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PEDIATRICS

Outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease occur at universities and other organizations. Until October 2014, options for control of serogroup B outbreaks were limited by the absence of a licensed vaccine for serogroup B meningococcal disease in the United States.

We describe a serogroup B outbreak at a university in 2013 and the campaign with investigational serogroup B vaccine held in response. This was the first use of a serogroup B vaccine as an outbreak response in the United States. (Read the full article)


Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among US youth aged 14 to 24. The emergency department is a key setting for interacting with high-risk assault-injured youth and remains an underused but important setting for violence prevention programs.

High-risk youth seeking emergency department care for assault have high rates of firearm violence over the subsequent 2 years. Higher severity substance use, combined with negative retaliatory attitudes and access to firearms, increases this risk for involvement with firearm violence. (Read the full article)


Neurodevelopmental disabilities are the most common, and potentially the most damaging, sequelae of congenital heart defects. Children with congenital heart defects undergoing surgery in infancy have problems with reasoning, learning, executive function, inattention and impulsive behavior, language skills, and social skills.

Early neurodevelopmental outcomes for survivors of cardiac surgery in infancy have improved modestly over time, but only after adjustment for innate patient risk factors. As more high-risk infants with congenital heart defects survive cardiac surgery, a growing population will require significant societal resources. (Read the full article)


Although treatment of infection is a mainstay of neonatal intensive care, little attention has focused on the proportion of patient antibiotic exposures validated by clinical indications that are unambiguous.

Septic workups in 127 California NICUs reveal similar burdens of proven infection, yet patient antibiotic exposures in those NICUs vary 40-fold. Because antibiotic stewardship principles dictate that antibiotic use should correlate with burden of infection, some NICUs overuse antibiotics. (Read the full article)


A program to support pediatric primary care providers in mental health care using point-of-care, telephone-based advice from specialists has been available since 2005 in Massachusetts. Other US states are implementing similar models. Little is known about how providers use this service.

There is wide variability in adoption and use of this program. Patterns are associated with panel size, enrollment timing, and assignment to the program team at the pilot site. Findings will help new programs establish expectations and design implementation interventions. (Read the full article)


Although opioid pain relievers are commonly prescribed in pregnancy, their association with neonatal outcomes is not well described. Further, factors associated with development of neonatal abstinence syndrome, a neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is inadequately understood.

Prescription opioid use in pregnancy is common and strongly associated with neonatal complications. Antenatal cumulative prescription opioid exposure, opioid type, tobacco use, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increase the risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome. (Read the full article)


Exposure to risky behavior in the media is associated with increased risky behavior during adolescence. To date, published studies have not adjusted results for early childhood confounders in this literature.

Our findings confirm associations between adolescent alcohol use in the United Kingdom and exposure to alcohol use in films consistent with other global studies, even after controlling for early childhood confounding influences. (Read the full article)


Smoking has been found to increase the risk of some specific congenital anomalies; however, results remain inconsistent. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is increasingly being used as for smoking cessation in pregnancy although little is known about its association with congenital anomalies.

Being prescribed NRT while pregnant was not associated with major congenital anomalies (MCA), except a small increase in respiratory anomalies (3/1000 births). This must be considered in context of the rarity of MCAs and higher morbidities in the NRT group. (Read the full article)


Although physicians worry that communicating about prognosis or life-threatening illness can take away hope, previous work suggests that prognosis communication may even enhance hope. The nature of hopes held by parents of children with advanced cancer was not previously understood.

Parents in our study frequently recognized their child’s poor prognosis, yet held many different hopes, including for cure, quality of life, and meaningful relationships. Parents who hoped for cure often recognized that this was not possible for their child. (Read the full article)


Children’s time with parents is critical for healthy development. Lack of control over parents’ schedules and limited supervisor support for personal and family life can interfere with parents’ family time.

This is the first group randomized controlled field trial demonstrating effects of a workplace intervention, designed to increase schedule control and supervisor support, on working parents’ time with their children, as assessed by using longitudinal daily telephone interviews. (Read the full article)


Clinical trials of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine show it to be highly efficacious in preventing vaccine-type–specific cervical dysplasia and anogenital warts, but few studies have assessed its effects in the real world and none have done so at the program/population level.

This study provides strong evidence of the early benefits of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination on reductions in cervical dysplasia and possible reductions in anogenital warts among girls aged 14 to 17 years, offering additional justification for not delaying vaccination until girls are older. (Read the full article)


Timely immunoprophylaxis and completion of the 3-dose hepatitis B vaccine series represents the cornerstone of perinatal hepatitis B prevention. Immunoprophylaxis for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen–positive mothers reduces up to 95% of perinatal hepatitis B virus infections.

Despite recommended immunoprophylaxis, perinatal hepatitis B virus infection occurs among ~1% of infants. Infants born to mothers who are younger, hepatitis B e-antigen positive, or who have a high viral load or infants who receive <3 hepatitis B vaccine doses are at greatest risk of infection. (Read the full article)


Current childhood vaccination coverage rates among military dependents in the United States are not known. Past studies on childhood vaccination coverage in military dependents have shown mixed results, with the majority showing lower than ideal coverage rates.

This study analyzes a national database with 6 years of data and provider-confirmed vaccination status to describe the current documented vaccination coverage rates among military dependents in the United States. (Read the full article)


Sharing human milk between those with an abundant supply and those seeking milk for their child is growing in popularity, including that facilitated by Web sites established to link buyers and sellers.

This study documents that human milk purchased via the Internet can be contaminated with cow’s milk, which poses a potential risk to infants with allergy or intolerance to cow’s milk. (Read the full article)


Considerable differences in outcome after extremely preterm birth have been reported between centers and regions providing a comparative level of care, but the reasons for these variations have been poorly examined.

In extremely preterm fetuses alive at the mother’s admission for delivery, and in infants born alive, mortality up to 2.5 years is reduced in regions with a more active use of perinatal interventions without increased neurodevelopmental morbidity. (Read the full article)


Heart rate (HR) increases with increasing body temperature. Previous studies have characterized the relationship among HR, age, and temperature for patients in primary care and emergency department settings but not in hospitalized children.

Our data demonstrate an overall increase in HR by ~10 beats/minute for each 1°C increase in body temperature. Expected heart rates for hospitalized children differ from those for primary care and emergency department patients at the same age and temperature. (Read the full article)


Otorrhea is common in children with tympanostomy tubes: annually, 2 of 3 children develop 1 or more episodes. Antibiotic-glucocorticoid eardrops are the most effective treatment in both the short- and long-term.

Treatment with antibiotic-glucocorticoid eardrops costs less than oral antibiotics and initial observation in children with tympanostomy tubes who develop otorrhea. Non–health care costs constitute a substantial proportion of the total costs of this condition. (Read the full article)


Mortality rates and health care expenditures are high among infants requiring surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis. The impact of different surgical managements on mortality remains equivocal. Adjusted economic differences for various surgical treatments may exist but have not been elucidated.

After performing a relatively large-scale, adjusted analysis of cost and mortality for surgical managements currently used for treating necrotizing enterocolitis, a cost-benefit for a particular surgical approach was demonstrated while accounting for comorbidities and group assignment bias. (Read the full article)


Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades; however, the full long-term effects of prepregnancy obesity on a child’s psychosocial development remain unknown. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child psychosocial development.

This study in 6-year-old children provides evidence that severe prepregnancy obesity is associated with adverse child psychosocial outcomes, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These findings were not explained by many pregnancy and postpartum factors related to maternal obesity or child development. (Read the full article)


Although the psychometric properties of the school-age Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) have been extensively examined by using longitudinal data, the preschool version of the SDQ has only been explored in a limited number of cross-sectional studies.

This is the first psychometric study of the preschool SDQ using longitudinal data. We report measurement invariance over time, satisfactory reliability, construct and criterion validity, and predictive utility for subsequent behavioral problems (4 years) and clinical disorders (2 years). (Read the full article)


Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke is associated with later cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment. Many studies on neonatal ischemic stroke are limited by modest sample sizes, and prospective studies that include outcomes assessments are scarce.

Results from this prospective, nationwide, population-based study provide information on the epidemiology, associated clinical variables, clinical manifestation, vascular distribution, and treatment of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke. The study also provides outcomes regarding motor function and cognition. (Read the full article)


Pediatric residents may not be achieving competency in neonatal intubation. Opportunities for intubation during residency are decreasing. A precise definition of competency during training is lacking.

Bayesian statistics may be used to describe neonatal intubation competency in residents. At least 4 successful intubations are needed to achieve competency. The first 2 intubation opportunities appear to predict how many intubation opportunities are ultimately needed to achieve competency. (Read the full article)


Trainee success rates with infant lumbar puncture are poor. The model of just-in-time learning via simulation has produced clinical improvement for other medical skills such as cardiac compressions and central line dressing changes.

This is the first study to evaluate the impact of just-in-time-and-place simulation-based learning on success with infant lumbar puncture. The intervention improved clinical behaviors associated with success without making a significant impact on success with the procedure. (Read the full article)


Early parenting programs benefit children’s development in low- and middle-income countries. However, the extent to which these interventions have a positive impact on parenting skills and their emotional availability is less studied.

An early child development intervention using play and communication activities to promote caregivers’ responsiveness can improve mother–child interactions, caregiving environment, caregiving practices pertaining to development and feeding, and, in combination with a nutrition intervention, support maternal emotional well-being. (Read the full article)


There is concern that the Bayley-III overestimates developmental functioning in preterm populations. The ability of the Bayley-III Cognitive and Language scales to predict later functioning in very preterm children has not been examined.

The norms on the Bayley-III Cognitive and Language scales at 24 months had low sensitivity for impairment across general cognitive, verbal and nonverbal reasoning domains at 4 years, which was better detected using cut-points based on local term-born reference data. (Read the full article)





BACKGROUND:

In 2013–2014, an outbreak of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred among persons linked to a New Jersey university (University A). In the absence of a licensed serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration authorized use of an investigational MenB vaccine to control the outbreak. An investigation of the outbreak and response was undertaken to determine the population at risk and assess vaccination coverage.

METHODS:

The epidemiologic investigation relied on compilation and review of case and population data, laboratory typing of meningococcal isolates, and unstructured interviews with university staff. Vaccination coverage data were collected during the vaccination campaign held under an expanded-access Investigational New Drug protocol.

RESULTS:

Between March 25, 2013, and March 10, 2014, 9 cases of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred in persons linked to University A. Laboratory typing results were identical for all 8 isolates available. Through May 14, 2014, 89.1% coverage with the 2-dose vaccination series was achieved in the target population. From the initiation of MenB vaccination through February 1, 2015, no additional cases of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred in University A students. However, the ninth case occurred in March 2014 in an unvaccinated close contact of University A students.

CONCLUSIONS:

No serogroup B meningococcal disease cases occurred in persons who received 1 or more doses of 4CMenB vaccine, suggesting 4CMenB may have protected vaccinated individuals from disease. However, the ninth case demonstrates that carriage of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis among vaccinated persons was not eliminated.


BACKGROUND:

The risk for firearm violence among high-risk youth after treatment for an assault is unknown.

METHODS:

In this 2-year prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from a consecutive sample of 14- to 24-year-olds with drug use in the past 6 months seeking assault-injury care (AIG) at an urban level 1 emergency department (ED) compared with a proportionally sampled comparison group (CG) of drug-using nonassaulted youth. Validated measures were administered at baseline and follow-up (6, 12, 18, 24 months).

RESULTS:

A total of 349 AIG and 250 CG youth were followed for 24 months. During the follow-up period, 59% of the AIG reported firearm violence, a 40% higher risk than was observed among the CG (59.0% vs. 42.5%; relative risk [RR] = 1.39). Among those reporting firearm violence, 31.7% reported aggression, and 96.4% reported victimization, including 19 firearm injuries requiring medical care and 2 homicides. The majority with firearm violence (63.5%) reported at least 1 event within the first 6 months. Poisson regression identified baseline predictors of firearm violence, including male gender (RR = 1.51), African American race (RR = 1.26), assault-injury (RR = 1.35), firearm possession (RR = 1.23), attitudes favoring retaliation (RR = 1.03), posttraumatic stress disorder (RR = 1.39), and a drug use disorder (RR = 1.22).

CONCLUSIONS:

High-risk youth presenting to urban EDs for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence. Interventions at an index visit addressing substance use, mental health needs, retaliatory attitudes, and firearm possession may help decrease firearm violence among urban youth.


BACKGROUND:

Neurodevelopmental disability is the most common complication for survivors of surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD).

METHODS:

We analyzed individual participant data from studies of children evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition, after cardiac surgery between 1996 and 2009. The primary outcome was Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), and the secondary outcome was Mental Development Index (MDI).

RESULTS:

Among 1770 subjects from 22 institutions, assessed at age 14.5 ± 3.7 months, PDIs and MDIs (77.6 ± 18.8 and 88.2 ± 16.7, respectively) were lower than normative means (each P < .001). Later calendar year of birth was associated with an increased proportion of high-risk infants (complexity of CHD and prevalence of genetic/extracardiac anomalies). After adjustment for center and type of CHD, later year of birth was not significantly associated with better PDI or MDI. Risk factors for lower PDI were lower birth weight, white race, and presence of a genetic/extracardiac anomaly (all P ≤ .01). After adjustment for these factors, PDIs improved over time (0.39 points/year, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.78; P = .045). Risk factors for lower MDI were lower birth weight, male gender, less maternal education, and presence of a genetic/extracardiac anomaly (all P < .001). After adjustment for these factors, MDIs improved over time (0.38 points/year, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.71; P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Early neurodevelopmental outcomes for survivors of cardiac surgery in infancy have improved modestly over time, but only after adjustment for innate patient risk factors. As more high-risk CHD infants undergo cardiac surgery and survive, a growing population will require significant societal resources.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Treatment of suspected infection is a mainstay of the daily work in the NICU. We hypothesized that NICU antibiotic prescribing practice variation correlates with rates of proven infection, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), mortality, inborn admission, and with NICU surgical volume and average length of stay.

METHODS:

In a retrospective cohort study of 52 061 infants in 127 NICUs across California during 2013, we compared sample means and explored linear and nonparametric correlations, stratified by NICU level of care and lowest/highest antibiotic use rate quartiles.

RESULTS:

Overall antibiotic use varied 40-fold, from 2.4% to 97.1% of patient-days; median = 24.5%. At all levels of care, it was independent of proven infection, NEC, surgical volume, or mortality. Fifty percent of intermediate level NICUs were in the highest antibiotic use quartile, yet most of these units reported infection rates of zero. Regional NICUs in the highest antibiotic quartile reported inborn admission rate 218% higher (0.24 vs 0.11, P = .03), and length of stay 35% longer (90.2 days vs 66.9 days, P = .03) than regional NICUs in the lowest quartile.

CONCLUSIONS:

Forty-fold variation in NICU antibiotic prescribing practice across 127 NICUs with similar burdens of proven infection, NEC, surgical volume, and mortality indicates that a considerable portion of antibiotic use lacks clear warrant; in some NICUs, antibiotics are overused. Additional study is needed to establish appropriate use ranges and elucidate the determinants and directionality of relationships between antibiotic and other resource use.


OBJECTIVE:

Since 2005, after a pilot program, the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP) has provided point-of-care psychiatry expertise and referral assistance by telephone to primary care providers. We examined its adoption and use and the practice characteristics associated with different adoption timelines and use patterns.

METHODS:

We merged data on calls to MCPAP in 2005 to 2011 with practice data (enrollment year, panel size, regional team assignment). We categorized practices’ days from enrollment to first call (adoption) (0–100, 101–365, >365 days) and quartile of call frequency (use) (annual highest, middle, and lowest quartiles of number of calls per 1000 empanelled patients). We determined associations between adoption and use and practice characteristics using multivariate models.

RESULTS:

Among 285 practices, adoption and use varied: 55% called 0 to 100 days from enrollment and 16% called >365 days from enrollment. Practices in the highest quartile of use made a mean 15.5 calls/year per 1000 patients, whereas the lowest quartile made 0.4 calls/year per 1000 patients. Adoption within 100 days was associated with enrollment during or after 2007 (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23–7.49) and assignment to the team at the pilot site (OR 4.42, 95% CI 2.16–9.04 for central Massachusetts). Highest-quartile use was associated with team assignment (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.86–6.87 for central Massachusetts) and panel size (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03–0.31 for ≥10 000 vs <2000 patients).

CONCLUSIONS:

Adoption and use of MCPAP varied widely. Timing of enrollment, assignment to the team from the program’s pilot site, and panel size were associated with patterns of adoption and use. Findings may help other programs design effective implementation strategies.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Although opioid pain relievers are commonly prescribed in pregnancy, their association with neonatal outcomes is poorly described. Our objectives were to identify neonatal complications associated with antenatal opioid pain reliever exposure and to establish predictors of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).

METHODS:

We used prescription and administrative data linked to vital statistics for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011. A random sample of NAS cases was validated by medical record review. The association of antenatal exposures with NAS was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for maternal and infant characteristics.

RESULTS:

Of 112 029 pregnant women, 31 354 (28%) filled ≥1 opioid prescription. Women prescribed opioid pain relievers were more likely than those not prescribed opioids (P < .001) to have depression (5.3% vs 2.7%), anxiety disorder (4.3% vs 1.6%) and to smoke tobacco (41.8% vs 25.8%). Infants with NAS and opioid-exposed infants were more likely than unexposed infants to be born at a low birth weight (21.2% vs 11.8% vs 9.9%; P < .001). In a multivariable model, higher cumulative opioid exposure for short-acting preparations (P < .001), opioid type (P < .001), number of daily cigarettes smoked (P < .001), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (odds ratio: 2.08 [95% confidence interval: 1.67–2.60]) were associated with greater risk of developing NAS.

CONCLUSIONS:

Prescription opioid use in pregnancy is common and strongly associated with neonatal complications. Antenatal cumulative prescription opioid exposure, opioid type, tobacco use, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increase the risk of NAS.


OBJECTIVES:

To investigate whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUFs) is associated with early alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems in British adolescents.

METHODS:

Cross-sectional study with 5163 15-year-olds from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. We measured adolescent exposure to AUFs, age at onset of alcohol use, and binge-drinking behavior. We adjusted for early childhood social, family and behavioral factors, adolescent tobacco use, and peer drinking.

RESULTS:

After adjustment, adolescents with the highest exposure to AUFs were 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–1.3) times more likely to have tried alcohol compared with those least exposed and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–2.0) times more likely to binge drink. They were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.9–3.1) times more likely to drink weekly and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.7–2.4) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems than those least exposed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Exposure to AUFs is associated with higher risk of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in UK adolescents. Our findings provide evidence to support the argument that a review of film-rating categories and alcohol ratings for all films may help reduce problem-related alcohol consumption in young people.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is now being used as a smoking cessation aid during pregnancy, although little is known about fetal safety. We assessed the relationship between early pregnancy exposure to NRT or smoking with major congenital anomalies (MCA) in offspring.

METHODS:

We studied 192 498 children born in the United Kingdom between 2001 and 2012 with linked mother–child primary care records. The absolute risks of MCAs in the NRT group (women prescribed NRT during the first trimester or 1 month before conception [and therefore likely consumed during the first trimester]) and odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) were compared with those of women who smoked during pregnancy and with a control group (women who neither smoked nor were prescribed NRT); logistic regression models adjusted for maternal morbidities that increase MCA risk were used for analysis.

RESULTS:

MCA prevalence was 288 per 10 000 live births (5535 children with ≥1 MCA). Maternal morbidities were most common in the NRT group (35%) followed by smokers (27%) and the control group (20%). Compared with the control group, adjusted ORs for MCAs in the NRT group and smokers were 1.12 (99% CI: 0.84–1.48) and 1.05 (99% CI: 0.89–1.23), respectively. The OR comparing the NRT group directly with smokers was 1.07 (99% CI: 0.78–1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between maternal NRT and system-specific anomalies except for respiratory anomalies (OR: 4.65 [99% CI: 1.76–12.25]; absolute risk difference: 3 per 1000 births), which was based on 10 exposed cases.

CONCLUSIONS:

For most system-specific MCAs, we found no statistically significant increased risks associated with maternal NRT prescribed during pregnancy, except for respiratory anomalies. Although this study is the largest published to date, NRT use in pregnancy remains rare; thus, the statistical power was limited. Higher morbidities in those women prescribed NRT may also be an explanatory factor. Nevertheless, absolute MCA risks were similar between women who smoked and those prescribed NRT during pregnancy.


BACKGROUND:

Previous work suggests that parents of children with cancer can remain hopeful despite receiving prognostic information, but we know little about what hope means to such parents, or the extent to which parents can feel hopeful even while facing the child’s impending death.

METHODS:

We audiotaped conversations between clinicians and parents of 32 children with relapsed or refractory cancer, and then interviewed parents about their hopes and expectations for their child.

RESULTS:

Parent statements about prognosis in interviews mirrored those made by clinicians during discussions about the child’s diagnosis with refractory or relapsed cancer. Clinicians used language referring to hope during these conversations but did not ask parents directly about their hopes. Parents expressed a range of hopes for their children, from hopes related to cure or treatment response, to quality of life, normalcy, and love and relationships for the child. For most parents, expectations about prognosis were not aligned with their hopes for the child; for example, many parents hoped for a cure and also reported that they did not believe cure was possible. Many parents were able to acknowledge this incongruence.

CONCLUSIONS:

Parents accurately conveyed the reality of their child’s serious condition in the setting of advanced cancer, and yet maintained hope. Hopes were not limited to hope for cure/treatment response. Clinicians should be encouraged to engage in direct conversations about hope with parents as a means to elicit realistic hopes that can help to focus the most meaningful plans for the child and family.


OBJECTIVES:

In the context of a group randomized field trial, we evaluated whether parents who participated in a workplace intervention, designed to increase supervisor support for personal and family life and schedule control, reported significantly more daily time with their children at the 12-month follow-up compared with parents assigned to the Usual Practice group. We also tested whether the intervention effect was moderated by parent gender, child gender, or child age.

METHODS:

The Support-Transform-Achieve-Results Intervention was delivered in an information technology division of a US Fortune 500 company. Participants included 93 parents (45% mothers) of a randomly selected focal child aged 9 to 17 years (49% daughters) who completed daily telephone diaries at baseline and 12 months after intervention. During evening telephone calls on 8 consecutive days, parents reported how much time they spent with their child that day.

RESULTS:

Parents in the intervention group exhibited a significant increase in parent-child shared time, 39 minutes per day on average, between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. By contrast, parents in the Usual Practice group averaged 24 fewer minutes with their child per day at the 12-month follow-up. Intervention effects were evident for mothers but not for fathers and for daughters but not sons.

CONCLUSIONS:

The hypothesis that the intervention would improve parents’ daily time with their children was supported. Future studies should examine how redesigning work can change the quality of parent-child interactions and activities known to be important for youth health and development.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Pediatric patients commonly have difficulty swallowing pills. Targeted interventions have shown to improve medication administration and treatment compliance. The objective was to evaluate studies performed on pill swallowing interventions in the pediatric population since 1987.

METHODS:

We performed a comprehensive PubMed search and a bibliography review to identify articles for our review. We selected articles published in English between December 1986 and December 2013 that included >10 participants aged 0 to 21 years with pill swallowing difficulties without a comorbid condition affecting their swallowing. Reviewers extracted the relevant information and rated the quality of each study as "poor," "fair," or "good" based on the sample size and study design.

RESULTS:

We identified 4 cohort studies and 1 case series that met our criteria. All 5 studies found their intervention to be successful in teaching children how to swallow pills. Interventions included behavioral therapies, flavored throat spray, verbal instructions, specialized pill cup, and head posture training. Quality ratings differed between the articles, with 3 articles rated as "fair," 1 article as "good," and 1 article as "poor."

CONCLUSIONS:

Pill swallowing difficulties are a barrier that can be overcome with a variety of successful interventions. Addressing this problem and researching more effective ways of implementing these interventions can help improve medication administration and compliance in the pediatric population.


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical neuroradiologic entity that is becoming increasingly well known and documented in pediatrics. It is characterized by a variable association of seizures, headache, vomiting, altered mental status, visual disturbances, and seizures, as well as imaging suggesting white-gray matter edema involving the posterior regions of the central nervous system in most cases. The pathophysiology of PRES remains unclear. Although PRES has been associated with a widespread range of clinical conditions, namely infections, adverse drug events, autoimmune diseases, and many others, its onset after hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation remains the most commonly reported. Historically, PRES has proved to be generally reversible and associated with good clinical outcomes; however, severe complications, sometimes life-threatening, can also occur. Most reported cases of childhood PRES after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation have been case reports or series across a broad spectrum of different transplant settings, and no clear consensus exists regarding how best to manage the syndrome. Thus, in this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the pathophysiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of PRES in children, with a specific focus on the transplant scenario. Differential diagnoses with other neurologic complications after pediatric transplantation are reviewed, and crucial issues in the management of PRES and the development of future research are ultimately addressed.


A 2-year-old female presents for evaluation of 4 weeks of daily fevers. When the fevers began, she had mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, which quickly resolved. The fevers persisted, however, with a maximum of 40°C. The child’s review of symptoms was significant for a 1-kg weight loss over the past month. Ten months before presentation, she had moved from Saudi Arabia with her family. One week before the onset of symptoms, she had visited a petting zoo. During episodes of fever, the patient was ill-appearing and had an elevated heart rate and respiratory rate. On examination, she was found to be thin, febrile, tachycardic, and with scattered lymphadenopathy. Results of laboratory tests were remarkable for an elevated white blood cell count of 16 100 cells per uL with a neutrophilic predominance. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were elevated at 99 mm/h and 27 mg/dL, respectively. A chest radiograph indicated a small amount of fluid in the interlobar fissures. Our expert panel examines her case, offers a definition of fever of unknown origin, and makes diagnostic considerations.


There has been a considerable expansion of the patient-centered medical home model of primary care delivery, in an effort to reduce health care costs and to improve patient experience and population health. To attain these goals, it is essential to integrate behavioral health services into the patient-centered medical home, because behavioral health problems often first present in the primary care setting, and they significantly affect physical health. At the 2013 Patient-Centered Medical Home Research Conference, an expert workgroup convened to determine policy recommendations to promote the integration of primary care and behavioral health. In this article we present these recommendations: Build demonstration projects to test existing approaches of integration, develop interdisciplinary training programs to support members of the integrated care team, implement population-based strategies to improve behavioral health, eliminate behavioral health carve-outs and test innovative payment models, and develop population-based measures to evaluate integration.


A central principle of justice is that similar cases should be decided in similar ways. In pediatrics, however, there are cases in which 2 infants have similar diagnoses and prognoses, but their parents request different treatments. In this Ethics Rounds, we present such a situation that occurred in a single NICU. Three physician-ethicists analyze the issues.