpression of ror2 and wnt11 in zebrafish embryos synergetically induced more severe convergence and extension defects. Transplantation studies further demonstrated that the Ror2 receptor responded to the Wnt11 ligand and regulated cell migration and cell morphology during gastrulation. DnRor2 inhibited the action of Wnt11, which was revealed by a decreased percentage of Wnt11-induced convergence and extension defects. Ror2 physically interacts with Wnt11. The intracellular Tyr-647 and Ser-863 sites of Ror2 are essential for mediating the action of Wnt11. Dishevelled and RhoA act downstream of Wnt11-Ror2 to regulate convergence and extension movements. Overall, our data suggest an important role of Ror2 in mediating Wnt11 signaling and in regulating convergence and extension movements in zebrafish.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease with a strong inflammatory component. The cytokines interleukin-1β and interferon-γ contribute to beta cell apoptosis in type 1 diabetes. These cytokines induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), contributing to the loss of beta cells. IRE1α, one of the UPR mediators, triggers insulin degradation and inflammation in beta cells and is critical for the transition from “physiological” to “pathological” UPR. The mechanisms regulating inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α) activation and its signaling for beta cell “adaptation,” “stress response,” or “apoptosis” remain to be clarified. To address these questions, we combined mammalian protein-protein interaction trap-based IRE1α interactome and functional genomic analysis of human and rodent beta cells exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines to identify novel cytokine-induced regulators of IRE1α. Based on this approach, we identified N-Myc interactor (NMI) as an IRE1α-interacting/modulator protein in rodent and human pancreatic beta cells. An increased expression of NMI was detected in islets from nonobese diabetic mice with insulitis and in rodent or human beta cells exposed in vitro to the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interferon-γ. Detailed mechanistic studies demonstrated that NMI negatively modulates IRE1α-dependent activation of JNK and apoptosis in rodent and human pancreatic beta cells. In conclusion, by using a combined omics approach, we identified NMI induction as a novel negative feedback mechanism that decreases IRE1α-dependent activation of JNK and apoptosis in cytokine-exposed beta cells.
Recently, the Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) and its yeast homolog Vps74p have been characterized as essential for the Golgi localization of glycosyltransferase in yeast. GOLPH3 has been identified as a new oncogene that is commonly amplified in human cancers to modulate mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of the carcinogenic signaling pathway remain largely unclear. To investigate whether the expression of GOLPH3 was involved in the glycosylation processes in mammalian cells, and whether it affected cell behavior, we performed a loss-of-function study. Cell migration was suppressed in GOLPH3 knockdown (KD) cells, and the suppression was restored by a re-introduction of the GOLPH3 gene. HPLC and LC/MS analysis showed that the sialylation of N-glycans was specifically decreased in KD cells. The specific interaction between sialyltransferases and GOLPH3 was important for the sialylation. Furthermore, overexpression of α2,6-sialyltransferase-I rescued cell migration and cellular signaling, both of which were blocked in GOLPH3 knockdown cells. These results are the first direct demonstration of the role of GOLPH3 in N-glycosylation to regulate cell biological functions.
Initial steps in protein synthesis are highly regulated processes as they define the reading frame of the translation machinery. Eukaryotic translation initiation is a process facilitated by numerous factors (eIFs), aimed to form a “scanning” mechanism toward the initiation codon. Translation initiation of the main open reading frame (ORF) in an mRNA transcript has been reported to be regulated by upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in a manner of re-initiation. This mode of regulation is governed by the phosphorylation status of eIF2α and controlled by cellular stresses. Another mode of translational initiation regulation is leaky scanning, and this regulatory process has not been extensively studied. We have identified arsenite-inducible regulatory particle-associated protein (AIRAP) transcript to be translationally induced during arsenite stress conditions. AIRAP transcript contains a single uORF in a poor-kozak context. AIRAP translation induction is governed by means of leaky scanning and not re-initiation. This induction of AIRAP is solely dependent on eIF1 and the uORF kozak context. We show that eIF1 is phosphorylated under specific conditions that induce protein misfolding and have biochemically characterized this site of phosphorylation. Our data indicate that leaky scanning like re-initiation is responsive to stress conditions and that leaky scanning can induce ORF translation by bypassing poor kozak context of a single uORF transcript.
Although mutations or deletions of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5) have been linked to cancer and implicate CHD5 in tumor suppression, the ATP-dependent activity of CHD5 is currently unknown. In this study, we discovered that CHD5 is a chromatin remodeling factor with a unique enzymatic activity. CHD5 can expose nucleosomal DNA at one or two discrete positions in the nucleosome. The exposure of the nucleosomal DNA by CHD5 is dependent on ATP hydrolysis, but continued ATP hydrolysis is not required to maintain the nucleosomes in their remodeled state. The activity of CHD5 is distinct from other related chromatin remodeling ATPases, such as ACF and BRG1, and does not lead to complete disruption or destabilization of the nucleosome. Rather, CHD5 likely initiates remodeling in a manner similar to that of other remodeling factors but does not significantly reposition the nucleosome. While the related factor CHD4 shows strong ATPase activity, it does not unwrap nucleosomes as efficiently as CHD5. Our findings add to the growing evidence that chromatin remodeling ATPases have diverse roles in modulating chromatin structure.
Centrioles play a key role in nucleating polarized microtubule networks. In actively dividing cells, centrioles establish the bipolar mitotic spindle and are essential for genomic stability. Drosophila anastral spindle-2 (Ana2) is a conserved centriole duplication factor. Although recent work has demonstrated that an Ana2-dynein light chain (LC8) centriolar complex is critical for proper spindle positioning in neuroblasts, how Ana2 and LC8 interact is yet to be established. Here we examine the Ana2-LC8 interaction and map two LC8-binding sites within the central region of Ana2, Ana2M (residues 156–251). Ana2 LC8-binding site 1 contains a signature TQT motif and robustly binds LC8 (KD of 1.1 μm), whereas site 2 contains a TQC motif and binds LC8 with lower affinity (KD of 13 μm). Both LC8-binding sites flank a predicted ∼34-residue α-helix. We present two independent atomic structures of LC8 dimers in complex with Ana2 LC8-binding site 1 and site 2 peptides. The Ana2 peptides form β-strands that extend a central composite LC8 β-sandwich. LC8 recognizes the signature TQT motif in the first LC8 binding site of Ana2, forming extensive van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonding with the peptide, whereas the Ana2 site 2 TQC motif forms a uniquely extended β-strand, not observed in other dynein light chain-target complexes. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle static light scattering demonstrates that LC8 dimers bind Ana2M sites and induce Ana2 tetramerization, yielding an Ana2M4-LC88 complex. LC8-mediated Ana2 oligomerization probably enhances Ana2 avidity for centriole-binding factors and may bridge multiple factors as required during spindle positioning and centriole biogenesis.
Human IgG4 antibody shows therapeutically useful properties compared with the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Thus IgG4 does not activate complement and shows conformational variability. These properties are attributable to its hinge region, which is the shortest of the four IgG subclasses. Using high throughput scattering methods, we studied the solution structure of wild-type IgG4(Ser222) and a hinge mutant IgG4(Pro222) in different buffers and temperatures where the proline substitution suppresses the formation of half-antibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both IgG4 forms were principally monomeric with sedimentation coefficients s20,w0 of 6.6–6.8 S. A monomer-dimer equilibrium was observed in heavy water buffer at low temperature. Scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg was unchanged with concentration in 50–250 mm NaCl buffers, whereas the neutron Rg values showed a concentration-dependent increase as the temperature decreased in heavy water buffers. The distance distribution curves (P(r)) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, that shifted below 2 mg/ml to indicate concentration-dependent IgG4 structures in addition to IgG4 dimer formation at high concentration in heavy water. Constrained x-ray and neutron scattering modeling revealed asymmetric solution structures for IgG4(Ser222) with extended hinge structures. The IgG4(Pro222) structure was similar. Both IgG4 structures showed that their Fab regions were positioned close enough to the Fc region to restrict C1q binding. Our new molecular models for IgG4 explain its inability to activate complement and clarify aspects of its stability and function for therapeutic applications.
Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal transcriptional corepressor that undergoes multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including SUMOylation and Ser-824 phosphorylation. However, the functional interplay of KAP1 PTMs in regulating KAP1 turnover during DNA damage response remains unclear. To decipher the role and cross-talk of multiple KAP1 PTMs, we show here that DNA double strand break-induced KAP1 Ser-824 phosphorylation promoted the recruitment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 4 (RNF4), and subsequent RNF4-mediated, SUMO-dependent degradation. Besides the SUMO interacting motif (SIM), a previously unrecognized, but evolutionarily conserved, arginine-rich motif (ARM) in RNF4 acts as a novel recognition motif for selective target recruitment. Results from combined mutagenesis and computational modeling studies suggest that RNF4 utilizes concerted bimodular recognition, namely SIM for Lys-676 SUMOylation and ARM for Ser(P)-824 of simultaneously phosphorylated and SUMOylated KAP1 (Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1). Furthermore, we proved that arginines 73 and 74 within the ARM of RNF4 are required for efficient recruitment to KAP1 or accelerated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) under stress. In parallel, results of bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays validated the role of the ARM in recognizing Ser(P)-824 in living cells. Taken together, we establish that the ARM is required for RNF4 to efficiently target Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1, conferring ubiquitin Lys-48-mediated proteasomal degradation in the context of double strand breaks. The conservation of such a motif may possibly explain the requirement for timely substrate selectivity determination among a myriad of SUMOylated proteins under stress conditions. Thus, the ARM dynamically regulates the SIM-dependent recruitment of targets to RNF4, which could be critical to dynamically fine-tune the abundance of Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1 and, potentially, other SUMOylated proteins during DNA damage response.
Glutamate receptors are fundamental for control synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal excitability. However, many of the molecular mechanisms underlying their trafficking remain elusive. We previously demonstrated that the small GTPase Rab17 regulates dendritic trafficking in hippocampal neurons. Here, we investigated the role(s) of Rab17 in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) and kainate receptor (KAR) trafficking. Although Rab17 knockdown did not affect surface expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 under basal or chemically induced long term potentiation conditions, it significantly reduced surface expression of the KAR subunit GluK2. Rab17 co-localizes with Syntaxin-4 in the soma, dendritic shaft, the tips of developing hippocampal neurons, and in spines. Rab17 knockdown caused Syntaxin-4 redistribution away from dendrites and into axons in developing hippocampal neurons. Syntaxin-4 knockdown reduced GluK2 but had no effect on GluA1 surface expression. Moreover, overexpression of constitutively active Rab17 promoted dendritic surface expression of GluK2 by enhancing Syntaxin-4 translocation to dendrites. These data suggest that Rab17 mediates the dendritic trafficking of Syntaxin-4 to selectively regulate dendritic surface insertion of GluK2-containing KARs in rat hippocampal neurons.
Polycomb group protein Ezh2 is a histone H3 Lys-27 histone methyltransferase orchestrating an extensive epigenetic regulatory program. Several nervous system-specific genes are known to be repressed by Ezh2 in stem cells and derepressed during neuronal differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation remain poorly understood. Here we show that Ezh2 levels are dampened during neuronal differentiation by brain-enriched microRNA miR-124. Expression of miR-124 in a neuroblastoma cells line was sufficient to up-regulate a significant fraction of nervous system-specific Ezh2 target genes. On the other hand, naturally elevated expression of miR-124 in embryonic carcinoma cells undergoing neuronal differentiation correlated with down-regulation of Ezh2 levels. Importantly, overexpression of Ezh2 mRNA with a 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) lacking a functional miR-124 binding site, but not with the wild-type Ezh2 3′-UTR, hampered neuronal and promoted astrocyte-specific differentiation in P19 and embryonic mouse neural stem cells. Overall, our results uncover a molecular mechanism that allows miR-124 to balance the choice between alternative differentiation possibilities through fine-tuning the expression of a critical epigenetic regulator.
The nucleolar protein PICT1 regulates tumor suppressor p53 by tethering ribosomal protein L11 within the nucleolus to repress the binding of L11 to the E3 ligase MDM2. PICT1 depletion results in the release of L11 to the nucleoplasm to inhibit MDM2, leading to p53 activation. Here, we demonstrate that nucleolar stress induces proteasome-mediated degradation of PICT1 in a ubiquitin-independent manner. Treatment of H1299 cells with nucleolar stress inducers, such as actinomycin D, 5-fluorouridine, or doxorubicin, induced the degradation of PICT1 protein. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and epoxomicin blocked PICT1 degradation, whereas the inhibition of E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme by a specific inhibitor and genetic inactivation fail to repress PICT1 degradation. In addition, the 20 S proteasome was able to degrade purified PICT1 protein in vitro. We also found a PICT1 mutant showing nucleoplasmic localization did not undergo nucleolar stress-induced degradation, although the same mutant underwent in vitro degradation by the 20 S proteasome, suggesting that nucleolar localization is indispensable for the stress-induced PICT1 degradation. These results suggest that PICT1 employs atypical proteasome-mediated degradation machinery to sense nucleolar stress within the nucleolus.
Genetic mutations in tumor cells cause several unique metabolic phenotypes that are critical for cancer cell proliferation. Mutations in the tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) induce oncogenic addiction in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). However, the linkage between oncogenic mutated EGFR and cancer cell metabolism has not yet been clearly elucidated. Here we show that EGFR signaling plays an important role in aerobic glycolysis in EGFR-mutated LAD cells. EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) decreased lactate production, glucose consumption, and the glucose-induced extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), indicating that EGFR signaling maintained aerobic glycolysis in LAD cells. Metabolomic analysis revealed that metabolites in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), pyrimidine biosynthesis, and redox metabolism were significantly decreased after treatment of LAD cells with EGFR-TKI. On a molecular basis, the glucose transport carried out by glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) was downregulated in TKI-sensitive LAD cells. Moreover, EGFR signaling activated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD), which catalyzes the first step in de novo pyrimidine synthesis. We conclude that EGFR signaling regulates the global metabolic pathway in EGFR-mutated LAD cells. Our data provide evidence that may link therapeutic response to the regulation of metabolism, which is an attractive target for the development of more effective targeted therapies to treat patients with EGFR-mutated LAD.
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is indispensable for the development of prostate cancer from the initial androgen-dependent state to a later aggressive androgen-resistant state. This study examined the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gasotransmitter, in the regulation of AR signaling as well as its mediation in androgen-independent cell growth in prostate cancer cells. Here we found that H2S inhibits cell proliferation of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer cells (LNCaP-B), with more significance on the latter, which was established by long term treatment of parental LNCaP cells with bicalutamide. The expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), a major H2S-producing enzyme in prostate tissue, was reduced in both human prostate cancer tissues and LNCaP-B cells. LNCaP-B cells were resistant to bicalutamide-induced cell growth inhibition, and CSE overexpression could rebuild the sensitivity of LNCaP-B cells to bicalutamide. H2S significantly repressed the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and TMPRSS2, two AR-targeted genes. In addition, H2S inhibited AR binding with PSA promoter and androgen-responsive element (ARE) luciferase activity. We further found that AR is post-translationally modified by H2S through S-sulfhydration. Mutation of cysteine 611 and cysteine 614 in the second zinc finger module of AR-DNA binding domain diminished the effects of H2S on AR S-sulfhydration and AR dimerization. These data suggest that reduced CSE/H2S signaling contributes to antiandrogen-resistant status, and sufficient level of H2S is able to inhibit AR transactivation and treat castration-resistant prostate cancer.
PECAM-1 is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily that is expressed on the surface of platelets and leukocytes, and at the intracellular junctions of confluent endothelial cell monolayers. Previous studies have shown that PECAM-1/PECAM-1 homophilic interactions play a key role in leukocyte transendothelial migration, in allowing PECAM-1 to serve as a mechanosensory complex in endothelial cells, in its ability to confer cytoprotection to proapoptotic stimuli, and in maintaining endothelial cell junctional integrity. To examine the adhesive properties of full-length PECAM-1 in a native lipid environment, we purified it from platelets and assembled it into phospholipid nanodiscs. PECAM-1-containing nanodiscs retained not only their ability to bind homophilically to PECAM-1-expressing cells, but exhibited regulatable adhesive interactions that could be modulated by ligands that bind membrane-proximal Ig Domain 6. This property was exploited to enhance the rate of barrier restoration in endothelial cell monolayers subjected to inflammatory challenge. The finding that the adhesive properties of PECAM-1 are regulatable suggests novel approaches for controlling endothelial cell migration and barrier function in a variety of vascular permeability disorders.
Sphingosine kinase 2 (SPK2) and autophagy are both involved in brain preconditioning, but whether preconditioning-induced SPK2 up-regulation and autophagy activation are linked mechanistically remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used in vitro and in vivo models to explore the role of SPK2-mediated autophagy in isoflurane and hypoxic preconditioning. In primary mouse cortical neurons, both isoflurane and hypoxic preconditioning induced autophagy. Isoflurane and hypoxic preconditioning protected against subsequent oxygen glucose deprivation or glutamate injury, whereas pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine or KU55933) abolished preconditioning-induced tolerance. Pretreatment with SPK2 inhibitors (ABC294640 and SKI-II) or SPK2 knockdown prevented preconditioning-induced autophagy. Isoflurane also induced autophagy in mouse in vivo as shown by Western blots for LC3 and p62, LC3 immunostaining, and electron microscopy. Isoflurane-induced autophagy in mice lacking the SPK1 isoform (SPK1−/−), but not in SPK2−/− mice. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist FTY720 did not protect against oxygen glucose deprivation in cultured neurons and did not alter the expression of LC3 and p62, suggesting that SPK2-mediated autophagy and protections are not S1P-dependent. Beclin 1 knockdown abolished preconditioning-induced autophagy, and SPK2 inhibitors abolished isoflurane-induced disruption of the Beclin 1/Bcl-2 association. These results strongly indicate that autophagy is involved in isoflurane preconditioning both in vivo and in vitro and that SPK2 contributes to preconditioning-induced autophagy, possibly by disrupting the Beclin 1/Bcl-2 interaction.
COPII-coated vesicles mediate the transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. SEC24 is the COPII component primarily responsible for recruitment of protein cargoes into nascent vesicles. There are four Sec24 paralogs in mammals, with mice deficient in SEC24A, -B, and -D exhibiting a wide range of phenotypes. We now report the characterization of mice with deficiency in the fourth Sec24 paralog, SEC24C. Although mice haploinsufficient for Sec24c exhibit no apparent abnormalities, homozygous deficiency results in embryonic lethality at approximately embryonic day 7. Tissue-specific deletion of Sec24c in hepatocytes, pancreatic cells, smooth muscle cells, and intestinal epithelial cells results in phenotypically normal mice. Thus, SEC24C is required in early mammalian development but is dispensable in a number of tissues, likely as a result of compensation by other Sec24 paralogs. The embryonic lethality resulting from loss of SEC24C occurs considerably later than the lethality previously observed in SEC24D deficiency; it is clearly distinct from the restricted neural tube phenotype of Sec24b null embryos and the mild hypocholesterolemic phenotype of adult Sec24a null mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the four Sec24 paralogs have developed unique functions over the course of vertebrate evolution.
Anhydromannose (anMan)-containing heparan sulfate (HS) derived from the proteoglycan glypican-1 is generated in endosomes by an endogenously or ascorbate-induced S-nitrosothiol-catalyzed reaction. Processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and APP-like protein 2 (APLP2) by β- and γ-secretases into amyloid β (Aβ) and Aβ-like peptides also takes place in these compartments. Moreover, anMan-containing HS suppresses the formation of toxic Aβ assemblies in vitro. We showed by using deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy with an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody as well as 35S labeling experiments that expression of APP/APLP2 is required for ascorbate-induced transport of HS from endosomes to the nucleus. Nuclear translocation was observed in wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (WT MEFs), Tg2576 MEFs, and N2a neuroblastoma cells but not in APP−/− and APLP2−/− MEFs. Transfection of APP−/− cells with a vector encoding APP restored nuclear import of anMan-containing HS. In WT MEFs and N2a neuroblastoma cells exposed to β- or γ-secretase inhibitors, nuclear translocation was greatly impeded, suggesting involvement of APP/APLP2 degradation products. In Tg2576 MEFs, the β-inhibitor blocked transport, but the γ-inhibitor did not. During chase in ascorbate-free medium, anMan-containing HS disappeared from the nuclei of WT MEFs. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that they appeared in acidic, LC3-positive vesicles in keeping with an autophagosomal location. There was increased accumulation of anMan-containing HS in nuclei and cytosolic vesicles upon treatment with chloroquine, indicating that HS was degraded in lysosomes. Manipulations of APP expression and processing may have deleterious effects upon HS function in the nucleus.
Strict regulation of intra- and extracellular pH is an important determinant of nervous system function as many voltage-, ligand-, and H+-gated cationic channels are exquisitely sensitive to transient fluctuations in pH elicited by neural activity and pathophysiologic events such as hypoxia-ischemia and seizures. Multiple Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) are implicated in maintenance of neural pH homeostasis. However, aside from the ubiquitous NHE1 isoform, their relative contributions are poorly understood. NHE5 is of particular interest as it is preferentially expressed in brain relative to other tissues. In hippocampal neurons, NHE5 regulates steady-state cytoplasmic pH, but intriguingly the bulk of the transporter is stored in intracellular vesicles. Here, we show that NHE5 is a direct target for phosphorylation by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor and regulator of cellular energy homeostasis in response to metabolic stresses. In NHE5-transfected non-neuronal cells, activation of AMPK by the AMP mimetic AICAR or by antimycin A, which blocks aerobic respiration and causes acidification, increased cell surface accumulation and activity of NHE5, and elevated intracellular pH. These effects were effectively blocked by the AMPK antagonist compound C, the NHE inhibitor HOE694, and mutation of a predicted AMPK recognition motif in the NHE5 C terminus. This regulatory pathway was also functional in primary hippocampal neurons, where AMPK activation of NHE5 protected the cells from sustained antimycin A-induced acidification. These data reveal a unique role for AMPK and NHE5 in regulating the pH homeostasis of hippocampal neurons during metabolic stress.
Protein glycosylation catalyzed by the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) plays a critical role in various biological processes. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the core enzyme GtfA and co-activator GtfB form an OGT complex to glycosylate the serine-rich repeat (SRR) of adhesin PsrP (pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein), which is involved in the infection and pathogenesis. Here we report the 2.0 Å crystal structure of GtfA, revealing a β-meander add-on domain beyond the catalytic domain. It represents a novel add-on domain, which is distinct from the all-α-tetratricopeptide repeats in the only two structure-known OGTs. Structural analyses combined with binding assays indicate that this add-on domain contributes to forming an active GtfA-GtfB complex and recognizing the acceptor protein. In addition, the in vitro glycosylation system enables us to map the O-linkages to the serine residues within the first SRR of PsrP. These findings suggest that fusion with an add-on domain might be a universal mechanism for diverse OGTs that recognize varying acceptor proteins/peptides.
To identify patients at risk for progressive joint damage, there is a need for early diagnostic tools to detect molecular events leading to cartilage destruction. Isolation and characterization of distinct cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) fragments derived from cartilage and released into synovial fluid will allow discrimination between different pathological conditions and monitoring of disease progression. Early detection of disease and processes in the tissue as well as an understanding of the pathologic mechanisms will also open the way for novel treatment strategies. Disease-specific COMP fragments were isolated by affinity chromatography of synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or acute trauma. Enriched COMP fragments were separated by SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric identification and characterization. Using the enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Asp-N for the digestions, an extensive analysis of the enriched fragments could be accomplished. Twelve different neoepitopes were identified and characterized within the enriched COMP fragments. For one of the neoepitopes, Ser77, an inhibition ELISA was developed. This ELISA quantifies COMP fragments clearly distinguishable from total COMP. Furthermore, fragments containing the neoepitope Ser77 were released into the culture medium of cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor)-stimulated human cartilage explants. The identified neoepitopes provide a complement to the currently available commercial assays for cartilage markers. Through neoepitope assays, tools to pinpoint disease progression, evaluation methods for therapy, and means to elucidate disease mechanisms will be provided.
Agonist-induced phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) promotes their desensitization and internalization. Here, we sought to determine the role of GRK2 on FcϵRI signaling and mediator release in mast cells. The strategies utilized included lentiviral shRNA-mediated GRK2 knockdown, GRK2 gene deletion (GRK2flox/flox/cre recombinase) and overexpression of GRK2 and its regulator of G protein signaling homology (RH) domain (GRK2-RH). We found that silencing GRK2 expression caused ∼50% decrease in antigen-induced Ca2+ mobilization and degranulation but resulted in ablation of cytokine (IL-6 and IL-13) generation. The effect of GRK2 on cytokine generation does not require its catalytic activity but is mediated via the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. Overexpression of GRK2 or its RH domain (GRK2-RH) enhanced antigen-induced mast cell degranulation and cytokine generation without affecting the expression levels of any of the FcϵRI subunits (α, β, and γ). GRK2 or GRK2-RH had no effect on antigen-induced phosphorylation of FcϵRIγ or Src but enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk. These data demonstrate that GRK2 modulates FcϵRI signaling in mast cells via at least two mechanisms. One involves GRK2-RH and modulates tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, and the other is mediated via the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt.
Apart from its canonical function in translation elongation, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) has been shown to interact with the actin cytoskeleton. Amino acid substitutions in eEF1A that reduce its ability to bind and bundle actin in vitro cause improper actin organization in vivo and reduce total translation. Initial in vivo analysis indicated the reduced translation was through initiation. The mutant strains exhibit increased levels of phosphorylated initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) dependent on the presence of the general control nonderepressible 2 (Gcn2p) protein kinase. Gcn2p causes down-regulation of total protein synthesis at initiation in response to increases in deacylated tRNA levels in the cell. Increased levels of eIF2α phosphorylation are not due to a general reduction in translation elongation as eEF2 and eEF3 mutants do not exhibit this effect. Deletion of GCN2 from the eEF1A actin bundling mutant strains revealed a second defect in translation. The eEF1A actin-bundling proteins exhibit changes in their elongation activity at the level of aminoacyl-tRNA binding in vitro. These findings implicate eEF1A in a feedback mechanism for regulating translation at initiation.
Our understanding of the molecular events contributing to myogenic control of diameter in cerebral resistance arteries in response to changes in intravascular pressure, a fundamental mechanism regulating blood flow to the brain, is incomplete. Myosin light chain kinase and phosphatase activities are known to be increased and decreased, respectively, to augment phosphorylation of the 20-kDa regulatory light chain subunits (LC20) of myosin II, which permits cross-bridge cycling and force development. Here, we assessed the contribution of dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and thin filament regulation to the myogenic response and serotonin-evoked constriction of pressurized rat middle cerebral arteries. Arterial diameter and the levels of phosphorylated LC20, calponin, caldesmon, cofilin, and HSP27, as well as G-actin content, were determined. A decline in G-actin content was observed following pressurization from 10 mm Hg to between 40 and 120 mm Hg and in three conditions in which myogenic or agonist-evoked constriction occurred in the absence of a detectable change in LC20 phosphorylation. No changes in thin filament protein phosphorylation were evident. Pressurization reduced G-actin content and elevated the levels of cofilin and HSP27 phosphorylation. Inhibitors of Rho-associated kinase and PKC prevented the decline in G-actin; reduced cofilin and HSP27 phosphoprotein content, respectively; and blocked the myogenic response. Furthermore, phosphorylation modulators of HSP27 and cofilin induced significant changes in arterial diameter and G-actin content of myogenically active arteries. Taken together, our findings suggest that dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton involving increased actin polymerization in response to Rho-associated kinase and PKC signaling contributes significantly to force generation in myogenic constriction of cerebral resistance arteries.
There are two isoforms of cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase (hcArgRS) in human cells. The long form is a component of the multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex, and the other is an N-terminal truncated form (ΔNhcArgRS), free in the cytoplasm. It has been shown that the two forms of ArgRS arise from alternative translational initiation in a single mRNA. The short form is produced from the initiation at a downstream, in-frame AUG start codon. Interestingly, our data suggest that the alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA also takes place in Escherichia coli transformants. When the gene encoding full-length hcArgRS was overexpressed in E. coli, two forms of hcArgRS were observed. The N-terminal sequencing experiment identified that the short form was identical to the ΔNhcArgRS in human cytoplasm. By constructing a bicistronic system, our data support that the mRNA encoding the N-terminal extension of hcArgRS has the capacity of independently recruiting E. coli ribosomes. Furthermore, two critical elements for recruiting prokaryotic ribosomes were identified, the “AGGA” core of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the “A-rich” sequence located just proximal to the alternative in-frame initiation site. Although the mechanisms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic translational initiation are distinct, they share some common features. The ability of the hcArgRS mRNA to recruit the prokaryotic ribosome may provide clues for shedding light on the mechanism of alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA in eukaryotic cells.
The inhibitory action of lignin on cellulase cocktails is a major challenge to the biological saccharification of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Although the mechanism remains unclear, hydrophobic interactions between enzymes and lignin are hypothesized to drive adsorption. Here we evaluate the role of hydrophobic interactions in enzyme-lignin binding. The hydrophobicity of the enzyme surface was quantified using an estimation of the clustering of nonpolar atoms, identifying potential interaction sites. The adsorption of enzymes to lignin surfaces, measured using the quartz crystal microbalance, correlates to the hydrophobic cluster scores. Further, these results suggest a minimum hydrophobic cluster size for a protein to preferentially adsorb to lignin. The impact of electrostatic contribution was ruled out by comparing the isoelectric point (pI) values to the adsorption of proteins to lignin surfaces. These results demonstrate the ability to predict enzyme-lignin adsorption and could potentially be used to design improved cellulase cocktails, thus lowering the overall cost of biofuel production.
Rab family small GTPases regulate membrane trafficking by spatiotemporal recruitment of various effectors. However, it remains largely unclear how the expression and functions of Rab proteins are regulated in response to extracellular or intracellular stimuli. Here we show that Ypt53, one isoform of Rab5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is up-regulated significantly under nutrient stress. Under non-stress conditions, Vps21, a constitutively expressed Rab5 isoform, is crucial to Golgi-vacuole trafficking and to vacuolar hydrolase activity. However, when cells are exposed to nutrient stress for an extended period of time, the up-regulated Ypt53 and the constitutive Vps21 function redundantly to maintain these activities, which, in turn, prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and maintain mitochondrial respiration. Together, our results clarify the relative roles of these constitutive and nutrient stress-inducible Rab5 proteins that ensure adaptable vesicle trafficking and vacuolar hydrolase activity, thereby allowing cells to adapt to environmental changes.
Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in higher vertebrate organisms and has been shown to be involved in junctional and non-junctional functions. In addition to the expression of full-length Cx43, endogenously produced carboxyl-terminal segments of Cx43 have been described and have been suggested to be involved in manifold biological functions, such as hypoxic preconditioning and neuronal migration. Molecular aspects, however, behind the separate generation of carboxyl-terminal segments of Cx43 have remained elusive. Here we report on a mechanism that may play a key role in the separate production of these domains. First, stringent evidence derived from siRNA treatment and specific knockouts revealed significant loss of the low molecular weight fragments of Cx43. By applying a dicistronic vector strategy on transfected cell lines, we were able to identify putative IRES activity (nucleotides 442–637) in the coding region of Cx43, which resides upstream from the nucleotide sequence encoding the carboxyl terminus (nucleotides 637–1149). Functional responsiveness of the endogenous expression of Cx43 fragments to hypoxic/ischemic treatment was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models, which led to a significant increase of the fastest migrating form (20 kDa) under conditions of metabolic deprivation. By nano-MS spectrometry, we achieved stringent evidence of the identity of the 20-kDa segment as part of the carboxyl-terminal domain of full-length Cx43. Our data prove the existence of endogenously expressed carboxyl-terminal domains, which may serve as valuable tools for further translational application in ischemic disorders.
The non-visual arrestins, arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, belong to a small family of multifunctional cytosolic proteins. Non-visual arrestins interact with hundreds of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and regulate GPCR desensitization by binding active phosphorylated GPCRs and uncoupling them from heterotrimeric G proteins. Recently, non-visual arrestins have been shown to mediate G protein-independent signaling by serving as adaptors and scaffolds that assemble multiprotein complexes. By recruiting various partners, including trafficking and signaling proteins, directly to GPCRs, non-visual arrestins connect activated receptors to diverse signaling pathways. To investigate arrestin-mediated signaling, a structural understanding of arrestin activation and interaction with GPCRs is essential. Here we identified global and local conformational changes in the non-visual arrestins upon binding to the model GPCR rhodopsin. To detect conformational changes, pairs of spin labels were introduced into arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, and the interspin distances in the absence and presence of the receptor were measured by double electron electron resonance spectroscopy. Our data indicate that both non-visual arrestins undergo several conformational changes similar to arrestin-1, including the finger loop moving toward the predicted location of the receptor in the complex as well as the C-tail release upon receptor binding. The arrestin-2 results also suggest that there is no clam shell-like closure of the N- and C-domains and that the loop containing residue 136 (homolog of 139 in arrestin-1) has high flexibility in both free and receptor-bound states.
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a common cause of invasive infections in newborn infants and adults. The ability of GBS to bind human fibrinogen is of crucial importance in promoting colonization and invasion of host barriers. We characterized here a novel fibrinogen-binding protein of GBS, designated FbsC (Gbs0791), which is encoded by the prototype GBS strain NEM316. FbsC, which bears two bacterial immunoglobulin-like tandem repeat domains and a C-terminal cell wall-anchoring motif (LPXTG), was found to be covalently linked to the cell wall by the housekeeping sortase A. Studies using recombinant FbsC indicated that it binds fibrinogen in a dose-dependent and saturable manner, and with moderate affinity. Expression of FbsC was detected in all clinical GBS isolates, except those belonging to the hypervirulent lineage ST17. Deletion of fbsC decreases NEM316 abilities to adhere to and invade human epithelial and endothelial cells, and to form biofilm in vitro. Notably, bacterial adhesion to fibrinogen and fibrinogen binding to bacterial cells were abolished following fbsC deletion in NEM316. Moreover, the virulence of the fbsC deletion mutant and its ability to colonize the brain were impaired in murine models of infection. Finally, immunization with recombinant FbsC significantly protected mice from lethal GBS challenge. In conclusion, FbsC is a novel fibrinogen-binding protein expressed by most GBS isolates that functions as a virulence factor by promoting invasion of epithelial and endothelial barriers. In addition, the protein has significant immunoprotective activity and may be a useful component of an anti-GBS vaccine.
The lymphatic system plays an important role in cancer metastasis and inhibition of lymphangiogenesis could be valuable in fighting cancer dissemination. Podoplanin (Pdpn) is a small, transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). During mouse development, binding of Pdpn to the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets is critical for the separation of the lymphatic and blood vascular systems. Competitive inhibition of Pdpn functions with a soluble form of the protein, Pdpn-Fc, leads to reduced lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. However, the transgenic overexpression of human Pdpn-Fc in mouse skin causes disseminated intravascular coagulation due to platelet activation via CLEC-2. In the present study, we produced and characterized a mutant form of mouse Pdpn-Fc, in which threonine 34, which is considered essential for CLEC-2 binding, was mutated to alanine (PdpnT34A-Fc). Indeed, PdpnT34A-Fc displayed a 30-fold reduced binding affinity for CLEC-2 compared with Pdpn-Fc. This also translated into fewer side effects due to platelet activation in vivo. Mice showed less prolonged bleeding time and fewer embolized vessels in the liver, when PdpnT34A-Fc was injected intravenously. However, PdpnT34A-Fc was still as active as wild-type Pdpn-Fc in inhibiting lymphangiogenesis in vitro and also inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vivo. These data suggest that the function of Pdpn in lymphangiogenesis does not depend on threonine 34 in the CLEC-2 binding domain and that PdpnT34A-Fc might be an improved inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis with fewer toxic side effects.
Wnt5a has been found recently to be involved in inflammation regulation through a mechanism that remains unclear. Immunohistochemical staining of infected human dental pulp and tissue from experimental dental pulpitis in rats showed that Wnt5a levels were increased. In vitro, Wnt5a was increased 8-fold in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) after TNF-α stimulation compared with control cells. We then investigated the role of Wnt5a in HDPCs. In the presence of TNF-α, Wnt5a further increased the production of cytokines/chemokines, whereas Wnt5a knockdown markedly reduced cytokine/chemokine production induced by TNF-α. In addition, in HDPCs, Wnt5a efficiently induced cytokine/chemokine expression and, in particular, expression of IL-8 (14.5-fold) and CCL2 (25.5-fold), as assessed by a Luminex assay. The cytokine subsets regulated by Wnt5a overlap partially with those induced by TNF-α. However, no TNF-α and IL-1β was detected after Wnt5a treatment. We then found that Wnt5a alone and the supernatants of Wnt5a-treated HDPCs significantly increased macrophage migration, which supports a role for Wnt5a in macrophage recruitment and as an inflammatory mediator in human dental pulp inflammation. Finally, Wnt5a participates in dental pulp inflammation in a MAPK-dependent (p38-, JNK-, and ERK-dependent) and NF-κB-dependent manner. Our data suggest that Wnt5a, as an inflammatory mediator that drives the integration of cytokines and chemokines, acts downstream of TNF-α.
Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within a Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) of amoebae and macrophages. Less is known about the carbon metabolism of the bacteria within the LCV. We have now analyzed the transfer and usage of amino acids from the natural host organism Acanthamoeba castellanii to Legionella pneumophila under in vivo (LCV) conditions. For this purpose, A. castellanii was 13C-labeled by incubation in buffer containing [U-13C6]glucose. Subsequently, these 13C-prelabeled amoebae were infected with L. pneumophila wild type or some mutants defective in putative key enzymes or regulators of carbon metabolism. 13C-Isotopologue compositions of amino acids from bacterial and amoebal proteins were then determined by mass spectrometry. In a comparative approach, the profiles documented the efficient uptake of Acanthamoeba amino acids into the LCV and further into L. pneumophila where they served as precursors for bacterial protein biosynthesis. More specifically, A. castellanii synthesized from exogenous [U-13C6]glucose unique isotopologue mixtures of several amino acids including Phe and Tyr, which were also observed in the same amino acids from LCV-grown L. pneumophila. Minor but significant differences were only detected in the isotopologue profiles of Ala, Asp, and Glu from the amoebal or bacterial protein fractions, respectively, indicating partial de novo synthesis of these amino acids by L. pneumophila. The similar isotopologue patterns in amino acids from L. pneumophila wild type and the mutants under study reflected the robustness of amino acid usage in the LCV of A. castellannii.
Actin-myosin interactions are well studied using soluble myosin fragments, but little is known about effects of myosin filament structure on mechanochemistry. We stabilized unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and phosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (pSMM) filaments against ATP-induced depolymerization using a cross-linker and attached fluorescent rhodamine (XL-Rh-SMM). Electron micrographs showed that these side polar filaments are very similar to unmodified filaments. They are ∼0.63 μm long and contain ∼176 molecules. Rate constants for ATP-induced dissociation and ADP release from acto-myosin for filaments and S1 heads were similar. Actin-activated ATPases of SMM and XL-Rh-SMM were similarly regulated. XL-Rh-pSMM filaments moved processively on F-actin that was bound to a PEG brush surface. ATP dependence of filament velocities was similar to that for solution ATPases at high [actin], suggesting that both processes are limited by the same kinetic step (weak to strong transition) and therefore are attachment-limited. This differs from actin sliding over myosin monomers, which is primarily detachment-limited. Fitting filament data to an attachment-limited model showed that approximately half of the heads are available to move the filament, consistent with a side polar structure. We suggest the low stiffness subfragment 2 (S2) domain remains unhindered during filament motion in our assay. Actin-bound negatively displaced heads will impart minimal drag force because of S2 buckling. Given the ADP release rate, the velocity, and the length of S2, these heads will detach from actin before slack is taken up into a backwardly displaced high stiffness position. This mechanism explains the lack of detachment-limited kinetics at physiological [ATP]. These findings address how nonlinear elasticity in assemblies of motors leads to efficient collective force generation.
Adipogenesis represents a key process in adipose tissue development and remodeling, including during obesity. Exploring the regulation of adipogenesis by extracellular ligands is fundamental to our understanding of this process. Adenosine, an extracellular nucleoside signaling molecule found in adipose tissue depots, acts on adenosine receptors. Here we report that, among these receptors, the A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR) is highly expressed in adipocyte progenitors. Activation of the A2bAR potently inhibits differentiation of mouse stromal vascular cells into adipocytes, whereas A2bAR knockdown stimulates adipogenesis. The A2bAR inhibits differentiation through a novel signaling cascade involving sustained expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a regulator of stem cell maintenance. Knockdown of KLF4 ablates the ability of the A2bAR to inhibit differentiation. A2bAR activation also inhibits adipogenesis in a human primary preadipocyte culture system. We analyzed the A2bAR-KLF4 axis in adipose tissue of obese subjects and, intriguingly, found a strong correlation between A2bAR and KLF4 expression in both subcutaneous and visceral human fat. Hence, our study implicates the A2bAR as a regulator of adipocyte differentiation and the A2bAR-KLF4 axis as a potentially significant modulator of adipose biology.
The ceramide-sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) rheostat is important in regulating cell fate. Several chemotherapeutic agents, including paclitaxel (Taxol), involve pro-apoptotic ceramide in their anticancer effects. The ceramide-to-S1P pathway is also implicated in the development of pain, raising the intriguing possibility that these sphingolipids may contribute to chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy, which can be a critical dose-limiting side effect of many widely used chemotherapeutic agents. We demonstrate that the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain was associated with ceramide and S1P formation in the spinal dorsal horn that corresponded with the engagement of S1P receptor subtype 1 (S1PR1)-dependent neuroinflammatory processes as follows: activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NFκB) and MAPKs (ERK and p38) as well as enhanced formation of pro-inflammatory and neuroexcitatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). Intrathecal delivery of the S1PR1 antagonist W146 reduced these neuroinflammatory processes but increased IL-10 and IL-4, potent anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective cytokines. Additionally, spinal W146 reversed established neuropathic pain. Noteworthy, systemic administration of the S1PR1 modulator FTY720 (Food and Drug Administration-approved for multiple sclerosis) attenuated the activation of these neuroinflammatory processes and abrogated neuropathic pain without altering anticancer properties of paclitaxel and with beneficial effects extended to oxaliplatin. Similar effects were observed with other structurally and chemically unrelated S1PR1 modulators (ponesimod and CYM-5442) and S1PR1 antagonists (NIBR-14/15) but not S1PR1 agonists (SEW2871). Our findings identify for the first time the S1P/S1PR1 axis as a promising molecular and therapeutic target in chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy, establish a mechanistic insight into the biomolecular signaling pathways, and provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of FTY720 in chronic pain patients.
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis encodes three diadenylate cyclases that synthesize the essential signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP. The activities of the vegetative enzymes DisA and CdaA are controlled by protein-protein interactions with their conserved partner proteins. Here, we have analyzed the regulation of the unique sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS. Very low expression of CdaS as the single diadenylate cyclase resulted in the appearance of spontaneous suppressor mutations. Several of these mutations in the cdaS gene affected the N-terminal domain of CdaS. The corresponding CdaS mutant proteins exhibited a significantly increased enzymatic activity. The N-terminal domain of CdaS consists of two α-helices and is attached to the C-terminal catalytically active diadenylate cyclase (DAC) domain. Deletion of the first or both helices resulted also in strongly increased activity indicating that the N-terminal domain serves to limit the enzyme activity of the DAC domain. The structure of YojJ, a protein highly similar to CdaS, indicates that the protein forms hexamers that are incompatible with enzymatic activity of the DAC domains. In contrast, the mutations and the deletions of the N-terminal domain result in conformational changes that lead to highly increased enzymatic activity. Although the full-length CdaS protein was found to form hexamers, a truncated version with a deletion of the first N-terminal helix formed dimers with high enzyme activity. To assess the role of CdaS in sporulation, we assayed the germination of wild type and cdaS mutant spores. The results indicate that cyclic di-AMP formed by CdaS is required for efficient germination.
Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is the only AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) family member known to interact with protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). However, the functional aspects of this complex are largely unknown. Here we report that the SIK2·PP2A complex preserves both kinase and phosphatase activities. In this capacity, SIK2 attenuates the association of the PP2A repressor, the protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), thus preserving the methylation status of the PP2A catalytic subunit. Furthermore, the SIK2·PP2A holoenzyme complex dephosphorylates and inactivates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI), an upstream kinase for phosphorylating PME-1/Ser15. The functionally antagonistic SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks thus constitute a negative feedback loop that modulates the phosphatase activity of PP2A. Depletion of SIK2 led to disruption of the SIK2·PP2A complex, activation of CaMKI, and downstream effects, including phosphorylation of HDAC5/Ser259, sequestration of HDAC5 in the cytoplasm, and activation of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C)-mediated gene expression. These results suggest that the SIK2·PP2A complex functions in the regulation of MEF2C-dependent transcription. Furthermore, this study suggests that the tightly linked regulatory loop comprised of the SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks may function in fine-tuning cell proliferation and stress response.
The molecular chaperone network protects against the toxic misfolding and aggregation of proteins. Disruption of this network leads to a variety of protein conformational disorders. One such example recently discovered is limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D), which is caused by mutation of the HSP40 chaperone DNAJB6. All LGMD1D-associated mutations localize to the conserved G/F domain of DNAJB6, but the function of this domain is largely unknown. Here, we exploit the yeast HSP40 Sis1, which has known aggregation-prone client proteins, to gain insight into the role of the G/F domain and its significance in LGMD1D pathogenesis. Strikingly, we demonstrate that LGMD1D mutations in a Sis1-DNAJB6 chimera differentially impair the processing of specific conformers of two yeast prions, [RNQ+] and [PSI+]. Importantly, these differences do not simply correlate to the sensitivity of these prion strains to changes in chaperone levels. Additionally, we analyzed the effect of LGMD1D-associated DNAJB6 mutations on TDP-43, a protein known to form inclusions in LGMD1D. We show that the DNAJB6 G/F domain mutants disrupt the processing of nuclear TDP-43 stress granules in mammalian cells. These data suggest that the G/F domain mediates chaperone-substrate interactions in a manner that extends beyond recognition of a particular client and to a subset of client conformers. We propose that such selective chaperone disruption may lead to the accumulation of toxic aggregate conformers and result in the development of LGMD1D and perhaps other protein conformational disorders.
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxin is an essential toxin that allows Bordetella pertussis to invade eukaryotic cells, where it is activated after binding to calmodulin (CaM). Based on the crystal structure of the AC catalytic domain in complex with the C-terminal half of CaM (C-CaM), our previous molecular dynamics simulations (Selwa, E., Laine, E., and Malliavin, T. (2012) Differential role of calmodulin and calcium ions in the stabilization of the catalytic domain of adenyl cyclase CyaA from Bordetella pertussis. Proteins 80, 1028–1040) suggested that three residues (i.e. Arg338, Asn347, and Asp360) might be important for stabilizing the AC/CaM interaction. These residues belong to a loop-helix-loop motif at the C-terminal end of AC, which is located at the interface between CaM and the AC catalytic loop. In the present study, we conducted the in silico and in vitro characterization of three AC variants, where one (Asn347; ACm1A), two (Arg338 and Asp360; ACm2A), or three residues (Arg338, Asn347, and Asp360; ACm3A) were substituted with Ala. Biochemical studies showed that the affinities of ACm1A and ACm2A for CaM were not affected significantly, whereas that of ACm3A was reduced dramatically. To understand the effects of these modifications, molecular dynamics simulations were performed based on the modified proteins. The molecular dynamics trajectories recorded for the ACm3A·C-CaM complex showed that the calcium-binding loops of C-CaM exhibited large fluctuations, which could be related to the weakened interaction between ACm3A and its activator. Overall, our results suggest that the loop-helix-loop motif at the C-terminal end of AC is crucial during CaM binding for stabilizing the AC catalytic loop in an active configuration.
Rifamycin B, a product of Amycolatopsis mediterranei S699, is the precursor of clinically used antibiotics that are effective against tuberculosis, leprosy, and AIDS-related mycobacterial infections. However, prolonged usage of these antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of rifamycin-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As part of our effort to generate better analogs of rifamycin, we substituted the acyltransferase domain of module 6 of rifamycin polyketide synthase with that of module 2 of rapamycin polyketide synthase. The resulting mutants (rifAT6::rapAT2) of A. mediterranei S699 produced new rifamycin analogs, 24-desmethylrifamycin B and 24-desmethylrifamycin SV, which contained modification in the polyketide backbone. 24-Desmethylrifamycin B was then converted to 24-desmethylrifamycin S, whose structure was confirmed by MS, NMR, and X-ray crystallography. Subsequently, 24-desmethylrifamycin S was converted to 24-desmethylrifampicin, which showed excellent antibacterial activity against several rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains.
In the ciliary epithelium of the eye, the pigmented cells express the α1β1 isoform of Na,K-ATPase, whereas the non-pigmented cells express mainly the α2β3 isoform of Na,K-ATPase. In principle, a Na,K-ATPase inhibitor with selectivity for α2 could effectively reduce intraocular pressure with only minimal local and systemic toxicity. Such an inhibitor could be applied topically provided it was sufficiently permeable via the cornea. Previous experiments with recombinant human α1β1, α2β1, and α3β1 isoforms showed that the classical cardiac glycoside, digoxin, is partially α2-selective and also that the trisdigitoxose moiety is responsible for isoform selectivity. This led to a prediction that modification of the third digitoxose might increase α2 selectivity. A series of perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin have been synthesized by periodate oxidation and reductive amination using a variety of R-NH2 substituents. Several derivatives show enhanced selectivity for α2 over α1, close to 8-fold in the best case. Effects of topically applied cardiac glycosides on intraocular pressure in rabbits have been assessed by their ability to either prevent or reverse acute intraocular pressure increases induced by 4-aminopyridine or a selective agonist of the A3 adenosine receptor. Two relatively α2-selective digoxin derivatives efficiently normalize the ocular hypertension, by comparison with digoxin, digoxigenin, or ouabain. This observation is consistent with a major role of α2 in aqueous humor production and suggests that, potentially, α2-selective digoxin derivatives could be of interest as novel drugs for control of intraocular pressure.
RNA granules are large messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes that regulate translation and mRNA translocation to control the timing and location of protein synthesis. The regulation of RNA granule assembly and disassembly is a structural basis of translational control, and its disorder is implicated in degenerative disease. Here, we used proteomic analysis to identify proteins associated with RNA granule protein 105 (RNG105)/caprin1, an RNA-binding protein in RNA granules. Among the identified proteins, we focused on nuclear factor (NF) 45 and its binding partner, nuclear factor associated with dsRNA 2 (NFAR2), and we demonstrated that NF45 promotes disassembly of RNA granules, whereas NFAR2 enhances the assembly of RNA granules in cultured cells. The GQSY domain of NFAR2 was required to associate with messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes containing RNG105/caprin1, and it was structurally and functionally related to the low complexity sequence domain of the fused in sarcoma protein, which drives the assembly of RNA granules. Another domain of NFAR2, the DZF domain, was dispensable for association with the RNG105 complex, but it was involved in positive and negative regulation of RNA granule assembly by being phosphorylated at double-stranded RNA-activated kinase sites and by association with NF45, respectively. These results suggest a novel molecular mechanism for the modulation of RNA granule assembly and disassembly by NFAR2, NF45, and phosphorylation at double-stranded RNA-activated kinase PKR sites.
The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), comprised of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and cyclins T1 (CycT1) or T2 (CycT2), activates eukaryotic transcription elongation. In growing cells, P-TEFb exists in active and inactive forms. In the latter, it is incorporated into the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, which contains hexamethylene bisacetamide-induced proteins (HEXIM) 1 or 2, La-related protein 7 (LaRP7), methyl phosphate capping enzyme, and 7SK small nuclear RNA (7SK). HEXIM1 inhibits the kinase activity of CDK9 via interactions between 7SK, HEXIM1, and CycT1. LaRP7 and methyl phosphate capping enzyme interact with 7SK independently of HEXIM1 and P-TEFb. To analyze genetic interactions between HEXIM1 and/or LaRP7 and 7SK using a cell-based system, we established artificial heterologous RNA tethering assays in which reporter gene expression depended on interactions between selected regions of 7SK and its cognate binding partners fused to a strong activator. This system enabled us to map the HEXIM1- and LaRP7- binding regions of 7SK. Assays with various mutant 7SK plasmid targets revealed that the 5′ U-U bulge and central loop of stem-loop I or RNA motif 3 of 7SK are required for transactivation, suggesting that HEXIM1 and CycT1 form a combinatorial binding surface for 7SK. Moreover, a region in HEXIM1 C-terminal to its previously mapped RNA-binding motif was also required for interactions between HEXIM1 and 7SK. Finally, a tyrosine-to-alanine mutation in HEXIM1, which is critical for its inhibitory effect on CDK9, changed HEXIM1 into an activator. These cell-based assays elucidate this important aspect of transcription elongation in vivo.
Toxin YafQ functions as a ribonuclease in the dinJ-yafQ toxin-antitoxin system of Escherichia coli. Antitoxin DinJ neutralizes YafQ-mediated toxicity by forming a stable protein complex. Here, crystal structures of the (DinJ)2-(YafQ)2 complex and the isolated YafQ toxin have been determined. The structure of the heterotetrameric complex (DinJ)2-(YafQ)2 revealed that the N-terminal region of DinJ folds into a ribbon-helix-helix motif and dimerizes for DNA recognition, and the C-terminal portion of each DinJ exclusively wraps around a YafQ molecule. Upon incorporation into the heterotetrameric complex, a conformational change of YafQ in close proximity to the catalytic site of the typical microbial ribonuclease fold was observed and validated. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that a DinJ mutant restored YafQ RNase activity in a tetramer complex in vitro but not in vivo. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that one of the palindromic sequences present in the upstream intergenic region of DinJ served as a binding sequences for both the DinJ-YafQ complex and the antitoxin DinJ alone. Based on structure-guided and site-directed mutagenesis of DinJ-YafQ, we showed that two pairs of amino acids in DinJ were important for DNA binding; the R8A and K16A substitutions and the S31A and R35A substitutions in DinJ abolished the DNA binding ability of the DinJ-YafQ complex.
Bonala et al. (1) report that high glucose or fat increases myostatin protein expression in muscle and surprisingly liver (cells and tissue) and that myostatin induces insulin resistance. Their myostatin antiserum used for Western blotting and possibly ELISAs (not discussed) recognizes a reported 26-kDa protein under reducing conditions despite a predicted and empirically determined 12.5-kDa mass (2, 3). This group previously reported that the antiserum recognizes the same 26-kDa protein in mstn−/− muscle extracts (4). Zimmers et al. (3) also identified this protein in wild-type and mstn−/− mice, although their antiserum detected only a 12.5-kDa band in wild-type mice. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated the lack of myostatin mRNA in liver. These findings together suggest that Bonala et al. (1) did not quantify myostatin as their antiserum appears to cross-react with an unknown protein. There is also concern with their use of recombinant myostatin made in bacteria, which cannot form the critical disulfide necessary for myostatin maturation. These recombinants may function as dominant negatives and were reported to inhibit C2C12 proliferation whereas different sources of recombinant myostatin generated in eukaryotes stimulate it (5). In fact, concentrations used by Bonala et al. (1) were supraphysiological, 100-fold higher than the functional concentrations of recombinant myostatin made in eukaryotes, which greatly exceeds the nanomolar affinity range of ActRIIb. This use of highly questionable reagents in turn questions many of the authors' conclusions. It also adds confusion to the field, and unless the reagents can be finally validated, their use should be discontinued.
This is a response to a letter by Rodgers (1). Yes, myostatin does indeed regulate insulin sensitivity as shown through several independent lines of evidence. The anti-myostatin antibody that we have used throughout this study is procured from R hence high concentrations of the protein are required in our bioassays....