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Journal of Clinical Oncology

Journal of Clinical Oncology RSS feed - Early Release
Journal of Clinical Oncology


Purpose

To provide evidence-based guidance on the optimum prevention and treatment approaches in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN) in adult cancer survivors.

Methods

A systematic literature search identified relevant, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of CIPN. Primary outcomes included incidence and severity of neuropathy as measured by neurophysiologic changes, patient-reported outcomes, and quality of life.

Results

A total of 48 RCTs met eligibility criteria and comprise the evidentiary basis for the recommendations. Trials tended to be small and heterogeneous, many with insufficient sample sizes to detect clinically important differences in outcomes. Primary outcomes varied across the trials, and in most cases, studies were not directly comparable because of different outcomes, measurements, and instruments used at different time points. The strength of the recommendations is based on the quality, amount, and consistency of the evidence and the balance between benefits and harms.

Recommendations:

On the basis of the paucity of high-quality, consistent evidence, there are no agents recommended for the prevention of CIPN. With regard to the treatment of existing CIPN, the best available data support a moderate recommendation for treatment with duloxetine. Although the CIPN trials are inconclusive regarding tricyclic antidepressants (such as nortriptyline), gabapentin, and a compounded topical gel containing baclofen, amitriptyline HCL, and ketamine, these agents may be offered on the basis of data supporting their utility in other neuropathic pain conditions given the limited other CIPN treatment options. Further research on these agents is warranted





Purpose

This guideline presents screening, assessment, and treatment approaches for the management of adult cancer survivors who are experiencing symptoms of fatigue after completion of primary treatment.

Methods

A systematic search of clinical practice guideline databases, guideline developer Web sites, and published health literature identified the pan-Canadian guideline on screening, assessment, and care of cancer-related fatigue in adults with cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines In Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer-Related Fatigue and the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship. These three guidelines were appraised and selected for adaptation.

Results

It is recommended that all patients with cancer be evaluated for the presence of fatigue after completion of primary treatment and be offered specific information and strategies for fatigue management. For those who report moderate to severe fatigue, comprehensive assessment should be conducted, and medical and treatable contributing factors should be addressed. In terms of treatment strategies, evidence indicates that physical activity interventions, psychosocial interventions, and mind-body interventions may reduce cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment patients. There is limited evidence for use of psychostimulants in the management of fatigue in patients who are disease free after active treatment.

Conclusion

Fatigue is prevalent in cancer survivors and often causes significant disruption in functioning and quality of life. Regular screening, assessment, and education and appropriate treatment of fatigue are important in managing this distressing symptom. Given the multiple factors contributing to post-treatment fatigue, interventions should be tailored to each patient’s specific needs. In particular, a number of nonpharmacologic treatment approaches have demonstrated efficacy in cancer survivors.


Purpose

Painful oral mucositis (OM) is a significant toxicity during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to test the efficacy of doxepin hydrochloride in the reduction of radiotherapy-induced OM pain.

Patients and Methods

In all, 155 patients were randomly allocated to a doxepin oral rinse or a placebo for the treatment of radiotherapy-related OM pain. Patients received a single dose of doxepin or placebo on day 1 and then crossed over to receive the opposite agent on a subsequent day. Pain questionnaires were administered at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes. Patients were then given the option to continue doxepin. The primary end point was pain reduction as measured by the area under the curve (AUC) of the pain scale using data from day 1.

Results

Primary end point analysis revealed that the AUC for mouth and throat pain reduction was greater for doxepin (–9.1) than for placebo (–4.7; P < .001). Crossover analysis of patients completing both phases confirmed that patients experienced greater mouth and throat pain reduction with doxepin (intrapatient changes of 4.1 for doxepin-placebo arm and –2.8 for placebo-doxepin arm; P < .001). Doxepin was associated with more stinging or burning, unpleasant taste, and greater drowsiness than the placebo rinse. More patients receiving doxepin expressed a desire to continue treatment than did patients with placebo after completion of each of the randomized phases of the study.

Conclusion

A doxepin rinse diminishes OM pain. Further studies are warranted to determine its role in the management of OM.


Purpose

Given the lack of randomized trials comparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and open radical prostatectomy (ORP), we sought to re-examine the outcomes of these techniques using a cohort of patients treated in the postdissemination era.

Patients and Methods

Overall, data from 5,915 patients with prostate cancer treated with RARP or ORP within the SEER-Medicare linked database diagnosed between October 2008 and December 2009 were abstracted. Postoperative complications, blood transfusions, prolonged length of stay (pLOS), readmission, additional cancer therapies, and costs of care within the first year after surgery were compared between the two surgical approaches. To decrease the effect of unmeasured confounders, instrumental variable analysis was performed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were then performed.

Results

Overall, 2,439 patients (41.2%) and 3,476 patients (58.8%) underwent ORP and RARP, respectively. In multivariable analyses, patients undergoing RARP had similar odds of overall complications, readmission, and additional cancer therapies compared with patients undergoing ORP. However, RARP was associated with a higher probability of experiencing 30- and 90-day genitourinary and miscellaneous medical complications (all P ≤ .02). Additionally, RARP led to a lower risk of experiencing blood transfusion and of having a pLOS (all P < .001). Finally, first-year reimbursements were greater for patients undergoing RARP compared with ORP (P < .001).

Conclusion

RARP and ORP have comparable rates of complications and additional cancer therapies, even in the postdissemination era. Although RARP was associated with lower risk of blood transfusions and a slightly shorter length of stay, these benefits do not translate to a decrease in expenditures.


Purpose

Multiple-gene sequencing is entering practice, but its clinical value is unknown. We evaluated the performance of a customized germline-DNA sequencing panel for cancer-risk assessment in a representative clinical sample.

Methods

Patients referred for clinical BRCA1/2 testing from 2002 to 2012 were invited to donate a research blood sample. Samples were frozen at –80° C, and DNA was extracted from them after 1 to 10 years. The entire coding region, exon-intron boundaries, and all known pathogenic variants in other regions were sequenced for 42 genes that had cancer risk associations. Potentially actionable results were disclosed to participants.

Results

In total, 198 women participated in the study: 174 had breast cancer and 57 carried germline BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1/2 analysis was fully concordant with prior testing. Sixteen pathogenic variants were identified in ATM, BLM, CDH1, CDKN2A, MUTYH, MLH1, NBN, PRSS1, and SLX4 among 141 women without BRCA1/2 mutations. Fourteen participants carried 15 pathogenic variants, warranting a possible change in care; they were invited for targeted screening recommendations, enabling early detection and removal of a tubular adenoma by colonoscopy. Participants carried an average of 2.1 variants of uncertain significance among 42 genes.

Conclusion

Among women testing negative for BRCA1/2 mutations, multiple-gene sequencing identified 16 potentially pathogenic mutations in other genes (11.4%; 95% CI, 7.0% to 17.7%), of which 15 (10.6%; 95% CI, 6.5% to 16.9%) prompted consideration of a change in care, enabling early detection of a precancerous colon polyp. Additional studies are required to quantify the penetrance of identified mutations and determine clinical utility. However, these results suggest that multiple-gene sequencing may benefit appropriately selected patients.


Purpose

Our phase IIa study characterized the safety and efficacy of two human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –targeted agents, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and pertuzumab, in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

Patients and Methods

Patients with HER2-positive locally advanced breast cancer or MBC were treated with 3.6 mg/kg T-DM1 plus pertuzumab (840-mg loading dose, then 420 mg subsequently) once every 3 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR).

Results

Sixty-four patients (43 patients in the second-line or greater setting [advanced MBC]; 21 patients in the first-line setting [first-line MBC]) were enrolled. Patients with advanced MBC had received trastuzumab and a median of six prior nonhormonal treatments for MBC; 86% of first-line MBC patients had received trastuzumab in the (neo)adjuvant setting. The ORR was 41% overall, 33% in patients with advanced MBC, and 57% in first-line patients. Median progression-free survival was 6.6, 5.5, and 7.7 months, respectively. The most common adverse events were fatigue (61%), nausea (50%), and diarrhea (39%). The most frequent grade ≥ 3 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (13%), fatigue (11%), and liver enzyme elevations (increased ALT: 9%; increased AST: 9%). One patient had left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40% after study drug discontinuation. Exploratory biomarker analyses demonstrated that patients with above-median tumor HER2 mRNA levels had a numerically higher ORR than patients with below-median levels (44% v33%, respectively).

Conclusion

T-DM1 and pertuzumab can be combined at full doses with no unexpected toxicities. The preliminary efficacy in patients in the first-line and advanced MBC settings warrants further investigation.


Purpose

A Pan-Canadian Practice Guideline on Screening, Assessment, and Care of Psychosocial Distress (Depression, Anxiety) in Adults With Cancer was identified for adaptation.

Methods

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for adapting clinical practice guidelines developed by other organizations. The guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor and content applicability.

Results

On the basis of content review of the pan-Canadian guideline, the ASCO panel agreed that, in general, the recommendations were clear, thorough, based on the most relevant scientific evidence, and presented options that will be acceptable to patients. However, for some topics addressed in the pan-Canadian guideline, the ASCO panel formulated a set of adapted recommendations based on local context and practice beliefs of the ad hoc panel members. It is recommended that all patients with cancer be evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety at periodic times across the trajectory of care. Assessment should be performed using validated, published measures and procedures. Depending on levels of symptoms and supplementary information, differing treatment pathways are recommended. Failure to identify and treat anxiety and depression increases the risk for poor quality of life and potential disease-related morbidity and mortality. This guideline adaptation is part of a larger survivorship guideline series.

Conclusion

Although clinicians may not be able to prevent some of the chronic or late medical effects of cancer, they have a vital role in mitigating the negative emotional and behavioral sequelae. Recognizing and treating effectively those who manifest symptoms of anxiety or depression will reduce the human cost of cancer.


Purpose

The highly effective treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2–amplified breast cancer has proven challenging because of a signal buffering capacity inherent in the functionally relevant HER2-HER3 target. HER2-HER3 signaling can be inactivated by doses of lapatinib that fully inactivate the HER2 kinase. In mouse models, such doses are not tolerable in continuous administration, but they are tolerable and highly effective in intermittent dosing. We pursued the clinical translation of this treatment hypothesis.

Patients and Methods

We conducted a phase I dose-escalation study in women with advanced HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Lapatinib was administered on days 1 through 5 of repeating 14-day cycles. Dose escalation was conducted using a 3+3 design with plasma lapatinib level monitoring.

Results

Forty patients were evaluable for toxicity, and 34 patients were evaluable for dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Lapatinib dose was escalated to 7,000 mg per day in twice-daily dosing with no DLTs; however, plasma lapatinib concentrations plateaued in this dose range. Additional cohorts evaluated strategies to increase lapatinib exposure, including the food effect, CYP3A4 inhibition, and dose fractionation. Of these, only ketoconazole was able to increase lapatinib exposure, despite highly variable lapatinib bioavailability. Intolerable exposure levels were not encountered. Eight patients (20%) experienced grade 3 diarrhea. Six patients achieved a response, and dramatic responses were seen in three patients with lapatinib concentrations approaching 10,000 ng/mL.

Conclusion

Lapatinib exposure can be safely and significantly increased through intermittent dosing but reaches a ceiling that currently impedes clinical translation of the treatment hypothesis. Preliminary efficacy data suggest that exposures approaching those seen in mouse models can result in highly significant tumor responses.


Purpose

Empiric antibiotic monotherapy is considered the standard of treatment for febrile neutropenic patients with cancer, but this approach may be inadequate because of the increasing prevalence of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria.

Patients and Methods

In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, superiority trial, adult, febrile, high-risk neutropenic patients (FhrNPs) with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to receive piperacillin/tazobactam (4.5 g intravenously every 8 hours) with or without tigecycline (50 mg intravenously every 12 hours; loading dose 100 mg). The primary end point was resolution of febrile episode without modifications of the initial allocated treatment.

Results

Three hundred ninety FhrNPs were enrolled (combination/monotherapy, 187/203) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (ITTA). The ITTA revealed a successful outcome in 67.9% v 44.3% of patients who had received combination therapy and monotherapy, respectively (127/187 v 90/203; absolute difference in risk (adr), 23.6%; 95% CI, 14% to 33%; P < .001). The combination regimen proved better than monotherapy in bacteremias (adr, 32.8%; 95% CI, 19% to 46%; P < .001) and in clinically documented infections (adr, 36%; 95% CI, 9% to 64%; P < .01). Mortality and number of adverse effects were limited and similar in the two groups.

Conclusion

The combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and tigecycline is safe, well tolerated, and more effective than piperacillin/tazobactam alone in febrile, high-risk, neutropenic hematologic patients with cancer. In epidemiologic settings characterized by a high prevalence of infections because of MDR microorganisms, this combination could be considered as one of the first-line empiric antibiotic therapies.









Purpose

The Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO)/American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) guideline on surgical margins for breast-conserving surgery with whole-breast irradiation in stage I and II invasive breast cancer was considered for endorsement.

Methods

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing practice guidelines developed by other organizations. ASCO staff reviewed the SSO/ASTRO guideline for developmental rigor; an ASCO ad hoc review panel of experts reviewed the guideline content.

Results

The ASCO ad hoc guideline review panel concurred that the recommendations are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence in this content area and that they present options acceptable to patients. According to the SSO/ASTRO guideline, the use of no ink on tumor (ie, no cancer cells adjacent to any inked edge/surface of specimen) as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs.

Conclusion

The ASCO review panel endorses the SSO/ASTRO recommendations with qualifications, as follows. The panel reinforces and amplifies the guideline authors’ call for the monitoring of outcomes of the guideline at the institutional level, as institutions transition to adopting the SSO/ASTRO recommendations; would place greater emphasis on the importance of postlumpectomy mammography for cases involving microcalcifications; and calls for flexibility in the application of the guideline in light of the generally weak evidence supporting the recommendations.



Purpose

To provide evidence-based recommendations to practicing oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapy clinicians to update the 2005 clinical practice guideline on the use of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for patients with early-stage breast cancer.

Methods

The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an Update Committee of experts in medical oncology, pathology, radiation oncology, surgical oncology, guideline implementation, and advocacy. A systematic review of the literature was conducted from February 2004 to January 2013 in Medline. Guideline recommendations were based on the review of the evidence by Update Committee.

Results

This guideline update reflects changes in practice since the 2005 guideline. Nine randomized clinical trials (RCTs) met systematic review criteria for clinical questions 1 and 2; 13 cohort studies informed clinical question 3.

Recommendations

Women without sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases should not receive axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Women with one to two metastatic SLNs planning to undergo breast-conserving surgery with whole-breast radiotherapy should not undergo ALND (in most cases). Women with SLN metastases who will undergo mastectomy should be offered ALND. These three recommendation are based on RCTs. Women with operable breast cancer and multicentric tumors, with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who will undergo mastectomy, who previously underwent breast and/or axillary surgery, or who received preoperative/neoadjuvant systemic therapy may be offered SNB. Women who have large or locally advanced invasive breast cancer (tumor size T3/T4), inflammatory breast cancer, or DCIS (when breast-conserving surgery is planned) or are pregnant should not undergo SNB. These recommendations are based on cohort studies and/or informal consensus. In some cases, updated evidence was insufficient to update previous recommendations.


Purpose

The systematic use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) has been advocated as an effective way to standardize cancer practice. Yet, the question of whether PROMs can lead to actual improvements in the quality of patient care remains under debate. This review examined whether inclusion of PROM in routine clinical practice is associated with improvements in patient outcomes, processes of care, and health service outcomes during active anticancer treatment.

Methods

A systematic review of five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL [Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature], PsycINFO, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection [PBSC]) was conducted from database inception to May 2012 to locate randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials of patients receiving active anticancer treatment or supportive care irrespective of type of cancer.

Results

Based on prespecified eligibility criteria, we included 26 articles that reported on 24 unique controlled trials. Wide variability in the design and use of interventions delivered, outcomes evaluated, and cancer- and modality-specific context was apparent. Health service outcomes were only scarcely included as end points. Overall, the number of statistically significant findings were limited and PROMs’ intervention effect sizes were predominantly small-to-moderate.

Conclusion

The routine use of PROMs increases the frequency of discussion of patient outcomes during consultations. In some studies, PROMs are associated with improved symptom control, increased supportive care measures, and patient satisfaction. Additional effort is required to ensure patient adherence, as well as additional support to clinicians who will respond to patient concerns and issues, with clear system guidelines in place to guide their responses. More research is required to support PROM cost-benefit in terms of patient safety, clinician burden, and health services usage.


Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials.


Purpose

Cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the largest and most heterogeneous cytogenetic AML subgroup. For the practicing clinician, it is difficult to summarize the prognostic information of the growing number of clinical and molecular markers. Our purpose was to develop a widely applicable prognostic model by combining well-established pretreatment patient and disease characteristics.

Patients and Methods

Two prognostic indices for CN-AML (PINA), one regarding overall survival (OS; PINAOS) and the other regarding relapse-free survival (RFS; PINARFS), were derived from data of 572 patients with CN-AML treated within the AML Cooperative Group 99 study (www.aml-score.org.

Results

On the basis of age (median, 60 years; range, 17 to 85 years), performance status, WBC count, and mutation status of NPM1, CEBPA, and FLT3-internal tandem duplication, patients were classified into the following three risk groups according to PINAOS and PINARFS: 29% of all patients and 32% of 381 responding patients had low-risk disease (5-year OS, 74%; 5-year RFS, 55%); 56% of all patients and 39% of responding patients had intermediate-risk disease (5-year OS, 28%; 5-year RFS, 27%), and 15% of all patients and 29% of responding patients had high-risk disease (5-year OS, 3%; 5-year RFS, 5%), respectively. PINAOS and PINARFS stratified outcome within European LeukemiaNet genetic groups. Both indices were confirmed on independent data from Cancer and Leukemia Group B/Alliance trials.

Conclusion

We have developed and validated, to our knowledge, the first prognostic indices specifically designed for adult patients of all ages with CN-AML that combine well-established molecular and clinical variables and that are easily applicable in routine clinical care. The integration of both clinical and molecular markers could provide a basis for individualized patient care through risk-adapted therapy of CN-AML.


Purpose

To determine the prevalence and prognostic association of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) translocations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Patients and Methods

The cohort comprised 3,269 patients treated on either the UKALL2003 trial for children and adolescents (1 to 24 years old) or the UKALLXII trial for adolescents and adults (15 to 59 years old). High-throughput fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to detect IGH@ translocations.

Results

We identified IGH@ translocations in 5% of patients with ALL (159 of 3,269 patients), in patients with both B-cell (148 of 2,863 patients) and T-cell (11 of 408 patients) disease. Multiple partner genes were identified including CRLF2 (n = 35), five members of the CEPB gene family (n = 17), and ID4 (n = 11). The level of the IGH@-positive clone varied and indicated that some IGH@ translocations were primary events, whereas others were secondary aberrations often associated with other established aberrations. The age profile of patients with IGH@ translocations was distinctive, with a median age of 16 years and peak incidence of 11% among 20- to 24-year-old patients. Among patients with B-cell precursor ALL who were Philadelphia chromosome negative, those with an IGH@ translocation had an inferior overall survival compared with other patients (UKALL2003: hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.18; P = .003; UKALLXII: hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.47; P = .002). However, this adverse effect was not independent of age or minimal residual disease status and did not seem to be driven by an increased risk of relapse.

Conclusion

IGH@ translocations define a genetic feature that is frequent among adolescents and young adults with ALL. Although associated with an adverse outcome in adults, it is not an independent prognostic factor in children and adolescents.


Purpose

Exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, reduced invasive breast cancer incidence by 65% among 4,560 postmenopausal women randomly assigned to exemestane (25 mg per day) compared with placebo in the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group MAP.3 (Mammary Prevention 3) trial, but effects on quality of life (QOL) were not fully described.

Patients and Methods

Menopause-specific and health-related QOL were assessed by using the four Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) domains and the eight Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales at baseline, 6 months, and yearly thereafter. MENQOL questionnaire completion was high (88% to 98%) in both groups at each follow-up visit. Change scores for each MENQOL and SF-36 scale, calculated at each assessment time relative to baseline, were compared by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Clinically important worsened QOL was defined as a MENQOL change score increase of more than 0.5 (of 8) points and an SF-36 change score decrease of more than 5 (of 100) points from baseline.

Results

Exemestane had small negative effects on women’s self-reported vasomotor symptoms, sexual symptoms, and pain, which occurred mainly in the first 6 months to 2 years after random assignment. However, these changes represented only a small excess number of women being given exemestane with clinically important worsening of QOL at one time or another; specifically, 8% more in the vasomotor domain and 4% more each in the sexual domain and for pain. No other between-group differences were observed. Overall, slightly more women in the exemestane arm (32%) than in the placebo arm (28%) discontinued assigned treatment.

Conclusion

Exemestane given for prevention has limited negative impact on menopause-specific and health-related QOL in healthy postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer.


Purpose

The addition of immunotherapy, including a combination of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), ch14.18, and cytokines, improves outcome for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. However, this therapy is limited by ch14.18-related toxicities that may be partially mediated by complement activation. We report the results of a phase I trial to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety profile, and pharmacokinetics of hu14.18K322A, a humanized anti-GD2 mAb with a single point mutation (K322A) that reduces complement-dependent lysis.

Patients and Methods

Eligible patients with refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma received escalating doses of hu14.18K322A ranging from 2 to 70 mg/m2 per day for 4 consecutive days every 28 days (one course).

Results

Thirty-eight patients (23 males; median age, 7.2 years) received a median of two courses (range, one to 15). Dose-limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities occurred in four of 36 evaluable patients and were characterized by cough, asthenia, sensory neuropathy, anorexia, serum sickness, and hypertensive encephalopathy. The most common non–dose-limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities during course one were pain (68%) and fever (21%). Six of 31 patients evaluable for response by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine score had objective responses (four complete responses; two partial responses). The first-course pharmacokinetics of hu14.18K322A were best described by a two-compartment linear model. Median hu14.18K322A α (initial phase) and β (terminal phase) half-lives were 1.74 and 21.1 days, respectively.

Conclusion

The MTD, and recommended phase II dose, of hu14.18K322A is 60 mg/m2 per day for 4 days. Adverse effects, predominately pain, were manageable and improved with subsequent courses.
















Purpose

To evaluate panitumumab plus modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) or bevavcizumab plus mFOLFOX6 in patients with previously untreated wild-type (WT) KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A prespecified secondary objective was to assess treatment effects in an extended RAS analysis that included exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS and NRAS.

Patients and Methods

Patients with WT KRAS exon 2 tumors were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 or bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and safety.

Results

Of 285 randomly assigned patients, 278 received treatment. In the WT KRAS exon 2 intent-to-treat group, PFS was similar between arms (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.17; P = .353). Median OS was 34.2 and 24.3 months in the panitumumab and bevavcizumab arms, respectively (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.89; P = .009). In the WT RAS subgroup (WT exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS and NRAS), PFS favored the panitumumab arm (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.96; P = .029). Median OS was 41.3 and 28.9 months (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.02; P = .058) in the panitumumab and bevavcizumab arms, respectively. Treatment discontinuation rates because of adverse events were similar between arms.

Conclusion

PFS was similar and OS was improved with panitumumab relative to bevacizumab when combined with mFOLFOX6 in patients with WT KRAS exon 2 tumors. Patients with WT RAS tumors seemed to experience more clinical benefit with anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy.


Purpose

Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct B-cell lymphoma associated with poor outcome. In 2008, the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) was developed as the first prognostic stratification tool specifically directed to patients with MCL. External validation was planned to be performed on the cohort of the two recently completed randomized trials of the European MCL Network.

Patients and Methods

Data of 958 patients with MCL (median age, 65 years; range, 32 to 87 years) treated upfront in the trials MCL Younger or MCL Elderly were pooled to assess the prognostic value of MIPI with respect to overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF).

Results

Five-year OS rates in MIPI low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 83%, 63%, and 34%, respectively. The hazard ratios for OS of intermediate versus low and high versus intermediate risk patients were 2.1 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.9) and 2.6 (2.0 to 3.3), respectively. MIPI was similarly prognostic for TTF. All four clinical baseline characteristics constituting the MIPI, age, performance status, lactate dehydrogenase level, and WBC count, were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for OS and TTF. The validity of MIPI was independent of trial cohort and treatment strategy.

Conclusion

MIPI was prospectively validated in a large MCL patient cohort homogenously treated according to recognized standards. As reflected in current guidelines, MIPI represents a generally applicable prognostic tool to be used in research as well as in clinical routine, and it can help to develop risk-adapted treatment strategies to further improve clinical outcome in MCL.


Purpose

Previous studies regarding the influence of weight on event-free survival (EFS) and treatment-related toxicity (TRT) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) considered only weight at diagnosis. Inasmuch as weight varies substantially over treatment, we hypothesized its impact on EFS is instead determined by cumulative time spent at an extreme weight during therapy and on TRT by weight at the time of toxicity.

Patients and Methods

In a cohort of 2,008 children treated for high-risk ALL in Children’s Oncology Group study CCG-1961, we determined the effect on EFS of cumulative time receiving therapy at an extreme weight (either obese or underweight) between end of induction and start of maintenance therapy. We also evaluated the association between weight category and incidence and patterns of TRT during 13,946 treatment courses.

Results

Being obese or underweight at diagnosis and for ≥ 50% of the time between end of induction and start of maintenance therapy resulted in inferior EFS (hazard ratios, 1.43 and 2.30, respectively; global P < .001). Normalization of weight during that period resulted in mitigation of this risk comparable to never being obese or underweight. Obese or underweight status at start of each treatment course was significantly associated with specific patterns of TRT.

Conclusion

Influence of weight extremes on EFS and TRT is not set at diagnosis as previously reported but is moderated by subsequent weight status during intensive postinduction treatment phases. These observations suggest that weight is a potentially addressable risk factor to improve EFS and morbidity in pediatric ALL.


Purpose

The (14;18) translocation constitutes both a genetic hallmark and critical early event in the natural history of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, t(14;18) is also detectable in the blood of otherwise healthy persons, and its relationship with progression to disease remains unclear. Here we sought to determine whether t(14;18)-positive cells in healthy individuals represent tumor precursors and whether their detection could be used as an early predictor for FL.

Participants and Methods

Among 520,000 healthy participants enrolled onto the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, we identified 100 who developed FL 2 to 161 months after enrollment. Prediagnostic blood from these and 218 controls were screened for t(14;18) using sensitive polymerase chain reaction–based assays. Results were subsequently validated in an independent cohort (65 case participants; 128 controls). Clonal relationships between t(14;18) cells and FL were also assessed by molecular backtracking of paired prediagnostic blood and tumor samples.

Results

Clonal analysis of t(14;18) junctions in paired prediagnostic blood versus tumor samples demonstrated that progression to FL occurred from t(14;18)-positive committed precursors. Furthermore, healthy participants at enrollment who developed FL up to 15 years later showed a markedly higher t(14;18) prevalence and frequency than controls (P < .001). Altogether, we estimated a 23-fold higher risk of subsequent FL in blood samples associated with a frequency > 10–4 (odds ratio, 23.17; 95% CI, 9.98 to 67.31; P < .001). Remarkably, risk estimates remained high and significant up to 15 years before diagnosis.

Conclusion

High t(14;18) frequency in blood from healthy individuals defines the first predictive biomarker for FL, effective years before diagnosis.


Purpose

Liver injury is a serious adverse event leading to permanent discontinuation of lapatinib in affected patients. This study aimed to validate previously associated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) variants as predictors of risk of liver injury by using a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive, early-stage breast cancer (Tykerb Evaluation After Chemotherapy [TEACH]: Lapatinib Versus Placebo In Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer).

Patients and Methods

The frequency of ALT elevation cases was compared among four MHC variants in 1,194 patients randomly assigned to lapatinib. Cumulative ALT elevation time courses during treatment were also compared between carriers and noncarriers of specified MHC variants.

Results

In lapatinib-treated patients, there was a significant difference in ALT case incidence between HLA carriers and noncarriers. The highly correlated alleles HLA-DRB1*07:01 and HLA-DQA1*02:01 (study frequency, 22.4%) were associated with ALT elevation (odds ratio, 14) between cases (n = 37) and controls (n = 1,071). These associations strengthened at higher ALT elevation thresholds and in Hy’s Law cases. In lapatinib-treated patients, the overall risk for National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 ALT elevation (> 5x upper limit of normal) was 2.1%; HLA allele carriers had an increased risk of 7.7%; in noncarriers, risk was reduced to 0.5%, comparable to ALT elevation for all patients receiving placebo. The increase in ALT case incidence in the lapatinib arm showed no evidence of plateau during 1 year of lapatinib treatment.

Conclusion

These results validate HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele carriage as a predictor of increased risk of lapatinib-induced liver injury and implicate an immune pathology. The HLA association could support clinical management of patients experiencing hepatotoxicity during lapatinib treatment.


Purpose

To investigate the association between cohabitation status, clinical stage at diagnosis, and disease-specific survival in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM).

Methods

This nationwide population-based study included 27,235 patients from the Swedish Melanoma Register diagnosed with a primary invasive CMM between 1990 and 2007 and linked data to nationwide, population-based registers followed up through 2012.

Results

After adjustment for age at diagnosis, level of education, living area, period of diagnosis, and tumor site, the odds ratios (ORs) of higher stage at diagnosis were significantly increased among men living alone versus men living with a partner (stage II v stage I: OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.57; stage III or IV v stage I: OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.79). The OR for stage II versus stage I disease was also increased among women living alone (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.28). After adjustments for the factors listed earlier, the CMM-specific survival was significantly decreased among men living alone (hazard ratio [HR] for death, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.65; P < .001). After additional adjustments for all potential and established prognostic factors, CMM-specific survival among men living alone versus men living with a partner remained significantly decreased (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.46; P < .001), suggesting a residual adverse effect on survival not accounted for by these parameters.

Conclusion

In all age groups among men, living alone is significantly associated with reduced CMM-specific survival, partially attributed to a more advanced stage at diagnosis. This emphasizes the need for improved prevention and early detection strategies for this group.