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Nature

Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Nature
The repeal of Australia’s carbon-pricing scheme — the first time a nation has reversed action on climate change — sets a worrying example for other countries mulling steps to reduce emissions.

Soaring construction costs for ITER are jeopardizing alternative fusion projects.

Exploring how species adapt to climate change requires long-term studies, not snapshots.

Its scientists have much to offer the world, but are being held back by scattered administration and changing policies, argues Pablo Astudillo Besnier.

Gullies on Mars were probably not created by liquid water but by the seasonal freezing and thawing of carbon dioxide, according to an analysis of high-resolution images.Many scientists have argued that flowing water — a prerequisite for life — carved the gullies (pictured) that

Cheese rinds could help to reveal how microbial communities form and species interact.Microbial communities affect ecosystems and human health, but are difficult to study in the lab. To find microbial systems that can be easily manipulated, Rachel Dutton and her colleagues at Harvard University

Rising greenhouse-gas levels have been making summers in the Northern Hemisphere hotter, even though global warming has been slowing in recent years.Youichi Kamae of the National Institute for Environmental Studies in Tsukuba, Japan, and his colleagues compared the results of climate models that include

Researchers have discovered the first fossil evidence of a type of search behaviour displayed by some modern animals when looking for food.Animals that hunt sparse prey over large areas often move in patterns known as Lévy walks — characterized by numerous small steps interspersed

Researchers have used advanced gene-editing techniques to generate disease-resistant wheat.Genetically altering Triticum aestivum wheat is difficult to do, in part because the plant has six sets of chromosomes instead of the two sets found in humans. So Caixia Gao and Jin-Long Qiu of

A dead pigeon specimen that has lain for years in a UK museum has been confirmed by DNA analysis as a new species — and as a relative of the dodo.Tim Heupink of Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia, and his colleagues extracted and sequenced

A microbe that can lead to the formation of stomach ulcers and cancer quickly finds its way to tiny injuries in the stomach lining and colonizes them, slowing healing.Marshall Montrose at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio and his colleagues exposed mice with stomach

A telescope has detected a mysterious millisecond burst of radio waves that seems to be coming from outside the Milky Way.Laura Spitler at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, and her colleagues found the burst using the Arecibo radio telescope

Elephant-like animals called gomphotheres (Cuvieronius sp.), thought to have gone extinct long before humans arrived in the Americas, might have stuck around long enough to be hunted by prehistoric people.At a site called El Fin del Mundo in Sonora, Mexico, a team

Nature's roundup of the papers and issues gaining traction on social media.News that a rarified group of scientists has claimed the lion's share of publications has set off a social-media discussion about the fairness of the system. Researchers also took to Twitter to

The week in science: Spacecraft chases duck-shaped comet; Darwin’s library online; and a new journal for workplace fatigue.

AIDS conference tries to draw inspiration from lost scientists.

Climate experts decry demise of emissions-control system.

Flood of genetic locations linked to schizophrenia helps spark financial boost to research field.

Proposals for two accelerators could see country become collider capital of the world.

Scientists seek fresh approaches to deciphering red planet’s history.

Fuelled by venture capital and a lot of hope, alternative fusion technologies are heating up.

When California's governor enlisted the aid of two palaeoecologists, their careers took an unusual turn.

By 2050, the number of people over the age of 80 will triple globally. These demographics could come at great cost to individuals and economies. Two groups describe how research in animals and humans should be refocused to find ways to delay the onset of frailty.

Kevin Padian considers two books on tree diagrams and what they can represent.

When Nature's former news editor Gaia Vince set off on a two-year, six-continent trek, her aim was inspired: to explore empirically, amid biodiversity collapse and global climate change, how the planet and its ingenious humans are faring. Digging beneath the scree of statistics, received

The Apollo space missions cost more than US$100 billion in today's terms, the Large Hadron Collider $10 billion and the development of the Airbus A380 $15 billion — making the projected $4.5 billion for the BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) initiative look paltry

We suggest some pointers to guarantee the long-term storage, accessibility and reliability of international research data sets.Data owners, peer-reviewed journals, research institutes and universities have cited various problems with the feasibility of establishing global databases — including maintenance costs, restrictive data-exchange policies and conflicts

We contest the views of Peiyue Li and colleagues on the geological implications of land creation projects in China, particularly for Yan'an city (see Nature510, 29–31; 10.1038/510029a2014).The Yan'an project has created flat ground by levelling hills and

The rise of weeds that are resistant to the herbicide glyphosate has led many US farmers to seek permission from the Environmental Protection Agency to use more-dangerous herbicides, such as propazine (see Nature510, 187;10.1038/510187a2014). To deal with this crisis,

Universities seek to recreate the success of one institution's mentorship programme for minorities in science.

Survey discloses US institutions' compensation, programmes and services for postdocs.

Distant memories.



Australia and New Zealand both rely on assessment schemes to improve research quality, yet the money associated with each is very different. By Julie Gould.

Systematic evaluation of scientific research might strengthen public support, but could it also stifle innovation? The issues were debated at a symposium in Melbourne.

Young researchers and interdisciplinary science might be getting short-changed by research assessment in Australia and New Zealand.

Despite its limitations, Excellence in Research for Australia was the right assessment tool at the right time, says Margaret Sheil.

Australia and New Zealand are experimenting with ways of assessing the impact of publicly funded research.

Changing the way we measure and reward research could enrich academia and improve outcomes for society, says Alan Finkel.

The lack of financial reward from Australia's national system of research assessment is obscuring the real issue, says Brian Schmidt.

Jane Harding is deputy vice-chancellor for research and professor of neonatology at the University of Auckland, which is New Zealand's most well-funded university under the Performance-Based Research Fund. She discusses the country's approach to assessing science and measuring impact, and describes why she prefers a model that grades the individual not the research group.

Arising from B. J. Venters & B. F. Pugh Nature502, 53–58 (2013); doi:10.1038/nature12535How cells locate the regions to initiate transcription is an open question, because core promoter elements (CPEs) are found in only a small fraction of core promoters. A recent study measured 159,117 DNA binding regions of transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) by ChIP-exo (chromatin immunoprecipitation with lambda exonuclease digestion followed by high-throughput sequencing) in human cells, found four degenerate CPEs—upstream and downstream TFIIB recognition elements (BREu and BREd), TATA and initiator element (INR)—in nearly all of them, and concluded that these regions represent sites of transcription initiation marked by universal CPEs. We show that the claimed universality of CPEs is explained by the low specificities of the patterns used and that the same match frequencies are obtained with two negative controls (randomized sequences and scrambled patterns). Our analyses also cast doubt on the biological significance of most of the 150,753 non-messenger-RNA-associated ChIP-exo peaks, 72% of which lie within repetitive regions. There is a Retraction accompanying this Brief Communication Arising by Venters, B. J. & Pugh, B. F. Nature511,http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13588 (2014).

The Comment 'Polio eradication hinges on child health in Pakistan' (Nature511, 285–287; 2014 ) accidentally referred to Abbottabad as a village instead of a city.

The Outlook article 'Fat chance' (Nature511, S14–S15; 10.1038/511S14a2014) incorrectly stated that ice cream is part of a ketogenic diet. In fact, this diet is high in fat but low in carbohydrate so does not include high-sugar foods.

The largest genome-wide analysis of schizophrenia performed so far has identified more than 100 genetic regions that contribute to disease risk, establishing new leads for understanding this form of mental illness. See Article p.421

An analysis of landforms in the Bolivian Andes suggests that surface uplift has shaped the climate and landscape. This contrasts with previous work suggesting that climate controls topography and deformation along the mountain range.

Data on three generations of Antarctic fur seals suggest that climate change is reducing the survival of less-fit individuals with low genetic variation, but that overall seal numbers are falling. See Letter p.462

Lakes that form in thawing permafrost emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. It emerges that large quantities of carbon can also be stored in sediments at the lake bottoms. See Letter p.452

50 Years AgoAs regards technical development, very high frequency, “VHF”, is undoubtedly the radio system of the future. The possibility of stereophonic broadcasting on some regular scheduled basis is just beginning to show above the horizon. Even to-day, some 6 million people who have