Two mutants that grew faster than the wild-type (WT) strain under high light conditions were isolated from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 transformed with a transposon-bearing library. Both mutants had a tag in ssl1690 encoding NdhO. Deletion of ndhO increased the activity of NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1)-dependent cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (NDH-CET), while overexpression decreased the activity. Although deletion and overexpression of ndhO did not have significant effects on the amount of other subunits such as NdhH, NdhI, NdhK, and NdhM in the cells, the amount of these subunits in the medium size NDH-1 (NDH-1M) complex was higher in the ndhO-deletion mutant and much lower in the overexpression strain than in the WT. NdhO strongly interacts with NdhI and NdhK but not with other subunits. NdhI interacts with NdhK and the interaction was blocked by NdhO. The blocking may destabilize the NDH-1M complex and repress the NDH-CET activity. When cells were transferred from growth light to high light, the amounts of NdhI and NdhK increased without significant change in the amount of NdhO, thus decreasing the relative amount of NdhO. This might have decreased the blocking, thereby stabilizing the NDH-1M complex and increasing the NDH-CET activity under high light conditions.
Pigmentation of light-harvesting phycobiliproteins of cyanobacteria requires covalent attachment of open-chain tetrapyrroles, bilins, to the apoproteins. Thioether formation via addition of a cysteine residue to the 3-ethylidene substituent of bilins is mediated by lyases. T-type lyases are responsible for attachment to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits. We present crystal structures of CpcT (All5339) from Nostoc (Anabaena) sp. PCC 7120 and its complex with phycocyanobilin at 1.95 and 2.50 Å resolution, respectively. CpcT forms a dimer and adopts a calyx-shaped β-barrel fold. Although the overall structure of CpcT is largely retained upon chromophore binding, arginine residues at the opening of the binding pocket undergo major rotameric rearrangements anchoring the propionate groups of phycocyanobilin. Based on the structure and mutational analysis, a reaction mechanism is proposed that accounts for chromophore stabilization and regio- and stereospecificity of the addition reaction. At the dimer interface, a loop extending from one subunit partially shields the opening of the phycocyanobilin binding pocket in the other subunit. Deletion of the loop or disruptions of the dimer interface significantly reduce CpcT lyase activity, suggesting functional relevance of the dimer. Dimerization is further enhanced by chromophore binding. The chromophore is largely buried in the dimer, but in the monomer, the 3-ethylidene group is accessible for the apophycobiliprotein, preferentially from the chromophore α-side. Asp-163 and Tyr-65 at the β- and α-face near the E-configured ethylidene group, respectively, support the acid-catalyzed nucleophilic Michael addition of cysteine 155 of the apoprotein to an N-acylimmonium intermediate proposed by Grubmayr and Wagner (Grubmayr, K., and Wagner, U. G. (1988) Monatsh. Chem. 119, 965–983).
♦ See referenced article, J. Biol. Chem. 2014, 289, 26677–26689 Phycobiliproteins are light-harvesting proteins used by cyanobacteria and certain types of algae, including flagellar algae called cryptophytes. Phycobiliproteins are made when chromophores are covalently attached to apoproteins during a post-translational modification process. Such covalent attachments are catalyzed by phycobiliprotein lyases. In the Paper of the Week by Zhou et al., the Zhao group of Huazhong Agricultural University in collaboration with Xiaojing Yang at the University of Illinois at Chicago obtained two crystal structures of a lyase called CpcT in the absence of and in complex with the phycocyanobilin chromophore. The investigators found that CpcT largely retains the overall calycin-type β-barrel structure when it binds the chromophore; however, a few arginine residues at the mouth of the binding pocket rearrange to anchor the propionate groups of the phycocyanobilin. The authors further proposed a reaction mechanism that explained how the chromophore was stabilized by the lyase for the attachment reaction and how the CpcT structure influences the regio- and stereospecificity of the reaction. In the Paper of the Week by the team led by Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel at the Ruhr University Bochum in Germany, the investigators looked into how Guillardia theta, a cryptophyte that relies on a single type of phycobiliprotein, the phycoerythrin PE545 with the uncommon chromophore 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin as well as phycoerythrobilin (PEB). Frankenberg-Dinkel and colleagues identified the enzymes involved in PEB biosynthesis. They also characterized one Guillardia theta phycobiliprotein lyase (GtCPES). Based on their analyses, the investigators showed that the...
Phycobiliproteins are employed by cyanobacteria, red algae, glaucophytes, and cryptophytes for light-harvesting and consist of apoproteins covalently associated with open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores. Although the majority of organisms assemble the individual phycobiliproteins into larger aggregates called phycobilisomes, members of the cryptophytes use a single type of phycobiliprotein that is localized in the thylakoid lumen. The cryptophyte Guillardia theta (Gt) uses phycoerythrin PE545 utilizing the uncommon chromophore 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin (DHBV) in addition to phycoerythrobilin (PEB). Both the biosynthesis and the attachment of chromophores to the apophycobiliprotein have not yet been investigated for cryptophytes. In this study, we identified and characterized enzymes involved in PEB biosynthesis. In addition, we present the first in-depth biochemical characterization of a eukaryotic phycobiliprotein lyase (GtCPES). Plastid-encoded HO (GtHo) was shown to convert heme into biliverdin IXα providing the substrate with a putative nucleus-encoded DHBV:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (GtPEBA). A PEB:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (GtPEBB) was found to convert DHBV to PEB, which is the substrate for the phycobiliprotein lyase GtCPES. The x-ray structure of GtCPES was solved at 2.0 Å revealing a 10-stranded β-barrel with a modified lipocalin fold. GtCPES is an S-type lyase specific for binding of phycobilins with reduced C15=C16 double bonds (DHBV and PEB). Site-directed mutagenesis identified residues Glu-136 and Arg-146 involved in phycobilin binding. Based on the crystal structure, a model for the interaction of GtCPES with the apophycobiliprotein CpeB is proposed and discussed.
♦ See referenced article, J. Biol. Chem. 2014, 289, 26691–26707 Phycobiliproteins are light-harvesting proteins used by cyanobacteria and certain types of algae, including flagellar algae called cryptophytes. Phycobiliproteins are made when chromophores are covalently attached to apoproteins during a post-translational modification process. Such covalent attachments are catalyzed by phycobiliprotein lyases. In the Paper of the Week by Zhou et al., the Zhao group of Huazhong Agricultural University in collaboration with Xiaojing Yang at the University of Illinois at Chicago obtained two crystal structures of a lyase called CpcT in the absence of and in complex with the phycocyanobilin chromophore. The investigators found that CpcT largely retains the overall calycin-type β-barrel structure when it binds the chromophore; however, a few arginine residues at the mouth of the binding pocket rearrange to anchor the propionate groups of the phycocyanobilin. The authors further proposed a reaction mechanism that explained how the chromophore was stabilized by the lyase for the attachment reaction and how the CpcT structure influences the regio- and stereospecificity of the reaction. In the Paper of the Week by the team led by Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel at the Ruhr University Bochum in Germany, the investigators looked into how Guillardia theta, a cryptophyte that relies on a single type of phycobiliprotein, the phycoerythrin PE545 with the uncommon chromophore 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin as well as phycoerythrobilin (PEB). Frankenberg-Dinkel and colleagues identified the enzymes involved in PEB biosynthesis. They also characterized one Guillardia theta phycobiliprotein lyase (GtCPES). Based on their analyses, the investigators showed that the...
Mucolipidosis II (MLII) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by loss of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, which tags lysosomal enzymes with a mannose 6-phosphate marker for transport to the lysosome. In MLII, the loss of this marker leads to deficiency of multiple enzymes and non-enzymatic proteins in the lysosome, leading to the storage of multiple substrates. Here we present a novel mouse model of MLII homozygous for a patient mutation in the GNPTAB gene. Whereas the current gene knock-out mouse model of MLII lacks some of the characteristic features of the human disease, our novel mouse model more fully recapitulates the human pathology, showing growth retardation, skeletal and facial abnormalities, increased circulating lysosomal enzymatic activities, intracellular lysosomal storage, and reduced life span. Importantly, MLII behavioral deficits are characterized for the first time, including impaired motor function and psychomotor retardation. Histological analysis of the brain revealed progressive neurodegeneration in the cerebellum with severe Purkinje cell loss as the underlying cause of the ataxic gait. In addition, based on the loss of Npc2 (Niemann-Pick type C 2) protein expression in the brain, the mice were treated with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, a drug previously reported to rescue Purkinje cell death in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease. No improvement in brain pathology was observed. This indicates that cerebellar degeneration is not primarily triggered by loss of Npc2 function. This study emphasizes the value of modeling MLII patient mutations to generate clinically relevant mouse mutants to elucidate the pathogenic molecular pathways of MLII and address their amenability to therapy.
Neurodegenerative diseases share a common characteristic, the presence of intracellular or extracellular deposits of protein aggregates in nervous tissues. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disorder, which affects preferentially motoneurons. Changes in the redox state of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are associated with the onset and development of familial forms of ALS. In human SOD1 (hSOD1), a conserved disulfide bond and two free cysteine residues can engage in anomalous thiol/disulfide exchange resulting in non-native disulfides, a hallmark of ALS that is related to protein misfolding and aggregation. Because of the many competing reaction pathways, traditional bulk techniques fall short at quantifying individual thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. Here, we adapt recently developed single-bond chemistry techniques to study individual disulfide isomerization reactions in hSOD1. Mechanical unfolding of hSOD1 leads to the formation of a polypeptide loop held by the disulfide. This loop behaves as a molecular jump rope that brings reactive Cys-111 close to the disulfide. Using force-clamp spectroscopy, we monitor nucleophilic attack of Cys-111 at either sulfur of the disulfide and determine the selectivity of the reaction. Disease-causing mutations G93A and A4V show greatly altered reactivity patterns, which may contribute to the progression of familial ALS.
The presence of intraneuronal deposits mainly formed by amyloid fibrils of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (AS) is a hallmark of Parkinson disease. Currently, neurotoxicity is attributed to prefibrillar oligomeric species rather than the insoluble aggregates, although their mechanisms of toxicity remain elusive. Structural details of the supramolecular organization of AS oligomers are critically needed to decipher the structure-toxicity relationship underlying their pathogenicity. In this study, we employed site-specific fluorescence to get a deeper insight into the internal architecture of AS oligomeric intermediates. We demonstrate that AS oligomers are ordered assemblies possessing a well defined pattern of intermolecular contacts. Some of these contacts involve regions that form the β-sheet core in the fibrillar state, although their spatial arrangement may differ in the two aggregated forms. However, even though the two termini are excluded from the fibrillar core, they are engaged in a number of intermolecular interactions within the oligomer. Therefore, substantial structural remodeling of early oligomeric interactions is essential for fibril growth. The intermolecular contacts identified in AS oligomers can serve as targets for the rational design of anti-amyloid compounds directed at preventing oligomeric interactions/reorganizations.
RPE65 is the retinoid isomerohydrolase that converts all-trans-retinyl ester to 11-cis-retinol, a key reaction in the retinoid visual cycle. We have previously reported that cone-dominant chicken RPE65 (cRPE65) shares 90% sequence identity with human RPE65 (hRPE65) but exhibits substantially higher isomerohydrolase activity than that of bovine RPE65 or hRPE65. In this study, we sought to identify key residues responsible for the higher enzymatic activity of cRPE65. Based on the amino acid sequence comparison of mammalian and other lower vertebrates' RPE65, including cone-dominant chicken, 8 residues of hRPE65 were separately replaced by their counterparts of cRPE65 using site-directed mutagenesis. The enzymatic activities of cRPE65, hRPE65, and its mutants were measured by in vitro isomerohydrolase activity assay, and the retinoid products were analyzed by HPLC. Among the mutants analyzed, two single point mutants, N170K and K297G, and a double mutant, N170K/K297G, of hRPE65 exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than WT hRPE65. Further, when an amino-terminal fragment (Met1–Arg33) of the N170K/K297G double mutant of hRPE65 was replaced with the corresponding cRPE65 fragment, the isomerohydrolase activity was further increased to a level similar to that of cRPE65. This finding contributes to the understanding of the structural basis for isomerohydrolase activity. This highly efficient human isomerohydrolase mutant can be used to improve the efficacy of RPE65 gene therapy for retinal degeneration caused by RPE65 mutations.
Th2 memory lymphocytes have imprinted their Il4 genes epigenetically for expression in dependence of T cell receptor restimulation. However, in a given restimulation, not all Th cells with a memory for IL-4 expression express IL-4. Here, we show that in reactivated Th2 cells, the transcription factors NFATc2, NF-kB p65, c-Maf, p300, Brg1, STAT6, and GATA-3 assemble at the Il4 promoter in Th2 cells expressing IL-4 but not in Th2 cells not expressing it. NFATc2 is critical for assembly of this transcription factor complex. Because NFATc2 translocation into the nucleus occurs in an all-or-none fashion, dependent on complete dephosphorylation by calcineurin, NFATc2 controls the frequencies of cells reexpressing Il4, translates analog differences in T cell receptor stimulation into a digital decision for Il4 reexpression, and instructs all reexpressing cells to express the same amount of IL-4. This analog-to-digital conversion may be critical for the immune system to respond to low concentrations of antigens.
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) 1.1 channels undergo a specific enzymatic RNA deamination, generating a channel with a single amino acid exchange located in the inner pore cavity (Kv1.1I400V). We studied I400V-edited Kv1.1 channels in more detail and found that Kv1.1I400V gave rise to much smaller whole-cell currents than Kv1.1. To elucidate the mechanism behind this current reduction, we conducted electrophysiological recordings on single-channel level and did not find any differences. Next we examined channel surface expression in Xenopus oocytes and HeLa cells using a chemiluminescence assay and found the edited channels to be less readily expressed at the surface membrane. This reduction in surface expression was verified by fluorescence imaging experiments. Western blot analysis for comparison of protein abundances and glycosylation patterns did not show any difference between Kv1.1 and Kv1.1I400V, further indicating that changed trafficking of Kv1.1I400V is causing the current reduction. Block of endocytosis by dynasore or AP180C did not abolish the differences in current amplitudes between Kv1.1 and Kv1.1I400V, suggesting that backward trafficking is not affected. Therefore, our data suggest that I400V RNA editing of Kv1.1 leads to a reduced current size by a decreased forward trafficking of the channel to the surface membrane. This effect is specific for Kv1.1 because coexpression of Kv1.4 channel subunits with Kv1.1I400V abolishes these trafficking effects. Taken together, we identified RNA editing as a novel mechanism to regulate homomeric Kv1.1 channel trafficking. Fine-tuning of Kv1.1 surface expression by RNA editing might contribute to the complexity of neuronal Kv channel regulation.
My career pathway has taken a circuitous route, beginning with a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from The Johns Hopkins University, followed by five postdoctoral years in biology at Hopkins and culminating in a faculty position in biological sciences at the University of Southern California. My startup package in 1973 consisted of $2,500, not to be spent all at once, plus an ancient Packard scintillation counter that had a series of rapidly flashing light bulbs to indicate a radioactive readout in counts/minute. My research pathway has been similarly circuitous. The discovery of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V (pol V) began with an attempt to identify the mutagenic DNA polymerase responsible for copying damaged DNA as part of the well known SOS regulon. Although we succeeded in identifying a DNA polymerase, one that was induced as part of the SOS response, we actually rediscovered DNA polymerase II, albeit in a new role. A decade later, we discovered a new polymerase, pol V, whose activity turned out to be regulated by bound molecules of RecA protein and ATP. This Reflections article describes our research trajectory, includes a review of key features of DNA damage-induced SOS mutagenesis leading us to pol V, and reflects on some of the principal researchers who have made indispensable contributions to our efforts.
In neurons, the plasma membrane is functionally separated into several distinct segments. Neurons form these domains by delivering selected components to and by confining them within each segment of the membrane. Although some mechanisms of the delivery are elucidated, that of the confinement is unclear. We show here that 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OPPC), a unique molecular species of phospholipids, is concentrated at the protrusion tips of several neuronal culture cells and the presynaptic area of neuronal synapses of the mouse brain. In PC12 cells, NGF-stimulated neuronal differentiation induces a phospholipase A1 activity at the protrusion tips, which co-localizes with the OPPC domain. Inhibition of the phospholipase A1 activity leads to suppression of phospholipid remodeling in the tip membrane and results in disappearance of the OPPC at the tips. In these cells, confinement of dopamine transporter and Gαo proteins to the tip was also disrupted. These findings link the lateral distribution of the molecular species of phospholipids to the formation of functional segments in the plasma membrane of neurons and to the mechanism of protein confinement at the synapse.
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) form the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. We have shown previously that ATP release and autocrine purinergic signaling via P2Y2 receptors are essential for PMN activation. Here we show that mitochondria provide the ATP that initiates PMN activation. Stimulation of formyl peptide receptors increases the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and triggers a rapid burst of ATP release from PMNs. This burst of ATP release can be blocked by inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP production and requires an initial formyl peptide receptor-induced Ca2+ signal that triggers mitochondrial activation. The burst of ATP release generated by the mitochondria fuels a first phase of purinergic signaling that boosts Ca2+ signaling, amplifies mitochondrial ATP production, and initiates functional PMN responses. Cells then switch to glycolytic ATP production, which fuels a second round of purinergic signaling that sustains Ca2+ signaling via P2X receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx and maintains functional PMN responses such as oxidative burst, degranulation, and phagocytosis.
Tumors are often greatly dependent on signaling cascades promoting cell growth or survival and may become hypersensitive to inactivation of key components within these signaling pathways. Ras and RAF mutations found in human cancer confer constitutive activity to these signaling molecules thereby converting them into an oncogenic state. RAF dimerization is required for normal Ras-dependent RAF activation and is required for the oncogenic potential of mutant RAFs. Here we describe a new mouse model for lung tumor development to investigate the role of B-RAF in oncogenic C-RAF-mediated adenoma initiation and growth. Conditional elimination of B-RAF in C-RAF BxB-expressing embryonic alveolar epithelial type II cells did not block adenoma formation. However, loss of B-RAF led to significantly reduced tumor growth. The diminished tumor growth upon B-RAF inactivation was due to reduced cell proliferation in absence of senescence and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, B-RAF elimination inhibited C-RAF BxB-mediated activation of the mitogenic cascade. In line with these data, mutation of Ser-621 in C-RAF BxB abrogated in vitro the dimerization with B-RAF and blocked the ability to activate the MAPK cascade. Taken together these data indicate that B-RAF is an important factor in oncogenic C-RAF-mediated tumorigenesis.
The disease risk and age of onset of Huntington disease (HD) and nine other repeat disorders strongly depend on the expansion of CAG repeats encoding consecutive polyglutamines (polyQ) in the corresponding disease protein. PolyQ length-dependent misfolding and aggregation are the hallmarks of CAG pathologies. Despite intense effort, the overall structure of these aggregates remains poorly understood. Here, we used sensitive time-dependent fluorescent decay measurements to assess the architecture of mature fibrils of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 implicated in HD pathology. Varying the position of the fluorescent labels in the Htt monomer with expanded 51Q (Htt51Q) and using structural models of putative fibril structures, we generated distance distributions between donors and acceptors covering all possible distances between the monomers or monomer dimensions within the polyQ amyloid fibril. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we systematically scanned all possible monomer conformations that fit the experimentally measured decay times. Monomers with four-stranded 51Q stretches organized into five-layered β-sheets with alternating N termini of the monomers perpendicular to the fibril axis gave the best fit to our data. Alternatively, the core structure of the polyQ fibrils might also be a zipper layer with antiparallel four-stranded stretches as this structure showed the next best fit. All other remaining arrangements are clearly excluded by the data. Furthermore, the assessed dimensions of the polyQ stretch of each monomer provide structural evidence for the observed polyQ length threshold in HD pathology. Our approach can be used to validate the effect of pharmacological substances that inhibit or alter amyloid growth and structure.
Variable (V) domains of antibodies are essential for antigen recognition by our adaptive immune system. However, some variants of the light chain V domains (VL) form pathogenic amyloid fibrils in patients. It is so far unclear which residues play a key role in governing these processes. Here, we show that the conserved residue 2 of VL domains is crucial for controlling its thermodynamic stability and fibril formation. Hydrophobic side chains at position 2 stabilize the domain, whereas charged residues destabilize and lead to amyloid fibril formation. NMR experiments identified several segments within the core of the VL domain to be affected by changes in residue 2. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations showed that hydrophobic side chains at position 2 remain buried in a hydrophobic pocket, and charged side chains show a high flexibility. This results in a predicted difference in the dissociation free energy of ∼10 kJ mol−1, which is in excellent agreement with our experimental values. Interestingly, this switch point is found only in VL domains of the κ family and not in VLλ or in VH domains, despite a highly similar domain architecture. Our results reveal novel insight into the architecture of variable domains and the prerequisites for formation of amyloid fibrils. This might also contribute to the rational design of stable variable antibody domains.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent investigations suggest that activation of Th17 cells and/or deficiency of regulatory T cells (Treg) is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a protein with a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory function, which exerts significantly protective roles in various T cell-mediated diseases. In this study, we aim to explore the immunological regulation of HO-1 in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of experimental murine colitis. BALB/c mice were administered 4% dextran sulfate sodium orally; some mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with HO-1 inducer hemin or HO-1 inhibitor stannum protoporphyrin IX. The results show that hemin enhances the colonic expression of HO-1 and significantly ameliorates the symptoms of colitis with improved histological changes, accompanied by a decreased proportion of Th17 cells and increased number of Tregs in mesenteric lymph node and spleen. Moreover, induction of HO-1 down-regulates retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt expression and IL-17A levels, while promoting Treg-related forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression and IL-10 levels in colon. Further study in vitro revealed that up-regulated HO-1 switched the naive T cells to Tregs when cultured under a Th17-inducing environment, which involved in IL-6R blockade. Therefore, HO-1 may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in the murine model of acute experimental colitis via regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells, thus providing a possible novel therapeutic target in IBD.
Although amyloid fibrils assembled in vitro commonly involve a single protein, fibrils formed in vivo can contain multiple protein sequences. The amyloidogenic protein human β2-microglobulin (hβ2m) can co-polymerize with its N-terminally truncated variant (ΔN6) in vitro to form hetero-polymeric fibrils that differ from their homo-polymeric counterparts. Discrimination between the different assembly precursors, for example by binding of a biomolecule to one species in a mixture of conformers, offers an opportunity to alter the course of co-assembly and the properties of the fibrils formed. Here, using hβ2m and its amyloidogenic counterpart, ΔΝ6, we describe selection of a 2′F-modified RNA aptamer able to distinguish between these very similar proteins. SELEX with a N30 RNA pool yielded an aptamer (B6) that binds hβ2m with an EC50 of ∼200 nm. NMR spectroscopy was used to assign the 1H-15N HSQC spectrum of the B6-hβ2m complex, revealing that the aptamer binds to the face of hβ2m containing the A, B, E, and D β-strands. In contrast, binding of B6 to ΔN6 is weak and less specific. Kinetic analysis of the effect of B6 on co-polymerization of hβ2m and ΔN6 revealed that the aptamer alters the kinetics of co-polymerization of the two proteins. The results reveal the potential of RNA aptamers as tools for elucidating the mechanisms of co-assembly in amyloid formation and as reagents able to discriminate between very similar protein conformers with different amyloid propensity.
Previous reports have suggested that human CD4+ CD25hiFOXP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) have functional plasticity and may differentiate into effector T cells under inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these findings remain unclear. Here we identified the residue serine 422 of human FOXP3 as a phosphorylation site that regulates its function, which is not present in murine Foxp3. PIM1 kinase, which is highly expressed in human Tregs, was found to be able to interact with and to phosphorylate human FOXP3 at serine 422. T cell receptor (TCR) signaling inhibits PIM1 induction, whereas IL-6 promotes PIM1 expression in in vitro expanded human Tregs. PIM1 negatively regulates FOXP3 chromatin binding activity by specifically phosphorylating FOXP3 at Ser422. Our data also suggest that phosphorylation of FOXP3 at the Ser418 site could prevent FOXP3 phosphorylation at Ser422 mediated by PIM1. Knockdown of PIM1 in in vitro expanded human Tregs promoted FOXP3-induced target gene expression, including CD25, CTLA4, and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), or weakened FOXP3-suppressed IL-2 gene expression and enhanced the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs. Furthermore, PIM1-specific inhibitor boosted FOXP3 DNA binding activity in in vitro expanded primary Tregs and also enhanced their suppressive activity toward the proliferation of T effector cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that PIM1 could be a new potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of human-specific autoimmune diseases because of its ability to modulate the immunosuppressive activity of human Tregs.
With oxidative injury as well as in some solid tumors and myeloid leukemia cells, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic microsomal stress protein, migrates to the nucleus in a truncated and enzymatically inactive form. However, the function of HO-1 in the nucleus is not completely clear. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor and master regulator of numerous antioxidants and anti-apoptotic proteins, including HO-1, also accumulates in the nucleus with oxidative injury and in various types of cancer. Here we demonstrate that in oxidative stress, nuclear HO-1 interacts with Nrf2 and stabilizes it from glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-mediated phosphorylation coupled with ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation, thereby prolonging its accumulation in the nucleus. This regulation of Nrf2 post-induction by nuclear HO-1 is important for the preferential transcription of phase II detoxification enzymes such as NQO1 as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), a regulator of the pentose phosphate pathway. Using Nrf2 knock-out cells, we further demonstrate that nuclear HO-1-associated cytoprotection against oxidative stress depends on an HO-1/Nrf2 interaction. Although it is well known that Nrf2 induces HO-1 leading to mitigation of oxidant stress, we propose a novel mechanism by which HO-1, by modulating the activation of Nrf2, sets an adaptive reprogramming that enhances antioxidant defenses.
Rotenone is a naturally occurring mitochondrial complex I inhibitor with a known association with parkinsonian phenotypes in both human populations and rodent models. Despite these findings, a clear mechanistic link between rotenone exposure and neuronal damage remains to be determined. Here, we report alterations to lipid metabolism in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to rotenone. The absolute levels of acetyl-CoA were found to be maintained despite a significant decrease in glucose-derived acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, palmitoyl-CoA levels were maintained, whereas the levels of many of the medium-chain acyl-CoA species were significantly reduced. Additionally, using isotopologue analysis, we found that β-oxidation of fatty acids with varying chain lengths helped maintain acetyl-CoA levels. Rotenone also induced increased glutamine utilization for lipogenesis, in part through reductive carboxylation, as has been found previously in other cell types. Finally, palmitoylcarnitine levels were increased in response to rotenone, indicating an increase in fatty acid import. Taken together, these findings show that alterations to lipid and glutamine metabolism play an important compensatory role in response to complex I inhibition by rotenone.
Oxidative folding of (pro)insulin is crucial for its assembly and biological function. This process takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is accomplished by protein disulfide isomerase and ER oxidoreductin 1β, generating stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as byproduct. During insulin resistance in the prediabetic state, increased insulin biosynthesis can overwhelm the ER antioxidative and folding capacity, causing an imbalance in the ER redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prdx4), an ER-specific antioxidative peroxidase can utilize luminal H2O2 as driving force for reoxidizing protein disulfide isomerase family members, thus efficiently contributing to disulfide bond formation. Here, we examined the functional significance of Prdx4 on β-cell function with emphasis on insulin content and secretion during stimulation with nutrient secretagogues. Overexpression of Prdx4 in glucose-responsive insulin-secreting INS-1E cells significantly metabolized luminal H2O2 and improved the glucose-induced insulin secretion, which was accompanied by the enhanced proinsulin mRNA transcription and insulin content. This β-cell beneficial effect was also observed upon stimulation with the nutrient insulin secretagogue combination of leucine plus glutamine, indicating that the effect is not restricted to glucose. However, knockdown of Prdx4 had no impact on H2O2 metabolism or β-cell function due to the fact that Prdx4 expression is negligibly low in pancreatic β-cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that the constitutively low expression of Prdx4 is highly susceptible to hyperoxidation in the presence of high glucose. Overall, these data suggest an important role of Prdx4 in maintaining insulin levels and improving the ER folding capacity also under conditions of a high insulin requirement.
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) commonly infects human skin and occasionally causes severe and life-threatening invasive diseases. The hyaluronan (HA) capsule of GAS has been proposed to protect GAS from host defense by mimicking endogenous HA, a large and abundant glycosaminoglycan in the skin. However, HA is degraded during tissue injury, and the functions of short-chain HA that is generated during infection have not been studied. To examine the impact of the molecular mass of HA on GAS infection, we established infection models in vitro and in vivo in which the size of HA was defined by enzymatic digestion or custom synthesis. We discovered that conversion of high molecular mass HA to low molecular mass HA facilitated GAS phagocytosis by macrophages and limited the severity of infection in mice. In contrast, native high molecular mass HA significantly impaired internalization by macrophages and increased GAS survival in murine blood. Thus, our data demonstrate that GAS virulence can be influenced by the size of HA derived from both the bacterium and host and suggest that high molecular mass HA facilitates GAS deep tissue infections, whereas the generation of short-chain HA can be protective.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous and abundant protein that participates in cellular energy production. GAPDH normally exists in a soluble form; however, following necrosis, GAPDH and numerous other intracellular proteins convert into an insoluble disulfide-cross-linked state via the process of “nucleocytoplasmic coagulation.” Here, free radical-induced aggregation of GAPDH was studied as an in vitro model of nucleocytoplasmic coagulation. Despite the fact that disulfide cross-linking is a prominent feature of GAPDH aggregation, our data show that it is not a primary rate-determining step. To identify the true instigating event of GAPDH misfolding, we mapped the post-translational modifications that arise during its aggregation. Solvent accessibility and energy calculations of the mapped modifications within the context of the high resolution native GAPDH structure suggested that oxidation of methionine 46 may instigate aggregation. We confirmed this by mutating methionine 46 to leucine, which rendered GAPDH highly resistant to free radical-induced aggregation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that oxidation of methionine 46 triggers a local increase in the conformational plasticity of GAPDH that likely promotes further oxidation and eventual aggregation. Hence, methionine 46 represents a “linchpin” whereby its oxidation is a primary event permissive for the subsequent misfolding, aggregation, and disulfide cross-linking of GAPDH. A critical role for linchpin residues in nucleocytoplasmic coagulation and other forms of free radical-induced protein misfolding should now be investigated. Furthermore, because disulfide-cross-linked aggregates of GAPDH arise in many disorders and because methionine 46 is irrelevant to native GAPDH function, mutation of methionine 46 in models of disease should allow the unequivocal assessment of whether GAPDH aggregation influences disease progression.
Glycosylation of proteins and lipids takes place in the Golgi apparatus by the consecutive actions of functionally distinct glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Current evidence indicates that they function as enzyme homomers and/or heteromers in the living cell. Here we investigate their organizational interplay and show that glycosyltransferase homomers are assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum. Upon transport to the Golgi, the majority of homomers are disassembled to allow the formation of enzyme heteromers between sequentially acting medial-Golgi enzymes GnT-I and GnT-II or trans-Golgi enzymes GalT-I and ST6Gal-I. This transition is driven by the acidic Golgi environment, as it was markedly inhibited by raising Golgi luminal pH with chloroquine. Our FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) measurements showed that the complexes remain mobile Golgi membrane constituents that can relocate to the endoplasmic reticulum or to the scattered Golgi mini-stacks upon brefeldin A or nocodazole treatment, respectively. During this relocation, heteromers undergo a reverse transition back to enzyme homomers. These data unveil an unprecedented organizational interplay between Golgi N-glycosyltransferases that involves dynamic and organelle microenvironment-driven transitions between enzyme homomers and heteromers during their trafficking within the early secretory compartments.
Conserved clusters of genes encoding DsrE and TusA homologs occur in many archaeal and bacterial sulfur oxidizers. TusA has a well documented function as a sulfurtransferase in tRNA modification and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, and DsrE is an active site subunit of the DsrEFH complex that is essential for sulfur trafficking in the phototrophic sulfur-oxidizing Allochromatium vinosum. In the acidothermophilic sulfur (S0)- and tetrathionate (S4O62−)-oxidizing Metallosphaera cuprina Ar-4, a dsrE3A-dsrE2B-tusA arrangement is situated immediately between genes encoding dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and a heterodisulfide reductase-like complex. In this study, the biochemical features and sulfur transferring abilities of the DsrE2B, DsrE3A, and TusA proteins were investigated. DsrE3A and TusA proved to react with tetrathionate but not with NaSH, glutathione persulfide, polysulfide, thiosulfate, or sulfite. The products were identified as protein-Cys-S-thiosulfonates. DsrE3A was also able to cleave the thiosulfate group from TusA-Cys18-S-thiosulfonate. DsrE2B did not react with any of the sulfur compounds tested. DsrE3A and TusA interacted physically with each other and formed a heterocomplex. The cysteine residue (Cys18) of TusA is crucial for this interaction. The single cysteine mutants DsrE3A-C93S and DsrE3A-C101S retained the ability to transfer the thiosulfonate group to TusA. TusA-C18S neither reacted with tetrathionate nor was it loaded with thiosulfate with DsrE3A-Cys-S-thiosulfonate as the donor. The transfer of thiosulfate, mediated by a DsrE-like protein and TusA, is unprecedented not only in M. cuprina but also in other sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes. The results of this study provide new knowledge on oxidative microbial sulfur metabolism.
Somatic mutations altering lysine 171 of the IKBKB gene that encodes (IKKβ), the critical activating kinase in canonical (NFκB) signaling, have been described in splenic marginal zone lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Lysine 171 forms part of a cationic pocket that interacts with the activation loop phosphate in the activated wild type kinase. We show here that K171E IKKβ and K171T IKKβ represent kinases that are constitutively active even in the absence of activation loop phosphorylation. Predictive modeling and biochemical studies establish why mutations in a positively charged residue in the cationic pocket of an activation loop phosphorylation-dependent kinase result in constitutive activation. Transcription activator-like effector nuclease-based knock-in mutagenesis provides evidence from a B lymphoid context that K171E IKKβ contributes to lymphomagenesis.
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor hASH1, encoded by the ASCL1 gene, plays an important role in neurogenesis and tumor development. Recent findings indicate that local oxygen tension is a critical determinant for the progression of neuroblastomas. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the oxygen-dependent expression of hASH1 in neuroblastoma cells. Exposure of human neuroblastoma-derived Kelly cells to 1% O2 significantly decreased ASCL1 mRNA and hASH1 protein levels. Using reporter gene assays, we show that the response of hASH1 to hypoxia is mediated mainly by post-transcriptional inhibition via the ASCL1 mRNA 5′- and 3′-UTRs, whereas additional inhibition of the ASCL1 promoter was observed under prolonged hypoxia. By RNA pulldown experiments followed by MALDI/TOF-MS analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-A2/B1 and hnRNP-R as interactors binding directly to the ASCL1 mRNA 5′- and 3′-UTRs and influencing its expression. We further demonstrate that hnRNP-A2/B1 is a key positive regulator of ASCL1, findings that were also confirmed by analysis of a large compilation of gene expression data. Our data suggest that a prominent down-regulation of hnRNP-A2/B1 during hypoxia is associated with the post-transcriptional suppression of hASH1 synthesis. This novel post-transcriptional mechanism for regulating hASH1 levels will have important implications in neural cell fate development and disease.
Myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase (MRCK) has been shown to localize to the lamella of mammalian cells through its interaction with an adaptor protein, leucine repeat adaptor protein 35a (LRAP35a), which links it with myosin 18A (MYO18A) for activation of the lamellar actomyosin network essential for cell migration. Here, we report the identification of another adaptor protein LRAP25 that mediates MRCK association with LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1). The lamellipodium-localized LRAP25-MRCK complex is essential for the regulation of local LIMK1 and its downstream F-actin regulatory factor cofilin. Functionally, inhibition of either MRCK or LRAP25 resulted in a marked suppression of LIMK1 activity and down-regulation of cofilin phosphorylation in response to aluminum fluoride induction in B16-F1 cells, which eventually resulted in deregulation of lamellipodial F-actin and reorganization of cytoskeletal structures causing defects in cell polarization and motility. These biochemical and functional characterizations thus underline the functional relevance of the LRAP25-MRCK complex in LIMK1-cofilin signaling and the importance of LRAP adaptors as key determinants of MRCK cellular localization and downstream specificities.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. We recently isolated protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a BPA-binding protein from rat brain homogenates and found that BPA markedly inhibited PDI activity. To elucidate mechanisms of this inhibition, detailed structural, biophysical, and functional analyses of PDI were performed in the presence of BPA. BPA binding to PDI induced significant rearrangement of the N-terminal thioredoxin domain of PDI, resulting in more compact overall structure. This conformational change led to closure of the substrate-binding pocket in b′ domain, preventing PDI from binding to unfolded proteins. The b′ domain also plays an essential role in the interplay between PDI and ER oxidoreduclin 1α (Ero1α), a flavoenzyme responsible for reoxidation of PDI. We show that BPA inhibited Ero1α-catalyzed PDI oxidation presumably by inhibiting the interaction between the b′ domain of PDI and Ero1α; the phenol groups of BPA probably compete with a highly conserved tryptophan residue, located in the protruding β-hairpin of Ero1α, for binding to PDI. Consistently, BPA slowed down the reoxidation of PDI and caused the reduction of PDI in HeLa cells, indicating that BPA has a great impact on the redox homeostasis of PDI within cells. However, BPA had no effect on the interaction between PDI and peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx4), another PDI family oxidase, suggesting that the interaction between Prx4 and PDI is different from that of Ero1α and PDI. These results indicate that BPA, a widely distributed and potentially harmful chemical, inhibits Ero1-PDI-mediated disulfide bond formation.
Transient receptor potential melastatin-1 (TRPM1) is essential for the light-induced depolarization of retinal ON bipolar cells. TRPM1 likely forms a multimeric channel complex, although almost nothing is known about the structure or subunit composition of channels formed by TRPM1 or any of its close relatives. Recombinant TRPM1 was robustly expressed in insect cells, but only a small fraction was localized to the plasma membrane. Similar intracellular localization was observed when TRPM1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. TRPM1 was affinity-purified from Sf9 cells and complexed with amphipol, followed by detergent removal. In blue native gels and size exclusion chromatography, TRPM1 migrated with a mobility consistent with detergent- or amphipol-bound dimers. Cross-linking experiments were also consistent with a dimeric subunit stoichiometry, and cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis without symmetry imposition yielded a model with approximate 2-fold symmetrical features. Finally, electron microscopy of TRPM1-antibody complexes revealed a large particle that can accommodate TRPM1 and two antibody molecules. Taken together, these data indicate that purified TRPM1 is mostly dimeric. The three-dimensional structure of TRPM1 dimers is characterized by a small putative transmembrane domain and a larger domain with a hollow cavity. Blue native gels of solubilized mouse retina indicate that TRPM1 is present in two distinct complexes: one similar in size to the recombinant protein and one much larger. Because dimers are likely not functional ion channels, these results suggest that additional partner subunits participate in forming the transduction channel required for dim light vision and the ON pathway.
ACT domains (amino acid-binding domains) are linked to a wide range of metabolic enzymes that are regulated by amino acid concentration. Seventy proteins with ACT-GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain organization were found in actinomycetales. In this study, we investigate the ACT-containing GNAT acetyltransferase, Micau_1670 (MaKat), from Micromonospora aurantiaca ATCC 27029. Arginine and cysteine were identified as ligands by monitoring the conformational changes that occur upon amino acids binding to the ACT domain in the MaKat protein using FRET assay. It was found that MaKat is an amino acid-regulated protein acetyltransferase, whereas arginine and cysteine stimulated the activity of MaKat with regard to acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Micau_0428). Our research reveals the biochemical characterization of a protein acetyltransferase that contains a fusion of a GNAT domain with an ACT domain and provides a novel signaling pathway for regulating cellular protein acetylation. These findings indicate that acetylation of proteins and acetyltransferase activity may be tightly linked to cellular concentrations of some amino acids in actinomycetales.
The T4 phage protein Arn (Anti restriction nuclease) was identified as an inhibitor of the restriction enzyme McrBC. However, until now its molecular mechanism remained unclear. In the present study we used structural approaches to investigate biological properties of Arn. A structural analysis of Arn revealed that its shape and negative charge distribution are similar to dsDNA, suggesting that this protein could act as a DNA mimic. In a subsequent proteomic analysis, we found that the bacterial histone-like protein H-NS interacts with Arn, implying a new function. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that Arn prevents H-NS from binding to the Escherichia coli hns and T4 p8.1 promoters. In vitro gene expression and electron microscopy analyses also indicated that Arn counteracts the gene-silencing effect of H-NS on a reporter gene. Because McrBC and H-NS both participate in the host defense system, our findings suggest that T4 Arn might knock down these mechanisms using its DNA mimicking properties.
Drug-induced taste disturbance is a common adverse drug reaction often triggered by drug secretion into saliva. Very little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying salivary gland transport of xenobiotics, and most drugs are assumed to enter saliva by passive diffusion. In this study, we demonstrate that salivary glands selectively and highly express OCT3 (organic cation transporter-3), a polyspecific drug transporter in the solute carrier 22 family. OCT3 protein is localized at both basolateral (blood-facing) and apical (saliva-facing) membranes of salivary gland acinar cells, suggesting a dual role of this transporter in mediating both epithelial uptake and efflux of organic cations in the secretory cells of salivary glands. Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug known to induce taste disturbance, is transported by OCT3/Oct3 in vitro. In vivo, metformin was actively transported with a high level of accumulation in the salivary glands of wild-type mice. In contrast, active uptake and accumulation of metformin in salivary glands were abolished in Oct3−/− mice. Oct3−/− mice also showed altered metformin pharmacokinetics and reduced drug exposure in the heart. These results demonstrate that OCT3 is responsible for metformin accumulation and secretion in salivary glands. Our study uncovered a novel carrier-mediated pathway for drug entry into saliva and sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced taste disorders.
Chronic ethanol consumption induces pancreatic β-cell dysfunction through glucokinase (Gck) nitration and down-regulation, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Gck gene expression and promoter activity in pancreatic β-cells were suppressed by chronic ethanol exposure in vivo and in vitro, whereas expression of activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) and its binding to the putative Atf/Creb site (from −287 to −158 bp) on the Gck promoter were up-regulated. Furthermore, in vitro ethanol-induced Atf3 inhibited the positive effect of Pdx-1 on Gck transcriptional regulation, enhanced recruitment of Hdac1/2 and histone H3 deacetylation, and subsequently augmented the interaction of Hdac1/Pdx-1 on the Gck promoter, which were diminished by Atf3 siRNA. In vivo Atf3-silencing reversed ethanol-mediated Gck down-regulation and β-cell dysfunction, followed by the amelioration of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Together, we identified that ethanol-induced Atf3 fosters β-cell dysfunction via Gck down-regulation and that its loss ameliorates metabolic syndrome and could be a potential therapeutic target in treating type 2 diabetes. The Atf3 gene is associated with the induction of type 2 diabetes and alcohol consumption-induced metabolic impairment and thus may be the major negative regulator for glucose homeostasis.
Passive immunization with anti-amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) antibodies is effective in animal models of Alzheimer disease. With the advent of efficient in vitro selection technologies, the novel class of designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) presents an attractive alternative to the immunoglobulin scaffold. DARPins are small and highly stable proteins with a compact modular architecture ideal for high affinity protein-protein interactions. In this report, we describe the selection, binding profile, and epitope analysis of Aβ-specific DARPins. We further showed their ability to delay Aβ aggregation and prevent Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity in vitro. To demonstrate their therapeutic potential in vivo, mono- and trivalent Aβ-specific DARPins (D23 and 3×D23) were infused intracerebroventricularly into the brains of 11-month-old Tg2576 mice over 4 weeks. Both D23 and 3×D23 treatments were shown to result in improved cognitive performance and reduced soluble Aβ levels. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Aβ-specific DARPins for the treatment of Alzheimer disease.
Shock wave treatment accelerates impaired wound healing in diverse clinical situations. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of shock waves have not yet been fully revealed. Because cell proliferation is a major requirement in the wound healing cascade, we used in vitro studies and an in vivo wound healing model to study whether shock wave treatment influences proliferation by altering major extracellular factors and signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. We identified extracellular ATP, released in an energy- and pulse number-dependent manner, as a trigger of the biological effects of shock wave treatment. Shock wave treatment induced ATP release, increased Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation, and enhanced proliferation in three different cell types (C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal progenitor cells, primary human adipose tissue-derived stem cells, and a human Jurkat T cell line) in vitro. Purinergic signaling-induced Erk1/2 activation was found to be essential for this proliferative effect, which was further confirmed by in vivo studies in a rat wound healing model where shock wave treatment induced proliferation and increased wound healing in an Erk1/2-dependent fashion. In summary, this report demonstrates that shock wave treatment triggers release of cellular ATP, which subsequently activates purinergic receptors and finally enhances proliferation in vitro and in vivo via downstream Erk1/2 signaling. In conclusion, our findings shed further light on the molecular mechanisms by which shock wave treatment exerts its beneficial effects. These findings could help to improve the clinical use of shock wave treatment for wound healing.
The transcription factors Runx2 and Osx (Osterix) are required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Runx2 expression occurs at early stages of osteochondroprogenitor determination, followed by Osx induction during osteoblast maturation. We demonstrate that coexpression of Osx and Runx2 leads to cooperative induction of expression of the osteogenic genes Col1a1, Fmod, and Ibsp. Functional interaction of Osx and Runx2 in the regulation of these promoters is mediated by enhancer regions with adjacent Sp1 and Runx2 DNA-binding sites. These enhancers allow formation of a cooperative transcriptional complex, mediated by the binding of Osx and Runx2 to their specific DNA promoter sequences and by the protein-protein interactions between them. We also identified the domains involved in the interaction between Osx and Runx2. These regions contain the amino acids in Osx and Runx2 known to be phosphorylated by p38 and ERK MAPKs. Inhibition of p38 and ERK kinase activities or mutation of their known phosphorylation sites in Osx or Runx2 strongly disrupts their physical interaction and cooperative transcriptional effects. Altogether, our results provide a molecular description of a mechanism for Osx and Runx2 transcriptional cooperation that is subject to further regulation by MAPK-activating signals during osteogenesis.
The cell-protective features of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response are chronically activated in vigorously growing malignant tumor cells, which provide cellular growth advantages over the adverse microenvironment including chemotherapy. As an intervention with ER stress responses in the intestinal cancer cells, preventive exposure to flavone apigenin potentiated superinduction of a regulatory transcription factor, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which is also known to be an integral player coordinating ER stress response-related gene expression. ATF3 superinduction was due to increased turnover of ATF3 transcript via stabilization with HuR protein in the cancer cells under ER stress. Moreover, enhanced ATF3 caused inhibitory action against ER stress-induced cancer chemokines that are potent mediators determining the survival and metastatic potential of epithelial cancer cells. Although enhanced ATF3 was a negative regulator of the well known proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, blocking of NF-κB signaling did not affect ER stress-induced chemokine expression. Instead, immediately expressed transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR-1) was positively involved in cancer chemokine induction by ER stressors. ER stress-induced EGR-1 and subsequent chemokine production were repressed by ATF3. Mechanistically, ATF3 directly interacted with and recruited HDAC1 protein, which led to epigenetic suppression of EGR-1 expression and subsequent chemokine production. Conclusively, superinduced ATF3 attenuated ER stress-induced cancer chemokine expression by epigenetically interfering with induction of EGR-1, a transcriptional modulator crucial to cancer chemokine production. Thus, these results suggest a potent therapeutic intervention of ER stress response-related cancer-favoring events by ATF3.
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and mitochondrial fission is a crucial step of apoptosis. Although Oma1 is believed to be responsible for long form Opa1 (L-Opa1) processing during mitochondrial fragmentation, whether and how Oma1 is involved in L-Opa1 processing and participates in the regulation of chemoresistance is unknown. Chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian (OVCA) and cervical (CECA) cancer cells were treated with cisplatin (CDDP). Mitochondrial dynamics and protein contents were assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot, respectively. The requirements of Oma1 and p53 for CDDP-induced L-Opa1 processing, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis were examined by siRNA or cDNA. CDDP induces L-Opa1 processing and mitochondrial fragmentation in chemosensitive but not in chemoresistant cells. CDDP induced Oma1 40-kDa form increases in OV2008 cells, not in C13* cells. Oma1 knockdown inhibited L-Opa1 processing, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis. Silencing p53 expression attenuated the effects of CDDP in Oma1 (40 kDa) increase, L-Opa1 processing, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis in chemosensitive OVCA cells, whereas reconstitution of p53 in p53 mutant or null chemoresistant OVCA cells induced Oma1 (40 kDa) increase, L-Opa1 processing, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis irrespective of the presence of CDDP. Prohibitin 1 (Phb1) dissociates from Opa1-Phb1 complex and binds phosphorylated p53 (serine 15) in response to CDDP in chemosensitive but not chemoresistant CECA cells. These findings demonstrate that (a) p53 and Oma1 mediate L-Opa1 processing, (b) mitochondrial fragmentation is involved in CDDP-induced apoptosis in OVCA and CECA cells, and (c) dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics may in part be involved in the pathophysiology of CDDP resistance.
Thrombin cleavage alters the function of osteopontin (OPN) by exposing an integrin binding site and releasing a chemotactic C-terminal fragment. Here, we examined thrombin cleavage of OPN in the context of dendritic cell (DC) migration to define its functional domains. Full-length OPN (OPN-FL), thrombin-cleaved N-terminal fragment (OPN-R), thrombin- and carboxypeptidase B2-double-cleaved N-terminal fragment (OPN-L), and C-terminal fragment (OPN-CTF) did not have intrinsic chemotactic activity, but all potentiated CCL21-induced DC migration. OPN-FL possessed the highest potency, whereas OPNRAA-FL had substantially less activity, indicating the importance of RGD. We identified a conserved 168RSKSKKFRR176 sequence on OPN-FL that spans the thrombin cleavage site, and it demonstrated potent pro-chemotactic effects on CCL21-induced DC migration. OPN-FLR168A had reduced activity, and the double mutant OPNRAA-FLR168A had even lower activity, indicating that these functional domains accounted for most of the pro-chemotactic activity of OPN-FL. OPN-CTF also possessed substantial pro-chemotactic activity, which was fully expressed upon thrombin cleavage and its release from the intact protein, because OPN-CTF was substantially more active than OPNRAA-FLR168A containing the OPN-CTF sequence within the intact protein. OPN-R and OPN-L possessed similar potency, indicating that the newly exposed C-terminal SVVYGLR sequence in OPN-R was not involved in the pro-chemotactic effect. OPN-FL and OPN-CTF did not directly bind to the CD44 standard form or CD44v6. In conclusion, thrombin cleavage of OPN disrupts a pro-chemotactic sequence in intact OPN, and its loss of pro-chemotactic activity is compensated by the release of OPN-CTF, which assumes a new conformation and possesses substantial activity in enhancing chemokine-induced migration of DCs.
NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to activate NLRP3 inflammasomes resulting in podocyte and glomerular injury during hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys). However, the mechanism by which the inflammasome senses ROS is still unknown in podocytes upon hHcys stimulation. The current study explored whether thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous inhibitor of the antioxidant thioredoxin and ROS sensor, mediates hHcys-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequent glomerular injury. In cultured podocytes, size exclusion chromatography and confocal microscopy showed that inhibition of TXNIP by siRNA or verapamil prevented Hcys-induced TXNIP protein recruitment to form NLRP3 inflammasomes and abolished Hcys-induced increases in caspase-1 activity and IL-1β production. TXNIP inhibition protected podocytes from injury as shown by normal expression levels of podocyte markers, podocin and desmin. In vivo, adult C57BL/6J male mice were fed a folate-free diet for 4 weeks to induce hHcys, and TXNIP was inhibited by verapamil (1 mg/ml in drinking water) or by local microbubble-ultrasound TXNIP shRNA transfection. Evidenced by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation studies, glomerular inflammasome formation and TXNIP binding to NLRP3 were markedly increased in mice with hHcys but not in TXNIP shRNA-transfected mice or those receiving verapamil. Furthermore, TXNIP inhibition significantly reduced caspase-1 activity and IL-1β production in glomeruli of mice with hHcys. Correspondingly, TXNIP shRNA transfection and verapamil attenuated hHcys-induced proteinuria, albuminuria, glomerular damage, and podocyte injury. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that TXNIP binding to NLRP3 is a key signaling mechanism necessary for hHcys-induced NLRP3 inflammasome formation and activation and subsequent glomerular injury.
Icosahedral capsids of viruses are lattices of defined geometry and homogeneous size. The (quasi-)equivalent organization of their protein building blocks provides, in numerous systems, the binding sites to assemble arrays of viral polypeptides organized with nanometer precision that protrude from the capsid surface. The capsid of bacterial virus (bacteriophage) SPP1 exposes, at its surface, the 6.6-kDa viral polypeptide gp12 that binds to the center of hexamers of the major capsid protein. Gp12 forms an elongated trimer with collagen-like properties. This is consistent with the fold of eight internal GXY repeats of gp12 to build a stable intersubunit triple helix in a prokaryotic setting. The trimer dissociates and unfolds at near physiological temperatures, as reported for eukaryotic collagen. Its structural organization is reacquired within seconds upon cooling. Interaction with the SPP1 capsid hexamers strongly stabilizes gp12, increasing its Tm to 54 °C. Above this temperature, gp12 dissociates from its binding sites and unfolds reversibly. Multivalent binding of gp12 trimers to the capsid is highly cooperative. The capsid lattice also provides a platform to assist folding and association of unfolded gp12 polypeptides. The original physicochemical properties of gp12 offer a thermoswitchable system for multivalent binding of the polypeptide to the SPP1 capsid surface.
Hallmarks of cancer are fundamental principles involved in cancer progression. We propose an additional generalized hallmark of malignant transformation corresponding to the differential expression of a family of mitochondrial ncRNAs (ncmtRNAs) that comprises sense and antisense members, all of which contain stem-loop structures. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense (ASncmtRNA) transcripts. In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in tumor cells regardless of tissue of origin. Here we show that knockdown of the low copy number of the ASncmtRNAs in several tumor cell lines induces cell death by apoptosis without affecting the viability of normal cells. In addition, knockdown of ASncmtRNAs potentiates apoptotic cell death by inhibiting survivin expression, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Down-regulation of survivin is at the translational level and is probably mediated by microRNAs generated by dicing of the double-stranded stem of the ASncmtRNAs, as suggested by evidence presented here, in which the ASncmtRNAs are bound to Dicer and knockdown of the ASncmtRNAs reduces reporter luciferase activity in a vector carrying the 3′-UTR of survivin mRNA. Taken together, down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs constitutes a vulnerability or Achilles' heel of cancer cells, suggesting that the ASncmtRNAs are promising targets for cancer therapy.
Understanding the regulation of cardiac fibrosis is critical for controlling adverse cardiac remodeling during heart failure. Previously we identified miR-378 as a cardiomyocyte-abundant miRNA down-regulated in several experimental models of cardiac hypertrophy and in patients with heart failure. To understand the consequence of miR-378 down-regulation during cardiac remodeling, our current study employed a locked nucleic acid-modified antimiR to target miR-378 in vivo. Results showed development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in mouse hearts. Mechanistically, miR-378 depletion was found to induce TGFβ1 expression in mouse hearts and in cultured cardiomyocytes. Among various secreted cytokines in the conditioned-media of miR-378-depleted cardiomyocytes, only TGFβ1 levels were found to be increased. The increase was prevented by miR-378 expression. Treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with the conditioned media of miR-378-depleted myocytes activated pSMAD2/3 and induced fibrotic gene expression. This effect was counteracted by including a TGFβ1-neutralizing antibody in the conditioned-medium. In cardiomyocytes, adenoviruses expressing dominant negative N-Ras or c-Jun prevented antimiR-mediated induction of TGFβ1 mRNA, documenting the importance of Ras and AP-1 signaling in this response. Our study demonstrates that reduction of miR-378 during pathological conditions contributes to cardiac remodeling by promoting paracrine release of profibrotic cytokine, TGFβ1 from cardiomyocytes. Our data imply that the presence in cardiomyocyte of miR-378 plays a critical role in the protection of neighboring fibroblasts from activation by pro-fibrotic stimuli.
Serine proteases such as trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) at R36↓S37 and reveal a tethered ligand that excites nociceptors, causing neurogenic inflammation and pain. Whether proteases that cleave PAR2 at distinct sites are biased agonists that also induce inflammation and pain is unexplored. Cathepsin S (Cat-S) is a lysosomal cysteine protease of antigen-presenting cells that is secreted during inflammation and which retains activity at extracellular pH. We observed that Cat-S cleaved PAR2 at E56↓T57, which removed the canonical tethered ligand and prevented trypsin activation. In HEK and KNRK cell lines and in nociceptive neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia, Cat-S and a decapeptide mimicking the Cat-S-revealed tethered ligand-stimulated PAR2 coupling to Gαs and formation of cAMP. In contrast to trypsin, Cat-S did not mobilize intracellular Ca2+, activate ERK1/2, recruit β-arrestins, or induce PAR2 endocytosis. Cat-S caused PAR2-dependent activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) in Xenopus laevis oocytes, HEK cells and nociceptive neurons, and stimulated neuronal hyperexcitability by adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. Intraplantar injection of Cat-S caused inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice that was attenuated by PAR2 or TRPV4 deletion and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists suppressed formalin-induced inflammation and pain, which implicates endogenous Cat-S and PAR2 in inflammatory pain. Our results identify Cat-S as a biased agonist of PAR2 that causes PAR2- and TRPV4-dependent inflammation and pain. They expand the role of PAR2 as a mediator of protease-driven inflammatory pain.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are known to lower glucose levels and are also beneficial in the management of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated whether a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, modulates endothelial cell network formation and revascularization processes in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with vildagliptin enhanced blood flow recovery and capillary density in the ischemic limbs of wild-type mice, with accompanying increases in phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). In contrast to wild-type mice, treatment with vildagliptin did not improve blood flow in ischemic muscles of eNOS-deficient mice. Treatment with vildagliptin increased the levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and adiponectin, which have protective effects on the vasculature. Both vildagliptin and GLP-1 increased the differentiation of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into vascular-like structures, although vildagliptin was less effective than GLP-1. GLP-1 and vildagliptin also stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in HUVECs. Pretreatment with a PI3 kinase or NOS inhibitor blocked the stimulatory effects of both vildagliptin and GLP-1 on HUVEC differentiation. Furthermore, treatment with vildagliptin only partially increased the limb flow of ischemic muscle in adiponectin-deficient mice in vivo. GLP-1, but not vildagliptin, significantly increased adiponectin expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. These data indicate that vildagliptin promotes endothelial cell function via eNOS signaling, an effect that may be mediated by both GLP-1-dependent and GLP-1-independent mechanisms. The beneficial activity of GLP-1 for revascularization may also be partially mediated by its ability to increase adiponectin production.
Anti-tumor immune responses have been linked to the regulated release of ATP from apoptotic cancer cells to engage P2 purinergic receptor signaling cascades in nearby leukocytes. We used the Jurkat T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia model to characterize the role of pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels in the release of nucleotides during chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. Diverse pro-apoptotic drugs, including topoisomerase II inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, and proteosome inhibitors, induced functional activation of Panx1 channels via caspase-3-mediated cleavage of the Panx1 autoinhibitory C-terminal domain. The caspase-activated Panx1 channels mediated efflux of ATP, but also ADP and AMP, with the latter two comprising >90% of the released adenine nucleotide pool as cells transitioned from the early to late stages of apoptosis. Chemotherapeutic drugs also activated an alternative caspase- and Panx1-independent pathway for ATP release from Jurkat cells in the presence of benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Comparison of Panx1 levels indicated much higher expression in leukemic T lymphocytes than in normal, untransformed T lymphoblasts. This suggests that signaling roles for Panx1 may be amplified in leukemic leukocytes. Together, these results identify chemotherapy-activated pannexin-1 channels and ATP release as possible mediators of paracrine interaction between dying tumor cells and the effector leukocytes that mediate immunogenic anti-tumor responses.
For a subset of pathogenic microorganisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the recognition and degradation of host hyaluronan contributes to bacterial spreading through the extracellular matrix and enhancing access to host cell surfaces. The hyaluronate lyase (Hyl) presented on the surface of S. pneumoniae performs this role. Using glycan microarray screening, affinity electrophoresis, and isothermal titration calorimetry we show that the N-terminal module of Hyl is a hyaluronan-specific carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and the founding member of CBM family 70. The 1.2 Å resolution x-ray crystal structure of CBM70 revealed it to have a β-sandwich fold, similar to other CBMs. The electrostatic properties of the binding site, which was identified by site-directed mutagenesis, are distinct from other CBMs and complementary to its acidic ligand, hyaluronan. Dynamic light scattering and solution small angle x-ray scattering revealed the full-length Hyl protein to exist as a monomer/dimer mixture in solution. Through a detailed analysis of the small angle x-ray scattering data, we report the pseudoatomic solution structures of the monomer and dimer forms of the full-length multimodular Hyl.
Ubiquitin specific protease 7 (USP7) is a known deubiquitinating enzyme for tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream regulator, E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. Here we report that USP7 regulates nucleotide excision repair (NER) via deubiquitinating xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein, a critical damage recognition factor that binds to helix-distorting DNA lesions and initiates NER. XPC is ubiquitinated during the early stage of NER of UV light-induced DNA lesions. We demonstrate that transiently compromising cellular USP7 by siRNA and chemical inhibition leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated forms of XPC, whereas complete USP7 deficiency leads to rapid ubiquitin-mediated XPC degradation upon UV irradiation. We show that USP7 physically interacts with XPC in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of wild-type USP7, but not its catalytically inactive or interaction-defective mutants, reduces the ubiquitinated forms of XPC. Importantly, USP7 efficiently deubiquitinates XPC-ubiquitin conjugates in deubiquitination assays in vitro. We further show that valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 is involved in UV light-induced XPC degradation in USP7-deficient cells. VCP/p97 is readily recruited to DNA damage sites and colocalizes with XPC. Chemical inhibition of the activity of VCP/p97 ATPase causes an increase in ubiquitinated XPC on DNA-damaged chromatin. Moreover, USP7 deficiency severely impairs the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and, to a lesser extent, affects the repair of 6-4 photoproducts. Taken together, our findings uncovered an important role of USP7 in regulating NER via deubiquitinating XPC and by preventing its VCP/p97-regulated proteolysis.
Amyloid fibrils form in supersaturated solutions of precursor proteins by a nucleation and growth mechanism characterized by a lag time. Although the lag time provides a clue to understanding the complexity of nucleation events, its long period and low reproducibility have been obstacles for exact analysis. Ultrasonication is known to effectively break supersaturation and force fibrillation. By constructing a Handai amyloid burst inducer, which combines a water bath-type ultrasonicator and a microplate reader, we examined the ultrasonication-forced fibrillation of several proteins, with a focus on the fluctuation in the lag time. Amyloid fibrillation of hen egg white lysozyme was examined at pH 2.0 in the presence of 1.0–5.0 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), in which the dominant species varied from the native to denatured conformations. Although fibrillation occurred at various concentrations of GdnHCl, the lag time varied largely, with a minimum being observed at ∼3.0 m, the concentration at which GdnHCl-dependent denaturation ended. The coefficient of variation of the lag time did not depend significantly on the GdnHCl concentration and was 2-fold larger than that of the ultrasonication-dependent oxidation of iodide, a simple model reaction. These results suggest that the large fluctuation observed in the lag time for amyloid fibrillation originated from a process associated with a common amyloidogenic intermediate, which may have been a relatively compact denatured conformation. We also suggest that the Handai amyloid burst inducer system will be useful for studying the mechanism of crystallization of proteins because proteins form crystals by the same mechanism as amyloid fibrils under supersaturation.
Aβ42 oligomers play key roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, but their structures remain elusive partly due to their transient nature. Here, we show that Aβ42 in a fusion construct can be trapped in a stable oligomer state, which recapitulates characteristics of prefibrillar Aβ42 oligomers and enables us to establish their detailed structures. Site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance studies provide structural restraints in terms of side chain mobility and intermolecular distances at all 42 residue positions. Using these restraints and other biophysical data, we present a novel atomic-level oligomer model. In our model, each Aβ42 protein forms a single β-sheet with three β-strands in an antiparallel arrangement. Each β-sheet consists of four Aβ42 molecules in a head-to-tail arrangement. Four β-sheets are packed together in a face-to-back fashion. The stacking of identical segments between different β-sheets within an oligomer suggests that prefibrillar oligomers may interconvert with fibrils via strand rotation, wherein β-strands undergo an ∼90° rotation along the strand direction. This work provides insights into rational design of therapeutics targeting the process of interconversion between toxic oligomers and non-toxic fibrils.
The 5′-3′ resection of DNA ends is a prerequisite for the repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination, microhomology-mediated end joining, and single strand annealing. Recent studies in yeast have shown that, following initial DNA end processing by the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex and Sae2, the extension of resection tracts is mediated either by exonuclease 1 or by combined activities of the RecQ family DNA helicase Sgs1 and the helicase/endonuclease Dna2. Although human DNA2 has been shown to cooperate with the BLM helicase to catalyze the resection of DNA ends, it remains a matter of debate whether another human RecQ helicase, WRN, can substitute for BLM in DNA2-catalyzed resection. Here we present evidence that WRN and BLM act epistatically with DNA2 to promote the long-range resection of double strand break ends in human cells. Our biochemical experiments show that WRN and DNA2 interact physically and coordinate their enzymatic activities to mediate 5′-3′ DNA end resection in a reaction dependent on RPA. In addition, we present in vitro and in vivo data suggesting that BLM promotes DNA end resection as part of the BLM-TOPOIIIα-RMI1-RMI2 complex. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the process of DNA end resection in mammalian cells.
Pitx2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and microRNAs (miRs) play a critical role in the regulation of dental stem cells during embryonic development. In this report, we have identified a Pitx2:β-catenin regulatory pathway involved in epithelial cell differentiation and conversion of mesenchymal cells to amelogenin expressing epithelial cells via miR-200a. Pitx2 and β-catenin are expressed in the labial incisor cervical loop or epithelial stem cell niche, with decreased expression in the differentiating ameloblast cells of the mouse lower incisor. Bioinformatics analyses reveal that miR-200a-3p expression is activated in the pre-ameloblast cells to enhance epithelial cell differentiation. We demonstrate that Pitx2 activates miR-200a-3p expression and miR-200a-3p reciprocally represses Pitx2 and β-catenin expression. Pitx2 and β-catenin interact to synergistically activate gene expression during odontogenesis and miR-200a-3p attenuates their expression and directs differentiation. To understand how this mechanism controls cell differentiation and cell fate, oral epithelial and odontoblast mesenchymal cells were reprogrammed by a two-step induction method using Pitx2 and miR-200a-3p. Conversion to amelogenin expressing dental epithelial cells involved an up-regulation of the stem cell marker Sox2 and proliferation genes and decreased expression of mesenchymal markers. E-cadherin expression was increased as well as ameloblast specific factors. The combination of Pitx2, a regulator of dental stem cells and miR-200a converts mesenchymal cells to a fully differentiated dental epithelial cell type. This pathway and reprogramming can be used to reprogram mesenchymal or oral epithelial cells to dental epithelial (ameloblast) cells, which can be used in tissue repair and regeneration studies.
The core histone tail domains mediate inter-nucleosomal interactions that direct folding and condensation of nucleosome arrays into higher-order chromatin structures. The histone H4 tail domain facilitates inter-array interactions by contacting both the H2A/H2B acidic patch and DNA of neighboring nucleosomes (1, 2). Likewise, H4 tail-H2A contacts stabilize array folding (3). However, whether the H4 tail domains stabilize array folding via inter-nucleosomal interactions with the DNA of neighboring nucleosomes remains unclear. We utilized defined oligonucleosome arrays containing a single specialized nucleosome with a photo-inducible cross-linker in the N terminus of the H4 tail to characterize these interactions. We observed that the H4 tail participates exclusively in intra-array interactions with DNA in unfolded arrays. These interactions are diminished during array folding, yet no inter-nucleosome, intra-array H4 tail-DNA contacts are observed in condensed chromatin. However, we document contacts between the N terminus of the H4 tail and H2A. Installation of acetylation mimics known to disrupt H4-H2A surface interactions did not increase observance of H4-DNA inter-nucleosomal interactions. These results suggest the multiple functions of the H4 tail require targeted distinct interactions within condensed chromatin.
The majority of mitochondrial proteins are synthesized with amino-terminal signal sequences. The presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23 complex) mediates the import of these preproteins. The essential TIM23 core complex closely cooperates with partner protein complexes like the presequence translocase-associated import motor and the respiratory chain. The inner mitochondrial membrane also contains a large number of metabolite carriers, but their association with preprotein translocases has been controversial. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the TIM23 interactome based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture. Subsequent biochemical studies on identified partner proteins showed that the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier associates with the membrane-embedded core of the TIM23 complex in a stoichiometric manner, revealing an unexpected connection of mitochondrial protein biogenesis to metabolite transport. Our data indicate that direct TIM23-AAC coupling may support preprotein import into mitochondria when respiratory activity is low.