Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Baboons can tell whether they need to make a ruckus to get attention or if they already have a captive audience.To see whether the animals adjust their mode of communication according to the level of an observer's attention, Marie Bourjade at Aix-Marseille University, France,
Bee pollination doesn't just boost yields of fruit crops — it also improves fruit quality, at least in strawberries.Strawberry plants can self-pollinate, or be pollinated by wind or bees. Björn Klatt of the University of Göttingen in Germany and his colleagues grew the fruit
Recent weather extremes during summer in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the 2012 drought in the United States (pictured), seem to be linked to loss of Arctic sea ice and reductions in snow cover.Qiuhong Tang of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and
Astronomers have discovered three distant quasars that will allow them to probe the conditions of the early Universe.A team led by Bram Venemans at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, discovered the active galactic nuclei using the European Southern Observatory's Visible
A system for editing genes has now been used to repair disease-related mutations in mice and human stem cells, highlighting the technology's therapeutic potential.The recently developed CRISPR system uses an RNA strand matching a target gene to guide a bacterial enzyme, Cas9, to excise
Data from a US Earth-observing satellite could help improve the accuracy of predictions of hurricane track and strength.When generating hurricane forecasts, the US National Weather Service does not use real-time information from weather satellites. But Xiaolei Zou at Florida State University in Tallahassee and
Ovaries are the main producers of oestrogen but when they give out, the brain in monkeys can take over in making the hormone.Ei Terasawa and her colleagues at the University of Wisconsin in Madison removed the ovaries of female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta
Culling vampire bats in South America to combat the spread of rabies could be having the opposite effect, according to a modelling study.Vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) transmit the rabies virus by biting humans and livestock. Julie Blackwood at Williams College in Williamstown,
Flying reptiles that went extinct around 65 million years ago probably did not spend much time on water — even though fossils of the creatures with fish in their stomachs have been found in ancient oceans and lakes.David Hone, at Queen Mary University in
Highly read on pubs.acs.org in NovemberWaste water from oil and gas production is contaminating surface waters and sediments in western Pennsylvania — even after it has been treated.In the United States, such waste is sometimes sent to treatment facilities and then discharged
Investigative journalist Gregory Zuckerman maps the landscape of the new US oil boom, currently producing 7.5 million barrels of crude a day. Focusing on the widespread technique of fracking — hydraulic fracturing of deep shale deposits for oil and gas — Zuckerman plaits portraits of
Your analysis of the long-term investment strategy of the US National Science Foundation (NSF) fails to recognize the extent to which the agency's academic-research fleet is one of the most vital elements of its oceanographic infrastructure (Nature501, 461; 201310.1038/501461a).
Mozambique's government has implemented quarantine measures to help control an outbreak in the country of a fungal pathogen that is ravaging banana plantations all over southeast Asia (see go.nature.com/1oiywc). To be effective, these efforts must be backed by prompt diagnosis and management of the
You suggest that universities are not doing enough to increase research mobility across Europe (Nature502, 5; 201310.1038/502005a). But at the European University Association (EUA) in Brussels, our evidence indicates that universities are in fact the main drivers towards a
The severe shortage of trained scientists in Africa (see go.nature.com/gio8pu) has given rise to a variety of programmes and initiatives to recruit more students into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and to encourage them to complete their education. A central database that collects
The News story ‘Image search triggers Italian police probe’ (Nature504, 18; 2013) should have said that paper identified as problematic and being retracted was in Cell Death and Differentiation, not Cell Death and Disease.
An ultrafast mode of vesicle endocytosis — a crucial process occurring at neural junctions that underpins brain function — has been uncovered. Long-standing models of endocytosis will therefore need to be re-evaluated. See Article p.242
A three-dimensional climate model indicates that the fraction of Sun-like stars that might harbour a rocky planet within their habitable zone could be smaller than previously estimated. See Letter p.268
The status of the protein p53 determines whether inhibiting the cellular autophagy pathway promotes or inhibits pancreatic cancer in mice. This finding serves as a cautionary tale for clinical trials of autophagy inhibitors. See Letter p.296
The collective motions of dwarf galaxies in planes around the Andromeda galaxy and the Milky Way have presented a challenge to theory. Interactions between galaxy groups in the distant past may have left their imprint on these dwarfs.
Recent experience can affect memory either positively or negatively. A small population of inhibitory neurons that express the protein parvalbumin seems to have a pivotal role in this process. See Letter p.272
The idea of creating liquids containing magnetic particles that display ferromagnetism has not been realized — until now. Plate-shaped magnets in a liquid crystal have been made that exhibit this property. See Article p.237
The discovery of the Archaea and the proposal of the three-domains ‘universal’ tree, based on ribosomal RNA and core genes mainly involved in protein translation, catalysed new ideas for cellular evolution and eukaryotic origins. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the three-domains tree may be incorrect: evolutionary trees made using newer methods place eukaryotic core genes within the Archaea, supporting hypotheses in which an archaeon participated in eukaryotic origins by founding the host lineage for the mitochondrial endosymbiont. These results provide support for only two primary domains of life—Archaea and Bacteria—because eukaryotes arose through partnership between them.
More than four decades ago, Brochard and de Gennes proposed that colloidal suspensions of ferromagnetic particles in nematic (directionally ordered) liquid crystals could form macroscopic ferromagnetic phases at room temperature. The experimental realization of these predicted phases has hitherto proved elusive, with such systems showing
To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated approximately 20 s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or in approximately 1 s by the reversal of fusion pores via ‘kiss-and-run’ endocytosis.
Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium
Human GABAB (γ-aminobutyric acid class B) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor central to inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. It functions as an obligatory heterodimer of the subunits GBR1 and GBR2. Here we present the crystal structures of a heterodimeric complex between the extracellular
Accreting black holes are known to power relativistic jets, both in stellar-mass binary systems and at the centres of galaxies. The power carried away by the jets, and, hence, the feedback they provide to their surroundings, depends strongly on their composition. Jets containing a baryonic component should carry significantly more energy than electron–positron jets. Energetic considerations and circular-polarization measurements have provided conflicting circumstantial evidence for the presence or absence of baryons in jets, and the only system in which they have been unequivocally detected is the peculiar X-ray binary SS 433 (refs 4, 5). Here we report the detection of Doppler-shifted X-ray emission lines from a more typical black-hole candidate X-ray binary, 4U 1630-47, coincident with the reappearance of radio emission from the jets of the source. We argue that these lines arise from baryonic matter in a jet travelling at approximately two-thirds the speed of light, thereby establishing the presence of baryons in the jet. Such baryonic jets are more likely to be powered by the accretion disk than by the spin of the black hole, and if the baryons can be accelerated to relativistic speeds, the jets should be strong sources of γ-rays and neutrino emission.
Information theory establishes the ultimate limits on performance for noisy communication systems. Accurate models of physical communication devices must include quantum effects, but these typically make the theory intractable. As a result, communication capacities—the maximum possible rates of data transmission—are not known, even for transmission between two users connected by an electromagnetic waveguide with Gaussian noise. Here we present an exactly solvable model of communication with a fully quantum electromagnetic field. This gives explicit expressions for all point-to-point capacities of noisy quantum channels, with implications for quantum key distribution and fibre-optic communications. We also develop a theory of quantum communication networks by solving some rudimentary models including broadcast and multiple-access channels. We compare the predictions of our model with the orthodox Gaussian model and in all cases find agreement to within a few bits. At high signal-to-noise ratios, our simple model captures the relevant physics while remaining amenable to exact solution.