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Nature

Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
Nature
The accelerating pace of change in today’s world means that universities must modify how they fulfil their function of seeking and sharing knowledge.

What lessons can be learned from the presentation of the gravitational-waves story?

Welcome efforts are being made to recognize academics who give up their time to peer review.

Scientists can help to develop a financial safety net by providing transparent market data and loss-impact analysis, says Erwann Michel-Kerjan.

Some glaciers in central Asia could be weathering climate change better than those in neighbouring mountain ranges because of different seasonal weather patterns.Geoscientists have puzzled over why the glaciers of the Karakoram region (pictured) have not receded as much as others nearby. A team

Large-scale investments in wind, solar and hydropower could double the electricity generated globally from these sources by 2050 — with only modest environmental costs.Thomas Gibon of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim and his colleagues compared the environmental impacts of low-carbon

Zebra finches seem to actively camouflage their nests when building them.Many birds' nests appear camouflaged, but this could be a serendipitous result of their use of local materials. Ida Bailey at the University of St Andrews, UK, and her team let 20 male zebra

A coating for medical implants such as artificial heart valves could prevent blood-clot formation — a common problem in which blood cells and proteins stick to the surfaces of such devices.To make the surfaces less sticky, Donald Ingber of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts,

The molecule that has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease causes many hallmarks of the disorder in monkey brains, suggesting the potential for a primate model of the disease.Amyloid-β forms plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer's. Fernanda De Felice at the Federal University

Gene therapy has cured children who have severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), without so far causing cancer as previous treatment forms did.David Williams at Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts, Alain Fischer of the Necker Hospital for Sick Children in Paris and their co-workers made a

The number of large cities prone to insufficient water supplies could increase over the next 25 years — even without accounting for climate change.Julie Padowski and Steven Gorelick at Stanford University in California used projected urban population growth and increasing agricultural demands to assess

Sticky molecules found in aquatic ecosystems could help to transmit land-based pathogens to marine animals.Karen Shapiro at the University of California, Davis, and her colleagues added varying levels of a gelatinous compound, alginic acid, to seawater samples containing the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which

Two groups have developed technologies for artificial arms that give people finer control over the limb than over conventional prostheses.Daniel Tan at the Louis Stokes Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio, and his colleagues implanted electrodes in the arm muscles of two people,

As this year's Nobel laureates were inundated with congratulations online, the few researchers who correctly guessed the winners also earned themselves a little kudos. For example, Kate Jeffery, a neuroscientist at University College London, correctly foretold on Twitter that her colleague John O'Keefe would win

The week in science: Disaster strikes Taiwanese research vessel, UK launches its first space-weather forecasting centre, and ancient Greek shipwreck yields fresh booty.

Researchers must now work out how to protect cell transplants from the immune systems of people with type 1 diabetes.

Researchers bring together troves of DNA sequences in the hope of teasing out links between traits and genetic variants.

Controlled fishing experiment raises controversy over cause of birds’ decline on Robben Island.

As the virus continues to rampage in West Africa, Nature’s graphic offers a guide to the figures that matter.

Three scientists used fluorescent molecules to defy the limits of conventional optical microscopes.

Universities must evolve if they are to survive. A special issue of Nature examines the many ways to build a modern campus.

Innovative ways of teaching, learning and doing research are helping universities around the globe to adapt to the modern world.

Arizona State University is trying to reinvent academia by tearing down walls between disciplines.

High-quality faculty, valued and rewarded, is the key to building a world-class research institution, says Jie Zhang.

Housing industry labs in academic settings benefits all parties, say Jana J. Watson-Capps and Thomas R. Cech.

Drawing on his experiences in previous outbreaks, David L. Heymann calls for rapid diagnosis, patient isolation, community engagement and clinical trials.

David Deamer welcomes a synthesis of what we know about the origins of life, as told by a master in the field.

Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.

Jessa Gamble on a radio play about the Nobel laureate and the UK Prime Minister.

Floods in Pakistan this year alone have killed hundreds of people, left millions homeless and destroyed crops over tens of thousands of hectares. In its Global Climate Risk Index 2014, the think tank Germanwatch ranked Pakistan third in its list of countries most affected

Electronic publishing circumvents environmental issues caused by paper use and the shipment of heavy journals. But more thrift is needed to reduce the energy consumed by Internet servers, which already accounts for 2% of global energy production (see, for instance, go.nature.com/dmqn9a).Large video and

Ecotourism boats could indeed be harming dolphins and whales, for example by interrupting their foraging behaviour (see Nature512, 358;10.1038/512358a2014). But many whale-watchers do right by the animals and follow good practice. The major threats to cetaceans are still hunting,

Blanket economic sanctions on politically unstable regimes that are rich in biodiversity deny local people access to international funding for wildlife conservation and management (see A.Waldronet al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA110, 12144–12148; 2013). More-targeted restrictions

Michael Brooke's charming centennial reappraisal of Julian Huxley's Courtship Habits of the Great Crested Grebe (Nature513, 484;10.1038/513484a2014) missed an opportunity to mention the starring role these birds had in Evelyn Waugh's 1938 satirical novel Scoop.In

Simplified techniques have made the field of gene editing much more accessible to non-specialists.

What it takes.


Waste removal is not usually described as sexy, but the once-neglected field of autophagy — which plays a part in cancer and other diseases — is a hot topic in biomedical research.

Jules Hoffmann shared the 2011 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for discoveries in the activation of innate immunity against bacteria and fungi in fruit flies. Now based at the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology at Strasbourg University in France, Hoffmann talks to ádám and Dávid Tárnoki about how to use the immune system to kill cancer cells.

Laureate Barry Marshall, professor of clinical microbiology at the University of Western Australia in Perth, tells Meghan Azad why he risked his health to prove his theory about the link between stomach ulcers and bacteria. He shared the 2005 Nobel prize with Robin Warren for discovering the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori and for proving that it is this microorganism, not stress, that causes most peptic ulcers.

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier were jointly awarded the 2008 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of HIV in 1983. Three decades on, Barré-Sinoussi is director of the Retroviral Infections unit at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Here, she tells Iria Gomez-Touriño about the latest strategies to combat the virus.

Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus proved that genetic changes could drive the formation of tumours. They were awarded the 1989 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the origin of retroviral oncogenes. Bishop — now director of the GW Hooper Foundation at the University of California, San Francisco — tells Kipp Weiskopf about 40 years in cancer research.

Torsten Wiesel is president emeritus of Rockefeller University in New York City. He shared half of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with David Hubel for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. He tells Stefano Sandrone about his greatest scientific achievement and his vision of the future.

Brian Kobilka shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Lefkowitz for their studies of G protein-coupled receptors. He is professor of molecular and cellular physiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine in California. Haya Jamal Azouz asks Kobilka what it takes to spend 30 years answering a single research question.

As the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings turn 64, laureates and young researchers discuss growing old — and whether exercise and stress reduction can slow the ageing process.

The News story ‘Marmosets are stars of Japan’s ambitious brain project’ (Nature514, 151–152; 2014) misspelled Afonso Silva’s name. And the Toolbox story ‘Scientific writing: the online cooperative’ (Nature514, 127–128; 2014) should have noted that although Fidus Writer

Experiments with social spiders find that colony size and composition affect colony survival in a site-specific manner, indicating that natural selection on group-level traits contributes to local adaptation. See Letter p.359

Most deaths from breast cancer occur when the primary tumour spreads to secondary sites. It now emerges that clusters of tumour cells that enter the bloodstream form metastases more often than single circulating tumour cells.

Observations of two faint galaxies with a low abundance of elements heavier than helium show that the galaxies have an efficiency of star formation less than one-tenth of that of the Milky Way and similar galaxies. See Letter p.335

The cellular origins of most human cancers remain unknown, but an analysis of embryonic retinal cells identifies differentiating cones as the cell of origin for the childhood cancer retinoblastoma. See Letter p.385