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Journal of Clinical Oncology

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Journal of Clinical Oncology

Combustible tobacco use remains the number-one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the health of the public; however, definitive data are lacking. The AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the US Food and Drug Administration and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited.

This policy statement was developed by a joint writing group composed of members from the Tobacco and Cancer Subcommittee of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Science Policy and Government Affairs (SPGA) Committee and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Tobacco Cessation and Control Subcommittee of the Cancer Prevention Committee (CaPC). The statement was reviewed by both parent committees (ie, the AACR SPGA Committee and the ASCO CaPC) and was approved by the AACR Boards of Directors on August 6, 2014, and the ASCO Executive Committee on September 18, 2014. This policy statement was published jointly by invitation and consent in both Clinical Cancer Research and Journal of Clinical Oncology. Copyright 2015 American Association for Cancer Research and American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or storage in any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission by the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.








Purpose

The objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic yield and complication rate of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung biopsy in the evaluation of pulmonary lesions in patients with cancer and recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT).

Methods

We conducted a systematic literature review and performed electronic searches of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if patients had cancer or were recipients of HSCT, and if they underwent BAL or lung biopsy for the evaluation of pulmonary lesions. Only English language publications were included.

Results

In all, 14,148 studies were screened; 72 studies of BAL and 31 of lung biopsy were included. The proportion of procedures leading to any diagnosis was similar by procedure type (0.53 v 0.54; P = .94) but an infectious diagnosis was more common with BAL compared with lung biopsy (0.49 v 0.34; P < .001). Lung biopsy more commonly led to a noninfectious diagnosis (0.43 v 0.07; P < .001) and was more likely to change how the patient was managed (0.48 v 0.31; P = .002) compared with BAL. However, complications were more common with lung biopsy (0.15 v 0.08; P = .006), and procedure-related mortality was four-fold higher for lung biopsy (0.0078) compared with BAL (0.0018).

Conclusion

BAL may be the preferred diagnostic modality for the evaluation of potentially infectious pulmonary lesions because of lower complication and mortality rates; thus, choice of procedure depends on clinical suspicion of infection. Guidelines to promote consistency in the approach to the evaluation of lung infiltrates may improve clinical care of patients.



Purpose

The Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Stomach Tumors (ARTIST) trial tested whether the addition of radiotherapy to adjuvant chemotherapy improved disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with D2-resected gastric cancer (GC).

Patients and Methods

Between November 2004 and April 2008, 458 patients with GC who received gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection were randomly assigned to either six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) or to two cycles of XP followed by chemoradiotherapy and then two additional cycles of XP (XPRT). This final update contains the first publication of overall survival (OS), together with updated DFS and subset analyses.

Results

With 7 years of follow-up, DFS remained similar between treatment arms (hazard ratio [HR], 0.740; 95% CI, 0.520 to 1.050; P = .0922). OS also was similar (HR, 1.130; 95% CI, 0.775 to 1.647; P = .5272). The effect of the addition of radiotherapy on DFS and OS differed by Lauren classification (interaction P = .04 for DFS; interaction P = .03 for OS) and lymph node ratio (interaction P < .01 for DFS; interaction P < .01 for OS). Subgroup analyses also showed that chemoradiotherapy significantly improved DFS in patients with node-positive disease and with intestinal-type GC. There was a similar trend for DFS and OS by stage of disease.

Conclusion

In D2-resected GC, both adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy are tolerated and equally beneficial in preventing relapse. Because results suggest a significant DFS effect of chemoradiotherapy in subsets of patients, the ARTIST 2 trial evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy in patients with node-positive, D2-resected GC is under way.




Purpose

Immunotherapy is a standard of care for children with high-risk neuroblastoma, where bone marrow (BM) is the predominant metastatic site. Early response markers of minimal residual disease (MRD) in the BM that are also predictive of survival could help individualize patient therapies.

Patients and Methods

After achieving first remission (n = 163), primary refractory disease (n = 102), or second remission (n = 95), children with stage 4 neuroblastoma received anti-GD2 3F8 antibody immunotherapy. BM MRD before 3F8 treatment and after cycle 2 (postMRD) was measured using a four-marker panel (B4GALNT1, PHOX2B, CCND1, and ISL1) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic variables were tested in both univariable and multivariable analyses, and MRD markers were further assessed individually and in combination as binary composite (postMRD: 0 and 1) and as equal sum (postMRDSum: 0 to 4) using the Cox regression models, and their predictive accuracy was determined by the concordance index.

Results

When BM was evaluated after cycle 2, individual markers were highly predictive of PFS and OS. The prediction accuracy improved when they were combined in postMRDSum. A multivariable model taking into account all the variables significant in the univariable analyses identified postMRDSum to be independently predictive of PFS and OS. When the model for OS also included missing killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand, human antimouse antibody response, and the enrollment disease status, the concordance index was 0.704.

Conclusion

BM MRD after two cycles of immunotherapy was confirmed as an early response marker and a consistent independent predictor of survival.


Purpose

High-grade T1 (HGT1) bladder cancer is the highest risk subtype of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, with highly variable prognosis, poorly understood risk factors, and considerable debate about the role of early cystectomy. We aimed to address these questions through a meta-analysis of outcomes and prognostic factors.

Methods

PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and American Society of Clinical Oncology abstracts were searched for cohort studies in HGT1. We pooled data on recurrence, progression, and cancer-specific survival from 73 studies.

Results

Five-year rates of recurrence, progression, and cancer-specific survival were 42% (95% CI, 39% to 45%), 21% (95% CI, 18% to 23%), and 87% (95% CI, 85% to 89%), respectively (56 studies, n = 15,215). In the prognostic factor meta-analysis (33 studies, n = 8,880), the highest impact risk factor was depth of invasion (T1b/c) into lamina propria (progression: hazard ratio [HR], 3.34; P < .001; cancer-specific survival: HR, 2.02; P = .001). Several other previously proposed factors also predicted progression and cancer-specific survival (lymphovascular invasion, associated carcinoma in situ, nonuse of bacillus Calmette-Guérin, tumor size > 3 cm, and older age; HRs for progression between 1.32 and 2.88, P ≤ .002; HRs for cancer-specific survival between 1.28 and 2.08, P ≤ .02).

Conclusion

In this large analysis of outcomes and prognostic factors in HGT1 bladder cancer, deep lamina propria invasion had the largest negative impact, and other previously proposed prognostic factors were also confirmed. These factors should be used for prognostication and patient stratification in future clinical trials, and depth of invasion should be considered for inclusion in TNM staging criteria. This meta-analysis can also help define selection criteria for early cystectomy in HGT1 bladder cancer, particularly for patients with deep lamina propria invasion combined with other risk factors.


Purpose

We examined whether the survival advantage of androgen-deprivation therapy with radiotherapy (ADT plus RT) relative to ADT alone for men with locally advanced prostate cancer reported in two randomized trials holds in real-world clinical practice and extended the evidence to patients poorly represented in the trials.

Methods

We conducted nonrandomized effectiveness studies of ADT plus RT versus ADT in three groups of patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2007 and observed through 2009 in the SEER-Medicare data set: (1) the randomized clinical trial (RCT) cohort, which included men age 65 to 75 years and was most consistent with participants in the randomized trials; (2) the elderly cohort, which included men age > 75 years with locally advanced prostate cancer; and (3) the screen-detected cohort, which included men age ≥ 65 years with screen-detected high-risk prostate cancer. We evaluated cause-specific and all-cause mortality using propensity score, instrumental variable (IV), and sensitivity analyses.

Results

In the RCT cohort, ADT plus RT was associated with reduced cause-specific and all-cause mortality relative to ADT alone (cause-specific propensity score–adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.49; all-cause propensity score–adjusted HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.67). Effectiveness estimates for the RCT cohort were not significantly different from those from randomized trials (P > .1). In the elderly and screen-detected cohorts, ADT plus RT was also associated with reduced cause-specific and all-cause mortality. IV analyses produced estimates similar to those from propensity score–adjusted methods.

Conclusion

Older men with locally advanced or screen-detected high-risk prostate cancer who receive ADT alone risk decrements in cause-specific and overall survival.


Purpose

To validate a prognostic score predicting major complications in patients with solid tumors and seemingly stable episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN). The definition of clinical stability implies the absence of organ dysfunction, abnormalities in vital signs, and major infections.

Patients and Methods

We developed the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia (CISNE), with six explanatory variables associated with serious complications: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2 (2 points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1 point), chronic cardiovascular disease (1 point), mucositis of grade ≥ 2 (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria; 1 point), monocytes < 200 per μL (1 point), and stress-induced hyperglycemia (2 points). We integrated these factors into a score ranging from 0 to 8, which classifies patients into three prognostic classes: low (0 points), intermediate (1 to 2 points), and high risk (≥ 3 points). We present a multicenter validation of CISNE.

Results

We prospectively recruited 1,133 patients with seemingly stable FN from 25 hospitals. Complication rates in the training and validation subsets, respectively, were 1.1% and 1.1% in low-, 6.1% and 6.2% in intermediate-, and 32.5% and 36% in high-risk patients; mortality rates within each class were 0% in low-, 1.6% and 0% in intermediate-, and 4.3% and 3.1% in high-risk patients. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves in the validation subset were 0.652 (95% CI, 0.598 to 0.703) for Talcott, 0.721 (95% CI, 0.669 to 0.768) for Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC), and 0.868 (95% CI, 0.827 to 0.903) for CISNE (P = .002 for comparison between CISNE and MASCC).

Conclusion

CISNE is a valid model for accurately classifying patients with cancer with seemingly stable FN episodes.


Purpose

Considerable molecular heterogeneity exists among human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive breast cancer regarding gene expression and mutation profiling. Evidence from preclinical, clinical neoadjuvant, and metastatic clinical trials suggested that PIK3CA mutational status and PAM50 intrinsic subtype of a tumor were markers of response to anti-HER2 therapies. We evaluated the predictive value of these two biomarkers in the adjuvant setting using archived tumor blocks from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trial B-31.

Patients and Methods

Expression data for 49 genes using the nCounter platform were used to generate PAM50 intrinsic subtypes for 1,578 archived tumor blocks from patients in the B-31 trial. Six PIK3CA hotspot mutations were examined by mass spectrometry of the primer extension products in a randomly selected subset (n = 671). We examined the heterogeneity of trastuzumab treatment effect across different subsets defined by each marker using Cox regression and disease-free survival as the end point.

Results

Seven hundred forty-one (47.0%) of 1,578 tumors were classified as HER2-enriched (HER2E) subtype, and 166 (24.7%) of 671 tumors had PIK3CA mutations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for trastuzumab in HER2E and other subtypes were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.58; P < .001) and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.62; P < .001), respectively (interaction P = .67). HRs for trastuzumab in PIK3CA wild-type and mutated tumors were 0.51 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.71; P < .001) and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.82; P = .009), respectively (interaction P = .64).

Conclusion

Unlike results seen in the metastatic and neoadjuvant clinical trials, PIK3CA and PAM50 intrinsic subtypes were not predictive biomarkers for adjuvant trastuzumab in NSABP B-31. These data suggest that results from the metastatic and neoadjuvant setting may not be always applicable to the adjuvant setting.


Purpose

Knowledge of the contribution of high-penetrance susceptibility to familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is relevant to the counseling, treatment, and surveillance of CRC patients and families.

Patients and Methods

To quantify the impact of germline mutation to familial CRC, we sequenced the mismatch repair genes (MMR) APC, MUTYH, and SMAD4/BMPR1A in 626 early-onset familial CRC cases ascertained through a population-based United Kingdom national registry. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of mutations in the exonuclease domain (exodom) of POLE and POLD1 genes that have recently been reported to confer CRC risk.

Results

Overall mutations (pathogenic, likely pathogenic) in MMR genes make the highest contribution to familial CRC (10.9%). Mutations in the other established CRC genes account for 3.3% of cases. POLE/POLD1 exodom mutations were identified in three patients with family histories consistent with dominant transmission of CRC. Collectively, mutations in the known genes account for 14.2% of familial CRC (89 of 626 cases; 95% CI = 11.5, 17.2).

Conclusion

A genetic diagnosis is feasible in a high proportion of familial CRC. Mainstreaming such analysis in clinical practice should enable the medical management of patients and their families to be optimized. Findings suggest CRC screening of POLE and POLD1 mutation carriers should be comparable to that afforded to those at risk of HNPCC. Although the risk of CRC associated with unexplained familial CRC is in general moderate, in some families the risk is substantive and likely to be the consequence of unidentified genes, as exemplified by POLE and POLD1. Our findings have utility in the design of genetic analyses to identify such novel CRC risk genes.


Purpose

To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for growth hormone deficiency (GHD), luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone deficiencies (LH/FSHD), thyroid-stimulatin hormone deficiency (TSHD), and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (ACTHD) after cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess the impact of untreated deficiencies.

Patients and Methods

Retrospective study in an established cohort of CCS with 748 participants treated with CRT (394 men; mean age, 34.2 years [range, 19.4 to 59.6 years] observed for a mean of 27.3 years [range, 10.8 to 47.7 years]). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study associations between demographic and treatment-related risk factors and pituitary deficiencies, as well as associations between untreated deficiencies and cardiovascular health, bone mineral density (BMD), and physical fitness.

Results

The estimated point prevalence was 46.5% for GHD, 10.8% for LH/FSHD, 7.5% for TSHD, and 4% for ACTHD, and the cumulative incidence increased with follow-up. GHD and LH/FSHD were not treated in 99.7% and 78.5% of affected individuals, respectively. Male sex and obesity were significantly associated with LH/FSHD; white race was significant associated with LH/FSHD and TSHD. Compared with CRT doses less than 22 Gy, doses of 22 to 29.9 Gy were significantly associated with GHD; doses ≥ 22 Gy were associated with LH/FSHD; and doses ≥ 30 Gy were associated with TSHD and ACTHD. Untreated GHD was significantly associated with decreased muscle mass and exercise tolerance; untreated LH/FSHD was associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, low BMD, and slow walking; and both deficits, independently, were associated with with abdominal obesity, low energy expenditure, and muscle weakness.

Conclusion

Anterior pituitary deficits are common after CRT. Continued development over time is noted for GHD and LH/FSHD with possible associations between nontreatment of these conditions and poor health outcomes.


Purpose

This population-level study was conducted to define the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of individuals living with and beyond colorectal cancer (CRC) and to identify factors associated with poor health outcomes.

Patients and Methods

All individuals diagnosed with CRC in England in 2010 and 2011 who were alive 12 to 36 months after diagnosis were sent a questionnaire. This included questions related to treatment, disease status, other long-term conditions (LTCs), generic HRQL (EuroQol-5D), and cancer-specific outcomes (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy and Social Difficulties Inventory items).

Results

The response rate was 63.3% (21,802 of 34,467 patients). One or more generic health problems were reported by 65% of respondents, with 10% of patients reporting problems in all five domains. The reporting of problems was higher than in the general population and was most marked in those age less than 55 years. Certain subgroups reported a higher number of problems, notably those with one or more other LTCs, those with active or recurrent disease, those with a stoma, and those at the extremes of the age range (< 55 and > 85 years). Of respondents without a stoma, 16.3% reported no bowel control. Reversal of a stoma resulted in fewer severe bowel problems but more moderate problems than those who had never had a stoma. A quarter of rectal cancer respondents (25.1%) reported difficulties with sexual matters (compared with 11.2% of colon cancer respondents).

Conclusion

This study demonstrates the success of a national patient-reported outcomes survey. The results have the potential to support system-wide improvement in health outcomes through the identification of particular challenges faced by individuals after treatment for CRC.


Purpose

Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for breast cancer have been related to transient ischemic attacks and stroke. To date, no studies have investigated the relationship between these adjuvant therapies and subclinical cerebral small-vessel disease in survivors of breast cancer. We compared white matter lesion (WML) volume and prevalence of brain infarctions and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) between breast cancer survivors exposed to adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy (aRCeBCSs) for primary disease and a population-based reference group.

Patients and Methods

Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) was performed in 187 aRCeBCSs who received primary breast cancer treatment on average more than 20 years before this study and 374 age-matched reference women without a history of cancer. WML volume was segmented using fully automated software. Experienced raters reviewed all scans for cortical infarctions, lacunar infarctions, strictly lobar CMBs, and deep/infratentorial CMBs with or without lobar CMBs. Within the aRCeBCS group, we also analyzed the association between relative radiotherapy exposure to the carotid artery and prevalence of WML volume and CMBs.

Results

The aRCeBCS group had a higher prevalence of both total CMBs and CMBs in a deep/infratentorial region than the reference group. No between-group differences were observed in the prevalence of infarctions or WML volume. Exposure of the carotid artery to radiation was not associated with WML volume or CMBs.

Conclusion

More CMBs were found in the aRCeBCS group than in the population-based controls. These vascular lesions potentially mark cerebrovascular frailty that could partially explain the well-documented association between chemotherapy and cognitive dysfunction. No support was found for a radiotherapy-related origin of CMBs.


Purpose

We investigated whether mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) correlates with response to neoadjuvant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –targeted therapies in patients with breast cancer.

Patients and Methods

Baseline tissue biopsies were available from patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer who were enrolled onto the Neoadjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization trial (NeoALTTO). Activating mutations in PIK3CA were identified using mass spectrometry–based genotyping.

Results

PIK3CA mutations were identified in 23% of HER2-positive breast tumors, and these mutations were associated with poorer outcome in all of the treatment arms. Patients treated with a combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib who had wild-type PIK3CA obtained a total pathologic complete response (pCR) rate of 53.1%, which decreased to 28.6% in patients with tumors that carried PIK3CA activating mutations (P = .012).

Conclusion

Activating mutations in PIK3CA predicted poor pCR in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapies that target HER2. Consequently, the combination of anti-HER2 agents and PI3K inhibitors is being investigated.


Purpose

Linifanib, a potent, selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, has single-agent activity in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated linifanib with carboplatin and paclitaxel as first-line therapy of advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.

Patients and Methods

Patients with stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC were randomly assigned to 3-week cycles of carboplatin (area under the curve 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) with daily placebo (arm A), linifanib 7.5 mg (arm B), or linifanib 12.5 mg (arm C). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary efficacy end points included overall survival (OS) and objective response rate.

Results

One hundred thirty-eight patients were randomly assigned (median age, 61 years; 57% men; 84% smokers). Median PFS times were 5.4 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 5.7 months) in arm A (n = 47), 8.3 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 10.8 months) in arm B (n = 44), and 7.3 months (95% CI, 4.6 to 10.8 months) in arm C (n = 47). Hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS were 0.51 for arm B versus A (P = .022) and 0.64 for arm C versus A (P = .118). Median OS times were 11.3, 11.4, and 13.0 months in arms A, B, and C, respectively. HRs for OS were 1.08 for arm B versus A (P = .779) and 0.88 for arm C versus A (P = .650). Both linifanib doses were associated with increased toxicity, including a higher incidence of adverse events known to be associated with VEGF/PDGF inhibition. Baseline plasma carcinoembryonic antigen/cytokeratin 19 fragments biomarker signature was associated with PFS improvement and a trend toward OS improvement with linifanib 12.5 mg.

Conclusion

Addition of linifanib to chemotherapy significantly improved PFS (arm B), with a modest trend for survival benefit (arm C) and increased toxicity reflective of known VEGF/PDGF inhibitory effects.




Purpose

To compare age-dependent changes in health status among childhood cancer survivors and a sibling cohort.

Methods

Adult survivors of childhood cancer and siblings, all participants of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, completed three surveys assessing health status. At each of three time points, participants were classified as having poor outcomes in general health, mental health, function, or daily activities if they indicated moderate to extreme impairment. Generalized linear mixed models were used to compare survivors with siblings for each outcome as a function of age and to identify host- and treatment-related factors associated with age-dependent worsening health status.

Results

Adverse health status outcomes were more frequent among survivors than siblings, with evidence of a steeper trajectory of age-dependent change among female survivors with impairment in at least one health status domain (P = .01). In adjusted models, survivors were more likely than siblings to report poor general health (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.37; 95% CI, 2.09 to 2.68), adverse mental health (PR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.52 to 1.80), functional impairment (PR, 4.53; 95% CI, 3.91 to 5.24), activity limitations (PR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.12 to 2.67), and an adverse health status outcome in any domain (PR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.97 to 2.23). Cancer treatment and health behaviors influence the magnitude of differences by age groups. Chronic conditions were associated with adverse health status outcomes across organ systems.

Conclusion

The prevalence of poor health status is higher among survivors than siblings, increases rapidly with age, particularly among female participants, and is related to an increasing burden of chronic health conditions.


Purpose

To assess the risks of second malignancy and early menopause in a large cohort of patients with gestational trophoblastic tumor who were treated with chemotherapy.

Patients and Methods

A survey of patients treated at Charing Cross Hospital between 1958 and 2000 was performed in 2006 to assemble incidence data for subsequent malignancies and the age at menopause. Treatment records were reviewed for the regimens and durations, and the incidence of subsequent malignancies was compared with that in the national age-matched population.

Results

Data were obtained for 1,903 patients, with a mean follow-up of 16.9 years. Eighty-six patients developed a subsequent malignancy compared with an expected number of 79 (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.3). The overall risk was low for patients treated with single-agent methotrexate and folinic acid (MTX-FA; SIR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.1) and also for patients treated with etoposide, methotrexate, and dactinomycin followed by cyclophosphamide and vincristine on alternating weeks (EMA-CO) with an SIR of 0.9 (95% CI, 0.4 to 2.2), but there were significantly increased risks of oral cancer, melanoma, meningioma, and leukemia. The cumulative risk of early menopause was low after MTX-FA but was substantial after EMA-CO, reaching 13% by age 40 years and 36% by age 45 years.

Conclusion

Subsequent cancer risks for patients cured of gestational trophoblastic tumors with modern chemotherapy appear similar to those of the normal population with no overall increased risk of malignancy after MTX-FA or EMA-CO. However, there was evidence of an increased risk of leukemia after EMA-CO and some evidence of other site-specific increased risks based on small patient numbers. All major treatments except MTX-FA increased the risk of early menopause.


Purpose

The CLEOPATRA (Clinical Evaluation of Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab) study demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival when pertuzumab was added to trastuzumab and docetaxel. Paclitaxel given once per week is effective and less toxic than docetaxel. We performed a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab and trastuzumab with paclitaxel given once per week.

Patients and Methods

Patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer with zero to one prior therapy were enrolled. Treatment consisted of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once per week plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose -> 6 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks plus pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose -> 420 mg) once every 3 weeks, all given intravenously. The primary end point was 6-month PFS assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods.

Results

From January 2011 to December 2013, we enrolled 69 patients: 51 (74%) and 18 (26%) treated in first- and second-line metastatic settings, respectively. At a median follow-up of 21 months (range, 3 to 38 months), 6-month PFS was 86% (95% CI, 75% to 92%). The median PFS was 19.5 months (95% CI, 14 to 26 months) overall. PFS was 24.2 months (95% CI, 14 months to not reached [NR]) and 16.4 months (95% CI, 8.5 months to NR) for those without and with prior treatment, respectively. At 1 year, Kaplan-Meier PFS was 70% (95% CI, 56% to 79%) overall, 71% (95% CI, 55% to 82%) for those without prior therapy, and 66% (95% CI, 40% to 83%) for those with prior therapy. Treatment was well-tolerated; there was no febrile neutropenia or symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

Conclusion

Paclitaxel given once per week with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is highly active and well tolerated and seems to be an effective alternative to docetaxel-based combination therapy.


Purpose

To determine the cumulative incidence of and risk factors for psychiatric morbidity and establish the impact on survival among surgically treated patients with esophageal cancer.

Patients and Methods

A nationwide Swedish cohort of 1,615 patients who underwent surgery for esophageal cancer between 1987 and 2010 with follow-up until 2012 was linked to national health registries for information on psychiatric morbidity (inferred from mental health care use). Multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine potential risk factors for postoperative psychiatric morbidity. A multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze overall survival.

Results

In patients without a history of psychiatric morbidity, the 2-year cumulative incidence for treatment in psychiatric in-patient care was 2.5%, for psychiatric out-patient care was 4.2%, and for treatment with psychotropic drugs was 32.3%. Married patients were less likely to be treated postoperatively in psychiatric in-patient care (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.80) or out-patient care (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17 to 1.02), whereas patients with higher tumor stage were more likely to be treated in psychiatric out-patient care (OR, 4.99; 95% CI, 1.16 to 21.38) or with psychotropic drugs (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.10 to 7.01). Bearing in mind possible residual confounding, new-onset psychiatric morbidity was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.65 [95% CI, 1.17 to 2.33] for treatment in psychiatric in-patient care; HR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.18 to 3.16] for treatment in psychiatric out-patient care; and HR, 2.77 [95% CI, 1.72 to 4.44] for treatment with psychotropic drugs).

Conclusion

These results highlight the importance of recognizing and addressing psychiatric morbidity in surgically treated patients with esophageal cancer.


Purpose

Travel distances to care have increased substantially with centralization of complex cancer procedures at high-volume centers. We hypothesize that longer travel distances are associated with higher rates of postoperative readmission and poorer outcomes.

Methods

SEER-Medicare patients with bladder, lung, pancreas, or esophagus cancer who were diagnosed in 2001 to 2007 and underwent extirpative surgery were included. Readmission rates and survival were calculated using Kaplan-Meier functions. Multivariable negative binomial models were used to examine factors associated with readmission.

Results

Four thousand nine hundred forty cystectomies, 1,573 esophagectomies, 20,362 lung resections, and 2,844 pancreatectomies were included. Thirty- and 90-day readmission rates ranged from 13% to 29% and 23% to 43%, respectively, based on tumor type. Predictors of readmission were discharge to somewhere other than home, longer length of stay, comorbidities, higher stage at diagnosis, and longer travel distance (P < .001 for each). Patients who lived farther from the index hospital also had increased emergency room visits and were more likely to be readmitted to a hospital other than the index hospital (P < .001). Of readmitted patients, 31.9% were readmitted more than once. Long-term survival was worse and costs of care higher for patients who were readmitted (P < .001 for all).

Conclusion

The burden of readmissions after major cancer surgery is high, resulting in substantially poorer patient outcomes and higher costs. Risk of readmission was most strongly associated with length of stay and discharge destination. Travel distance also has an impact on patterns of readmission. Interventions targeted at higher risk individuals could potentially decrease the population burden of readmissions after major cancer surgery.


Purpose

The presence of a mutated nucleophosmin-1 gene (NPM1mut) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a favorable prognosis. To assess the predictive value with regard to allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT), we compared the clinical course of patients with NPM1mut AML eligible for allogeneic SCT in a donor versus no-donor analysis.

Patients and Methods

Of 1,179 patients with AML (age 18 to 60 years) treated in the Study Alliance Leukemia AML 2003 trial, we identified all NPM1mut patients with an intermediate-risk karyotype. According to the trial protocol, patients were intended to receive an allogeneic SCT if an HLA-identical sibling donor was available. Patients with no available donor received consolidation or autologous SCT. We compared relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) depending on the availability of a suitable donor.

Results

Of 304 eligible patients, 77 patients had a sibling donor and 227 had no available matched family donor. The 3-year RFS rates in the donor and no-donor groups were 71% and 47%, respectively (P = .005); OS rates were 70% and 60%, respectively (P = .114). In patients with normal karyotype and no FLT3 internal tandem duplication (n = 148), the 3-year RFS rates in the donor and no-donor groups were 83% and 53%, respectively (P = .004); and the 3-year OS rates were 81% and 75%, respectively (P = .300).

Conclusion

Allogeneic SCT led to a significantly prolonged RFS in patients with NPM1mut AML. The absence of a statistically significant difference in OS is most likely a result of the fact that NPM1mut patients who experienced relapse responded well to salvage treatment. Allogeneic SCT in first remission has potent antileukemic efficacy and is a valuable treatment option in patients with NPM1mut AML with a sibling donor.


Purpose

To compare the clinical outcomes of sorafenib plus either erlotinib or placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a multicenter, multinational, randomized, phase III trial.

Patients and Methods

Patients with advanced HCC and underlying Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis, who were naive to systemic treatment (N = 720), were randomly assigned to sorafenib plus either erlotinib (n = 362) or placebo (n = 358). The primary end point was overall survival (OS).

Results

Median OS was similar in the sorafenib plus erlotinib and sorafenib plus placebo groups (9.5 v 8.5 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.929; P = .408), as was median time to progression (3.2 v 4.0 months, respectively; HR, 1.135; P = .18). In the sorafenib/erlotinib arm versus the sorafenib/placebo arm, the overall response rate trended higher (6.6% v 3.9%, respectively; P = .102), whereas the disease control rate was significantly lower (43.9% v 52.5%, respectively; P = .021). The median durations of treatment with sorafenib were 86 days in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm and 123 days in the sorafenib/placebo arm. In the sorafenib/erlotinib and sorafenib/placebo arms, the rates of treatment-emergent serious AEs (58.0% v 54.6%, respectively) and drug-related serious AEs (21.0% v 22.8%, respectively) were similar. AEs matched the known safety profiles of both agents, but rates of rash/desquamation, anorexia, and diarrhea were higher in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm, whereas rates of alopecia and hand-foot skin reaction were higher in the sorafenib/placebo arm. Withdrawal rates for AEs during cycles 1 to 3 were higher in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm.

Conclusion

Adding erlotinib to sorafenib did not improve survival in patients with advanced HCC.




Purpose

Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death–1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that restores T-cell immune activity. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity, dose-response relationship, and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).

Patients and Methods

Patients with clear-cell mRCC previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were randomly assigned (blinded ratio of 1:1:1) to nivolumab 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship as measured by progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety.

Results

A total of 168 patients were randomly assigned to the nivolumab 0.3- (n = 60), 2- (n = 54), and 10-mg/kg (n = 54) cohorts. One hundred eighteen patients (70%) had received more than one prior systemic regimen. Median PFS was 2.7, 4.0, and 4.2 months, respectively (P = .9). Respective ORRs were 20%, 22%, and 20%. Median OS was 18.2 months (80% CI, 16.2 to 24.0 months), 25.5 months (80% CI, 19.8 to 28.8 months), and 24.7 months (80% CI, 15.3 to 26.0 months), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) was fatigue (24%, 22%, and 35%, respectively). Nineteen patients (11%) experienced grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs.

Conclusion

Nivolumab demonstrated antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile across the three doses studied in mRCC. No dose-response relationship was detected as measured by PFS. These efficacy and safety results in mRCC support study in the phase III setting.





Purpose

To determine whether prolonged androgen suppression (AS) duration before radiotherapy improves survival and disease control in prostate cancer.

Patients and Methods

One thousand five hundred seventy-nine men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of AS followed by radiotherapy with an additional 8 weeks of concurrent AS (16 weeks total) or to 28 weeks of AS followed by radiotherapy with an additional 8 weeks of AS (36 weeks total). The trial sought primarily to detect a 33% reduction in the hazard of prostate cancer death in the 28-week assignment. Time-to-event end points are reported for up to 10 years of follow-up.

Results

There were no between-group differences in baseline characteristics of 1,489 eligible patients with follow-up. For the 8- and 28-week assignments, 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 95% (95% CI, 93.3% to 97.0%) and 96% (95% CI, 94.6% to 98.0%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; P = .45), respectively, and 10-year overall survival rates were 66% (95% CI, 62.0% to 69.9%) and 67% (95% CI, 63.0% to 70.8%; HR, 0.95; P = .62), respectively. For the 8- and 28-week assignments, 10-year cumulative incidences of locoregional progression were 6% (95% CI, 4.3% to 8.0%) and 4% (95% CI, 2.5% to 5.7%; HR, 0.65; P = .07), respectively; 10-year distant metastasis cumulative incidences were 6% (95% CI, 4.0% to 7.7%) and 6% (95% CI, 4.0% to 7.6%; HR, 1.07; P = .80), respectively; and 10-year prostate-specific antigen–based recurrence cumulative incidences were 27% (95% CI, 23.1% to 29.8%) and 27% (95% CI, 23.4% to 30.3%; HR, 0.97; P = .77), respectively.

Conclusion

Extending AS duration from 8 weeks to 28 weeks before radiotherapy did not improve outcomes. A lower than expected prostate cancer death rate reduced ability to detect a between-group difference in disease-specific survival. The schedule of 8 weeks of AS before radiotherapy plus 8 weeks of AS during radiotherapy remains a standard of care in intermediate-risk prostate cancer.





Purpose

This study investigated the long-term probability of developing a second cancer in a large pooled cohort of patients treated with surgery with or without radiotherapy (RT).

Patients and Methods

All second cancers diagnosed in patients included in the TME, PORTEC-1, and PORTEC-2 trials were analyzed. In the TME trial, patients with rectal cancer (n = 1,530) were randomly allocated to preoperative external-beam RT (EBRT; 25 Gy in five fractions) or no RT. In the PORTEC trials, patients with endometrial cancer were randomly assigned to postoperative EBRT (46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions) versus no RT (PORTEC-1; n = 714) or EBRT versus vaginal brachytherapy (VBT; PORTEC-2; n = 427).

Results

A total of 2,554 patients were analyzed (median follow-up, 13.0 years; range 1.8 to 21.2 years). No differences were found in second cancer probability between patients who were treated without RT (10- and 15-year rates, 15.8% and 26.5%, respectively) and those treated with EBRT (10- and 15-year rates, 15.4% and 25.6%, respectively) or VBT (10-year rate, 14.9%). In the individual trials, no significant differences were found between treatment arms. All cancer survivors had a higher risk of developing a second cancer compared with an age- and sex-matched general population. The standardized incidence ratio for any second cancer was 2.98 (95% CI, 2.82 to 3.14).

Conclusion

In this pooled trial cohort of > 2,500 patients with pelvic cancers, those who underwent EBRT or VBT had no higher probability of developing a second cancer than patients who were treated with surgery alone. However, patients with rectal or endometrial cancer had an increased probability of developing a second cancer compared with the general population.


Purpose

Modulation of immunologic interactions in cancer tissue is a promising therapeutic strategy. To investigate the immunogenicity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive and triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (BCs), we evaluated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immunologically relevant genes in the neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial.

Patients and Methods

GeparSixto investigated the effect of adding carboplatin (Cb) to an anthracycline-plus-taxane combination (PM) on pathologic complete response (pCR). A total of 580 tumors were evaluated before random assignment for stromal TILs and lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC). mRNA expression of immune-activating (CXCL9, CCL5, CD8A, CD80, CXCL13, IGKC, CD21) as well as immunosuppressive factors (IDO1, PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA4, FOXP3) was measured in 481 tumors.

Results

Increased levels of stromal TILs predicted pCR in univariable (P < .001) and multivariable analyses (P < .001). pCR rate was 59.9% in LPBC and 33.8% for non-LPBC (P < .001). pCR rates ≥ 75% were observed in patients with LPBC tumors treated with PMCb, with a significant test for interaction with therapy in the complete (P = .002) and HER2-positive (P = .006), but not the TNBC, cohorts. Hierarchic clustering of mRNA markers revealed three immune subtypes with different pCR rates (P < .001). All 12 immune mRNA markers were predictive for increased pCR. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were observed for PD-L1 (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.86; P < .001) and CCL5 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.62; P < .001).

Conclusion

Immunologic factors were highly significant predictors of therapy response in the GeparSixto trial, particularly in patients treated with Cb. After further standardization, they could be included in histopathologic assessment of BC.


Purpose

There have been no randomized trials that have compared peripheral blood (PB) with bone marrow (BM) grafts in the setting of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantations for hematologic malignancy. Because immune modulation plays a significant role in sustaining clinical remission after RIC, we hypothesize that higher graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) associated with PB transplantation may offer a survival advantage.

Patients and Methods

The primary outcome evaluated was overall survival. Cox regression models were built to study outcomes after transplantation of PB (n = 887) relative to BM (n = 219) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the three most common indications for unrelated RIC transplantation. Transplantations were performed in the United States between 2000 and 2008. Conditioning regimens consisted of an alkylating agent and fludarabine, and GVHD prophylaxis involved a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) with either methotrexate (MTX) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF).

Results

After adjusting for age, performance score, donor-recipient HLA-match, disease, and disease status at transplantation (factors associated with overall survival), there were no significant differences in 5-year rates of survival after transplantation of PB compared with BM: 34% versus 38% with CNI-MTX and 27% versus 20% with CNI-MMF GVHD prophylaxis.

Conclusion

Survival after transplantation of PB and BM are comparable in the setting of nonirradiation RIC regimens for hematologic malignancy. The effect of GVHD prophylaxis on survival merits further evaluation.


Purpose

To explore factors associated with emergency department (ED) attendance by patients with cancer in their last month of life.

Methods

Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library) were searched through February 2014 for studies investigating ED attendance toward the end of life by adult patients (age 18 years or older) with cancer. No time or language limitations were applied. We performed meta-analysis of factors using a random-effects model, with results expressed as odds ratios (OR) for ED attendance. Sensitivity analyses explored heterogeneity.

Results

Thirty studies were identified, reporting three demographic, five clinical, and 13 environmental factors, combining data from five countries and 1,181,842 patients. An increased likelihood of ED attendance was found for men (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.29; I2, 58.2%), black race (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.40 to 1.50; I2, 0.0%; reference, white race), patients with lung cancer (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.23; I2, 59.5%; reference, other cancers), and those patients of the lowest socioeconomic status (SES; OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.19; I2, 0.0%; reference, highest SES). Patients receiving palliative care were less likely to attend the ED in their last month of life (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.51; I2, 59.4%).

Conclusion

We identified demographic (men; black race), clinical (lung cancer), and environmental (low SES; no palliative care) factors associated with an increased risk of ED attendance by patients with cancer in their last month of life. Our findings may be used to develop screening interventions and assist policy-makers to direct resources. Future studies should also investigate previously neglected areas of research, including psychosocial factors, and patients' and caregivers' emergency care preferences.


Purpose

There is no consensus on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be included in breast screening protocols for women with BRCA1/2 mutations age ≥ 50 years. Therefore, we investigated the evidence on age-related screening accuracy in women with BRCA1/2 mutations using individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis.

Patients and Methods

IPD were pooled from six high-risk screening trials including women with BRCA1/2 mutations who had completed at least one screening round with both MRI and mammography. A generalized linear mixed model with repeated measurements and a random effect of studies estimated sensitivity and specificity of MRI, mammography, and the combination in all women and specifically in those age ≥ 50 years.

Results

Pooled analysis showed that in women age ≥ 50 years, screening sensitivity was not different from that in women age < 50 years, whereas screening specificity was. In women age ≥ 50 years, combining MRI and mammography significantly increased screening sensitivity compared with mammography alone (94.1%; 95% CI, 77.7% to 98.7% v 38.1%; 95% CI, 22.4% to 56.7%; P < .001). The combination was not significantly more sensitive than MRI alone (94.1%; 95% CI, 77.7% to 98.7% v 84.4%; 95% CI, 61.8% to 94.8%; P = .28). Combining MRI and mammography in women age ≥ 50 years resulted in sensitivity similar to that in women age < 50 years (94.1%; 95% CI, 77.7% to 98.7% v 93.2%; 95% CI, 79.3% to 98%; P = .79).

Conclusion

Addition of MRI to mammography for screening BRCA1/2 mutation carriers age ≥ 50 years improves screening sensitivity by a magnitude similar to that observed in younger women. Limiting screening MRI in BRCA1/2 carriers age ≥ 50 years should be reconsidered.


Purpose

Medicare beneficiaries with cancer bear a greater portion of their health care costs, because cancer treatment costs have increased. Beneficiaries have supplemental insurance to reduce out-of-pocket costs; those without supplemental insurance may face barriers to care. This study examines the association between type of supplemental insurance coverage and receipt of chemotherapy among Medicare patients with cancer who, per National Comprehensive Cancer Network treatment guidelines, should generally receive chemotherapy.

Patients and Methods

This retrospective, observational study included 1,200 Medicare patients diagnosed with incident cancer of the breast (stage IIB to III), colon (stage III), rectum (stage II to III), lung (stage II to IV), or ovary (stage II to IV) from 2000 to 2005. Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Studies and linked SEER-Medicare data, we determined each Medicare patient's supplemental insurance status (private insurance, dual eligible [ie, Medicare with Medicaid], or no supplemental insurance), consultation with an oncologist, and receipt of chemotherapy. Using adjusted logistic regression, we evaluated the association of type of supplemental insurance with oncologist consultation and receipt of chemotherapy.

Results

Dual-eligible patients were significantly less likely to receive chemotherapy than were Medicare patients with private insurance. Patients with Medicare only who saw an oncologist had comparable rates of chemotherapy compared with Medicare patients with private insurance.

Conclusion

Dual-eligible Medicare beneficiaries received recommended cancer chemotherapy less frequently than other Medicare beneficiaries. With the increasing number of Medicaid patients under the Affordable Care Act, there will be a need for patient navigators and sufficient physician reimbursement so that low-income patients with cancer will have access to oncologists and needed treatment.


Purpose

To explore the associations between place of death and quality of death and dying and caregiver burden in terminally ill patients with cancer and their families.

Methods

Two bereavement surveys were conducted in October 2008 and October 2011. A total of 2,247 family caregivers of patients with cancer who were deceased responded to the mail surveys (response rate, 67%). Family members reported patient quality of death and dying and caregiver burden by using the Good Death Inventory and Caregiving Consequences Inventory.

Results

Patient quality of death and dying was significantly higher at home relative to other places of dying after adjustment for patient and/or family characteristics (adjusted means): 5.0 (95% CI, 4.9 to 5.2) for home, 4.6 (95% CI, 4.5 to 4.7) for palliative care units, and 4.3 (95% CI, 4.2 to 4.4) for hospitals. For all combinations, pairwise P < .001; the size of the difference between home and hospital was moderate (Hedges' g, 0.45). Home was superior to palliative care units or hospitals with respect to "dying in a favorite place," "good relationships with medical staff," "good relationships with family," and "maintaining hope and pleasure" (P < .001 for all combinations of home v palliative care units and home v hospitals). Home death was significantly associated with a lower overall (P = .03) and financial caregiver burden (P = .004) relative to hospital death.

Conclusion

Dying at home may contribute to achieving good death in terminally ill patients with cancer without causing remarkably increased caregiver burden. Place of death should be regarded as an essential goal in end-of-life care.


Purpose

For carriers of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, the most relevant statistic for cancer prevention is colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) risk, particularly in the short term.

Methods

We conducted a meta-analysis of all independent published Lynch syndrome studies reporting age- and sex-dependent colorectal cancer risks. We estimated 5-year colorectal cancer risk over different age groups, separately for male and female mutation carriers, and number needed to screen to prevent one death.

Results

We pooled estimates from analyses of 1,114 Lynch syndrome families (508 with MLH1 mutations and 606 with MSH2 mutations). On average, one in 71 male and one in 102 female MLH1 or MSH2 mutation carriers in their 20s will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the next 5 years. These colorectal cancer risks increase with age, peaking in the 50s (one in seven males and one in 12 females), and then decrease with age (one in 13 males and one in 19 females in their 70s). Annual colonoscopy in 16 males or 25 females in their 50s would prevent one death from colorectal cancer over 5 years while resulting in almost no serious complications. In comparison, annual colonoscopy in 155 males or 217 females in their 20s would prevent one death while resulting in approximately one serious complication.

Conclusion

For MLH1 or MSH2 mutation carriers, current guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 1 to 2 years starting in their 20s. Our findings support this regimen from age 30 years; however, it might not be justifiable for carriers who are in their 20s.