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Pediatrics

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PEDIATRICS

Obesity among youth can have immediate health effects as well as longer-term consequences during adulthood. Overweight/obese children and adolescents are much more likely than normal-weight children to become overweight/obese adults.

This large, multisite longitudinal study examines patterns of exit from and entry into obesity between childhood and adolescence. Socioeconomic factors, body image, television habits, and parental obesity were important predictors of whether children remained obese or became obese. (Read the full article)


A previous study suggested that physicians in 1 practice network were less likely to diagnose otitis media (OM) and to prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics for OM for black versus nonblack children.

Nationally, black children with OM are more likely to receive guideline-recommended, narrow-spectrum antibiotics than nonblack children. These findings may reflect inappropriate treatment of OM with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in a majority of US children. (Read the full article)


Youth in foster care are at higher risk of health problems at entrance and during their stays in care. Little is known about this group’s risk of health problems in young adulthood, in comparison with other populations of young adults.

This is the first prospective study to our knowledge demonstrating that former foster youth are at higher risk of chronic health problems than economically secure and insecure general population young adults. (Read the full article)


Preterm birth and faster infant growth have been identified as independent risk factors for autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). However, associations between prematurity and ASD-related traits as a continuum and effects of infant growth among those born preterm are still little studied.

VLBW young adults reported higher levels of ASD-related traits, particularly traits related to poorer social skills. Within the VLBW group, faster growth in weight, height, and head circumference from birth to term was associated with lower levels of ASD-related traits. (Read the full article)


Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of intensive clinician-implemented interventions have demonstrated significant improvements in outcomes of toddlers and preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. RCTs of parent-implemented interventions have demonstrated improvements in parent skills, but generally they have not demonstrated effects on children’s outcomes.

This RCT found significantly greater improvements with individual home coaching on child outcome measures of social communication, adaptive behavior, and developmental level. These findings support the efficacy of a parent-implemented intervention using little professional time, which increases potential community viability. (Read the full article)


Younger age has been identified as an independent risk factor for all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries. Since the mid-1980s, one-third of ATV-related deaths have involved children younger than 18 years of age.

Using national data, we found both similarities and differences between pediatric age groups in the contribution of known risk factors to ATV-related deaths. The observed differences suggest the importance of targeting injury prevention approaches to specific age ranges. (Read the full article)


Research suggests that appearance-focused messages and exaggerated depictions of sexual activity in the media negatively influence adolescents’ body and sexual self-perceptions. As adolescents increasingly use the Internet to explore their sexuality, health risks related to online behaviors should be identified.

This 4-wave study examined the prevalence and development of 2 receptive and 2 interactive sex-related online behaviors and their relations with adolescents’ body and sexual self-perceptions. It further investigated which parental strategies regarding Internet use may reduce risky sex-related online behaviors. (Read the full article)


Neurodevelopment can be adversely affected by viral infections. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is similar to cytomegalovirus and can cause central nervous system disease. Congenital HHV-6 infection occurs in ~1% of live births, with unknown neurodevelopmental consequences.

HHV-6 congenital infection is associated with lower scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II Mental Development Index compared with control infants at 12 months of age and may have a detrimental effect on neurodevelopment. (Read the full article)


Studies have shown that setbacks, such as receiving low school grades, lead children to experience negative self-feelings (eg, shame, insecurity, powerlessness). Psychological theory predicts that unconditional regard can buffer this adverse impact of setbacks. However, causal evidence is lacking.

This randomized field experiment shows that briefly reflecting on experiences of unconditional regard buffers children’s negative self-feelings after an academic setback 3 weeks later. Unconditional regard may thus be an important psychological lever to reduce negative self-feelings in youth. (Read the full article)


Case studies, abstracts, and small-sample research studies have shown that laundry detergent pods pose important poisoning risks to young children.

From 2012 through 2013, 17 230 children exposed to laundry detergent pods were reported to US poison control centers. Among children exposed, 4.4% were hospitalized and 7.5% experienced a moderate or major medical outcome, including 1 confirmed death. (Read the full article)


In 2000/2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics published recommendations for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care. According to pediatricians’ self-report of adoption of these guidelines, community-based ADHD care appears to be marginally adequate.

Using reviews of >1500 patient charts, this study demonstrates that community-based ADHD care is not consistent with evidence-based practice. Furthermore, variability in much of community-based ADHD care is unrelated to the provider, suggesting that innovative, system-wide interventions are needed to improve ADHD care. (Read the full article)


Rhinoviruses are commonly detected in both acutely ill and asymptomatic infants and children. The finding may represent new infection or prolonged presence of rhinovirus RNA in the respiratory tract.

In young, otherwise healthy infants, shedding of RNA from the same rhinovirus strain rarely persisted longer than 30 days. (Read the full article)


Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant, and no safe threshold for blood lead level in children has been discovered yet. Prenatal lead exposure affects growth of children.

Low level of prenatal lead exposure of <5.0 μg/dL affects postnatal children’s growth, which was further intensified by low calcium intake. (Read the full article)


Primary ciliary dyskinesia presents in infancy with unexplained neonatal respiratory distress, yet diagnosis is often delayed until late childhood. Earlier diagnosis facilitates earlier onset of therapy, which may help to reduce long-term pulmonary morbidity and mortality.

A diagnostic workup for primary ciliary dyskinesia should be considered in a term infant presenting with unexplained respiratory distress and either lobar collapse, situs inversus, or a prolonged oxygen therapy requirement (>2 days). (Read the full article)


Previous studies have examined state regulations for child care facilities and found substantial variation among states. None of these studies examined regulations related to healthy sleep practices, which is an important and often overlooked intervention target for obesity prevention.

We reviewed state regulations related to healthy sleep in child care and compared them to recent national recommendations put forth by the Institute of Medicine. We found that many states lacked regulations, highlighting an important and timely opportunity for improvement. (Read the full article)


Pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) are known to decrease invasive pneumococcal disease in children, but their effect on pneumonia necessitating hospitalization is more variable across study sites, and effects on hospitalization for sinusitis have not been shown previously.

There was a significant decrease in hospitalizations for sinusitis in children <2 years of age, and hospitalization for pneumonia decreased in children aged <5 years after sequential introduction of PCV7 and PCV13. (Read the full article)


Pediatric Brain Injury Research Network investigators recently derived a highly sensitive clinical prediction rule for pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT).

The performance of this AHT screening tool has been validated. Four clinical variables, readily available at the time of admission, detect pediatric AHT with high sensitivity in intensive care settings. (Read the full article)


Children who suffer abusive head trauma (AHT) have lasting health and development problems. AHT can reduce life expectancy dramatically. AHT’s contribution to the burden of disease has been estimated only as part of a broad category of intentional injury.

The DALY burden of a severe AHT case averages 80% of the burden of death, with most survivors dying before age 21 years. Even mild AHT is extremely serious, with lasting sequelae that exceed the DALY burden of a severe burn. (Read the full article)


In developed countries, child health disparities across wealth gradients are commonly widening; at the same time, child mortality in low- and middle-income countries is declining. Whether these declines are associated with widening or narrowing disparities is unknown.

A systematic analysis of the evidence on child mortality gradients by wealth in less-developed countries shows that mortality is declining fastest among the poorest in most countries, leading to declining disparities in this important indicator of child health. (Read the full article)


Cyber dating abuse victimization has been correlated with physical, sexual, and psychological adolescent relationship abuse.

This is the first clinic-based study of cyber dating abuse. Forty-one percent of youth reported cyber dating abuse victimization, female more than male respondents. Compared with nonexposed youth, abuse victims reported more sexual assault; female victims reported more contraceptive nonuse and reproductive coercion. (Read the full article)


IP-10 is a novel immunologic marker for tuberculosis (TB) infection. It has been suggested that IP-10 may perform better in children compared with the QuantiFERON test, but only a few studies have investigated IP-10 for diagnosing active TB in children.

This study is the first to investigate IP-10 and QuantiFERON for diagnosing TB in children by using consensus classifications. Both IP-10 and QuantiFERON exhibited poor performance in children from a high-burden setting, and performance was especially compromised in young children. (Read the full article)


National adolescent vaccination coverage estimates in 2013 among 13- to 17-year-olds are 86% for Tdap vaccine and 78% for MCV4. Comparatively, coverage with ≥3 doses of HPV vaccine is 38% among girls and 14% among boys.

One-fourth of 11-year-olds had HPV vaccine co-administered with Tdap vaccine, compared with two-thirds who had MCV4 co-administered. Whereas by age 17 years, >92% received Tdap vaccine and MCV4, only half of girls and one-fifth of boys completed HPV vaccination. (Read the full article)


The incidence of cerebral palsy is dependent on the gestational age in very preterm infants and risk factors have been identified for term infants. The risk has also proved to be greater among late preterm births compared with term.

The incidence of cerebral palsy was 24-fold in moderately preterm and 6-fold in late preterm infants compared with full-term infants. The most prominent risk factors included asphyxia and intracranial hemorrhage. The incidence diminished over time and with increasing gestational age. (Read the full article)


There is variability in cerebral palsy prevalence estimates in low-resource countries, related to definitions, detection of milder cases, diagnosis age, and adequate training for clinicians. Thus, differences in prevalence and motor patterns between high- and low-resource countries remain unclear.

There were more children with dystonia and less with spasticity in Bangladesh compared with Australia (cerebral palsy diagnosis/motor classifications were consistent between settings). Differences in motor patterns between high- and low-resource countries have profound implications for early detection and appropriate interventions. (Read the full article)


Studies have shown that reciprocal vocalizations between mother and infant have positive effects on language development. It has been shown that girls acquire vocabulary and language skills earlier than boys.

Mothers more readily respond to their infant’s vocal cues than fathers, and infants show a preferential vocal response to their mothers in the first months of life. Mothers respond preferentially to infant girls versus boys at birth and 44 weeks. (Read the full article)


Despite growing interest around clinical screening for health-related social and environmental risk factors, little evidence exists regarding screening formats that maximize disclosure of psychosocial information.

This study compares psychosocial and socioeconomic adversity disclosure rates in face-to-face interviews versus electronic formats in a large, urban pediatric emergency department. (Read the full article)


Infants with Prader-Willi syndrome suffer from hypotonia, muscle weakness, and motor developmental delay and have increased fat mass combined with decreased muscle mass. Growth hormone improves body composition and motor development.

Ultrasound scans confirmed decreased muscle thickness in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome, which improved as result of growth hormone treatment. Muscle thickness was correlated to muscle strength and motor performance. Catch-up growth in muscle thickness was related to muscle use independent of growth hormone. (Read the full article)




BACKGROUND:

Despite epidemic childhood obesity levels, we know little about how BMI changes from preadolescence to adolescence and what factors influence changes.

METHODS:

We studied 3961 randomly selected public school students and 1 parent per student in 3 US metropolitan areas in fifth and again in tenth grades. In each grade, we measured child and parent height/weight and calculated BMI category. We examined whether baseline sociodemographic characteristics, child health-related factors, and parental obesity were significantly associated with exit from and entry into obesity from fifth to tenth grade.

RESULTS:

Fifth- and tenth-graders were 1%/2% underweight, 53%/60% normal weight, 19%/18% overweight, and 26%/20% obese, respectively. Among obese tenth-graders, 83% had been obese as fifth-graders and 13% had been overweight. Sixty-five percent of obese fifth-graders remained obese as tenth-graders, and 23% transitioned to overweight. Multivariately, obese fifth-graders who perceived themselves to be much heavier than ideal (P = .01) and those who had lower household education (P = .006) were less likely to exit obesity; by contrast, overweight fifth-graders were more likely to become obese if they had an obese parent (P < .001) or watched more television (P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Obese fifth-graders face challenges in reducing obesity, especially when they lack advantages associated with higher socioeconomic status or when they have a negative body image. Clinicians and others should educate parents on the importance of preventing obesity very early in development. Children who are not yet obese by fifth grade but who have an obese parent or who watch considerable television might benefit from monitoring, as might children who have negative body images.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Previous research suggests that physicians may be less likely to diagnose otitis media (OM) and to prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics for black versus nonblack children. Our objective was to determine whether race is associated with differences in OM diagnosis and antibiotic prescribing nationally.

METHODS:

We examined OM visit rates during 2008 to 2010 for children ≤14 years old using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We compared OM visits between black and nonblack children, as percentages of all outpatient visits and visit rates per 1000. We compared antibiotic prescribing by race as the percentage of OM visits receiving narrow-spectrum (eg, amoxicillin) versus broader-spectrum antibiotics. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine whether race was independently associated with antibiotic selection for OM.

RESULTS:

The percentage of all visits resulting in OM diagnosis was 30% lower in black children compared with others (7% vs 10%, P = .004). However, OM visits per 1000 population were not different between black and nonblack children (253 vs 321, P = .12). When diagnosed with OM during visits in which antibiotics were prescribed, black children were less likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics than nonblack children (42% vs 52%, P = .01). In multivariable analysis, black race was negatively associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing (adjusted odds ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.40–0.86).

CONCLUSIONS:

Differences in treatment choice for black children with OM may indicate race-based differences in physician practice patterns and parental preferences for children with OM.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Foster youth have high rates of health problems in childhood. Little work has been done to determine whether they are similarly vulnerable to increased health problems once they transition to adulthood. We sought to prospectively evaluate the risk of cardiovascular risk factors and other chronic conditions among young adults formerly in foster care (FC) and young adults from economically insecure (EI) and economically secure (ES) backgrounds in the general population.

METHODS:

We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (FC group; N = 596) and an age-matched sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (EI and ES groups; N = 456 and 1461, respectively). After controlling for covariates, we performed multivariate regressions to evaluate health outcomes and care access by group at 2 time points (baseline at late adolescence, follow-up at 25–26 years).

RESULTS:

Data revealed a consistent pattern of graduated increase in odds of most health outcomes, progressing from ES to EI to FC groups. Health care access indicators were more variable; the FC group was most likely to report having Medicaid or no insurance but was least likely to report not getting needed care in the past year.

CONCLUSIONS:

Former foster youth appear to have a higher risk of multiple chronic health conditions, beyond that which is associated with economic insecurity. Findings may be relevant to policymakers and practitioners considering the implementation of extended insurance and foster care programs and interventions to reduce health disparities in young adulthood.


OBJECTIVES:

We examined whether adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) differ from term-born adults in autism-spectrum traits, and whether among VLBW adults, growth in infancy is associated with these traits.

METHODS:

A total of 110 VLBW and 104 term-born adults of the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient yielding total, social interaction, and attention to detail sum scores. Growth in weight, length, and head circumference from birth to term and from term to 1 year of corrected age was determined as standardized residuals reflecting growth conditional on previous history.

RESULTS:

VLBW adults scored higher than term-born controls on social interaction sum score, indicating higher autism-spectrum traits. In contrast, they scored lower on attention to detail sum score, indicating lower autism-spectrum traits. Within the VLBW group, faster growth in weight, length, and head circumference from birth to term was associated with lower total and social interaction sum scores. In this group, growth from term to 1 year was not associated with autism-spectrum traits.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among those born preterm at VLBW, the risk for higher levels of autism-spectrum traits, particularly related to social interaction, may persist into adulthood. Faster growth from birth to term may ameliorate these effects, suggesting that targeted interventions could aid long-term neurodevelopment.


OBJECTIVES:

To compare the effects of two 9-month parent-implemented interventions within the Early Social Interaction (ESI) Project. Both individual-ESI, offered 2 or 3 times per week at home or in the community, and group-ESI, offered once per week in a clinic, taught parents how to embed strategies to support social communication throughout everyday activities.

METHODS:

Participants in the randomized controlled trial included 82 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at 16 to 20 months. Children were matched on pretreatment nonverbal developmental level and pairs were randomly assigned to treatment condition. Child outcomes included measures of social communication, autism symptoms, adaptive behavior, and developmental level. Child outcomes are reported from baseline to the end of the 9-month interventions.

RESULTS:

Children in individual-ESI showed differential change on a standardized examiner-administered observational measure of social communication, as they improved at a faster rate than children in group-ESI. Individual-ESI also showed differential efficacy on a parent report measure of communication, daily living, and social skills, as they showed improvement or stability, whereas group-ESI led to worsening or no significant change on these skills. Finally, individual-ESI showed differential change on examiner-administered measures of receptive language skills, as children in individual-ESI improved significantly, whereas group-ESI showed no change.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings support the efficacy of individual-ESI compared with group-ESI on child outcomes, suggesting the importance of individualized parent coaching in natural environments. The efficacy of a parent-implemented intervention using little professional time has potential for community viability, which is particularly important in light of the lack of main effects on child outcomes of most other parent-implemented interventions.


OBJECTIVES:

To compare and contrast characteristics and determinants of fatal all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes among pediatric age groups.

METHODS:

Retrospective descriptive and multivariable analyses of Consumer Product Safety Commission fatality data (1985–2009) were performed.

RESULTS:

Relative to 1985–1989 (baseline), pediatric deaths over the subsequent 4-year periods were lower until 2001–2004, when they markedly increased. Also, the proportion of vehicles involved in fatalities with engine sizes >350 cubic centimeter increased, reaching ~50% of crashes in 2007–2009. Ninety-five percent of all pediatric fatalities were on adult-size vehicles. Victims <6 years old had the highest proportion of girls (24%) and passengers (76%), and the lowest helmet use (17%). More than half of 6- to 11-year-old children were vehicle operators; 1 in 4 were carrying passengers in their own age range. Over the study period, 12- to 15-year-old children accounted for more than half of all pediatric ATV-related fatalities. The proportion of youth riding on the road increased with age, as did the proportion of collisions with other vehicles. Older teens had the highest proportions of roadway fatalities (72%) and collision events (63%), and 19% of their crashes involved alcohol. Head injuries occurred in 63% of victims (the major determinant being roadway riding), and helmets reduced the likelihood of head injury among fatal crash victims by 58%.

CONCLUSIONS:

There were significant differences between pediatric age groups in the relative contribution of known risk factors for ATV-related fatalities. Future injury prevention efforts must recognize these differences and develop interventions based on the age range targeted.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

This study investigated: (1) the prevalence and development of 2 receptive (sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] use and sexual information seeking) and 2 interactive (cybersex and general social networking site [SNS] use) online behaviors in adolescence; (2) whether development of these behaviors predict adolescents’ body and sexual self-perceptions; and (3) whether parental strategies regarding adolescents’ Internet use reduce engagement in sex-related online behaviors.

METHODS:

Four-wave longitudinal data among 1132 seventh- to 10th-grade Dutch adolescents (mean age at wave 1: 13.95 years; 52.7% boys) were collected. Developmental trajectories of sex-related online behaviors were estimated by using latent growth curve modeling. Self-perception outcomes at wave 4 and parental strategies predicting online behaviors were investigated by adding regression paths to growth models.

RESULTS:

Boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM. Patterns for girls’ SEIM use and boys’ and girls’ sexual information seeking and cybersex were consistently low. SNS use, however, was a common, daily activity for both. Higher initial levels and/or faster increases in sex-related online behaviors generally predicted less physical self-esteem (girls’ SNS use only), more body surveillance, and less satisfaction with sexual experience. Private Internet access and less parental rule setting regarding Internet use predicted greater engagement in sex-related online behaviors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although most sex-related online behaviors are not widespread among youth, adolescents who engage in such behaviors are at increased risk for developing negative body and sexual self-perceptions. Particular attention should be paid to adolescents’ SNS use because this behavior is most popular and may, through its interactive characteristics, elicit more critical self-evaluations. Prevention efforts should focus on parents’ role in reducing risky sex-related online behaviors.


OBJECTIVE:

The goal of this study was to determine if congenital human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection influences early neurodevelopment.

METHODS:

We enrolled 57 newborns with HHV-6 congenital infection and 242 control newborns without congenital infection into a prospective, double-blind study with 4 visits between 4 and 30 months of age. Assessments included the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence, the Visual Expectation Paradigm, and the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Newborn audiology screening and follow-up audiology examinations were completed at 12 to 24 months.

RESULTS:

No differences were noted in baseline characteristics between infants with HHV-6 congenital infection and control infants. No clinical syndrome due to congenital infection with HHV-6 was evident at birth. No differences were identified on the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence or the Visual Expectation Paradigm between the two groups. In 39 infants with HHV-6 congenital infection, the mean ± SD Bayley Scale of Infant Development II MDI score was 103.4 ± 8.9 at 12 months of age. The matched control infants had a mean score of 105.4 ± 12.4. After controlling for covariates, HHV-6 congenital infection was associated with lower scores on the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II MDI at 12 months of age (mean difference: 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 8.1]; P = .03) compared with infants without HHV-6 congenital infection.

CONCLUSIONS:

Congenital HHV-6 infection may have a detrimental effect on neurodevelopment at 12 months of age and requires further study given that congenital infection with HHV-6 is present in ~1 in every 101 births.


BACKGROUND:

Unconditional regard refers to the feeling that one is accepted and valued by others without conditions. Psychological theory suggests that experiences of unconditional regard lead children to feel that they are valuable despite setbacks. We hypothesized that reflecting on experiences of unconditional regard would buffer children’s negative self-feelings (eg, shame, insecurity, powerlessness) in the face of setbacks. To test this hypothesis, we randomized children to reflect on experiences of unconditional regard or other experiences, and examined their response to an academic setback 3 weeks later.

METHODS:

Participants (11–15 years old) were randomly assigned to reflect for 15 minutes on experiences of unconditional regard (n = 91), conditional regard (n = 80), or other social experiences (n = 76). Research personnel, teachers, and classmates remained blind to condition assignment. Three weeks later, after receiving their course grades, children reported their self-feelings. Course grades were obtained from school records. Receiving low course grades represents a salient and painful real-world setback for children.

RESULTS:

Replicating previous research, children who received lower grades experienced more negative self-feelings (P < .001). As predicted, this well-established relationship was significantly attenuated among children who had reflected, 3 weeks previously, on experiences of unconditional regard (Ps < .03). Reflecting on unconditional regard specifically reduced negative self-feelings after low grades (P = .01), not after average or high grades (Ps > .17).

CONCLUSIONS:

Reflecting on unconditional regard buffered children’s selves against the adverse impact of an academic setback over an extended period of time. Unconditional regard may thus be an important psychological lever to reduce negative self-feelings in youth.


OBJECTIVE:

Laundry detergent pods are a new product in the US marketplace. This study investigates the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of laundry detergent pod exposures among young children in the United States.

METHODS:

Using data from the National Poison Data System, exposures to laundry detergent pods among children younger than 6 years of age during 2012–2013 were investigated.

RESULTS:

There were 17 230 children younger than 6 years exposed to laundry detergent pods in 2012–2013. From March 2012 to April 2013, the monthly number of exposures increased by 645.3%, followed by a 25.1% decrease from April to December 2013. Children younger than 3 years accounted for 73.5% of cases. The major route of exposure was ingestion, accounting for 79.7% of cases. Among exposed children, 4.4% were hospitalized and 7.5% experienced a moderate or major medical outcome. A spectrum of clinical effects from minor to serious was seen with ingestion and ocular exposures. There were 102 patients (0.6%) exposed to a detergent pod via ingestion, aspiration, or a combination of routes, including ingestion, who required tracheal intubation. There was 1 confirmed death.

CONCLUSIONS:

Laundry detergent pods pose a serious poisoning risk to young children. This nationwide study underscores the need for increased efforts to prevent exposure of young children to these products, which may include improvements in product packaging and labeling, development of a voluntary product safety standard, and public education. Product constituent reformulation is another potential strategy to mitigate the severity of clinical effects of laundry detergent pod exposure.


BACKGROUND:

Although many efforts have been made to improve the quality of care delivered to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-based pediatric settings, little is known about typical ADHD care in these settings other than rates garnered through pediatrician self-report.

METHODS:

Rates of evidence-based ADHD care and sources of variability (practice-level, pediatrician-level, patient-level) were determined by chart reviews of a random sample of 1594 patient charts across 188 pediatricians at 50 different practices. In addition, the associations of Medicaid-status and practice setting (ie, urban, suburban, and rural) with the quality of ADHD care were examined.

RESULTS:

Parent- and teacher-rating scales were used during ADHD assessment with approximately half of patients. The use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria was documented in 70.4% of patients. The vast majority (93.4%) of patients with ADHD were receiving medication and only 13.0% were receiving psychosocial treatment. Parent- and teacher-ratings were rarely collected to monitor treatment response or side effects. Further, fewer than half (47.4%) of children prescribed medication had contact with their pediatrician within the first month of prescribing. Most variability in pediatrician-delivered ADHD care was accounted for at the patient level; however, pediatricians and practices also accounted for significant variability on specific ADHD care behaviors.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is great need to improve the quality of ADHD care received by children in community-based pediatric settings. Improvements will likely require systematic interventions at the practice and policy levels to promote change.


BACKGROUND:

Current molecular diagnostic methods have detected rhinovirus RNA in a high proportion of asymptomatic infants and children, raising the question of the clinical significance of these findings. This study investigates the prevalence of prolonged rhinovirus RNA presence in the upper respiratory tract of infants during the first year of life.

METHODS:

In a longitudinal study, infants were followed from birth up to 12 months. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected monthly (months 1–6 and month 9) and during an upper respiratory infection. Rhinoviruses were detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Presence of repeated rhinovirus RNA was evaluated by nucleotide sequence analysis.

RESULTS:

A total of 2153 specimens from 362 infants were studied; 341 distinct rhinovirus infections in 216 infants were identified. Follow-up specimens were available within 30 days for 179 infections, creating the sample set to assess prolonged rhinovirus presence. Of the 179 infections, 46 involved the detection of the same rhinovirus strain in repeated specimens, including 8 events of prolonged presence of the same strain (detected in specimens collected >30 days apart), representing 4.5% of the evaluable rhinovirus infections. There were 26 events in which a rhinovirus strain was replaced by a different strain within a 30-day interval, representing 14.5% of the 179 infections.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although rhinovirus infections are common in healthy infants, prolonged presence of rhinovirus RNA in the respiratory tract after an upper respiratory infection was uncommon (<5%). Detection of rhinovirus RNA in an infant most likely represents an infection within a 30-day period.


BACKGROUND:

The effects on postnatal growth of maternal exposure to low levels of lead during pregnancy have not been well established. In addition, information is limited regarding the protective effect of dietary calcium intake during pregnancy against the effect of lead for fetal and postnatal growth. We investigated the relationship between prenatal exposure to lead and growth at birth and 6, 12, and 24 months postnatal, and evaluated the role of calcium intake against the effect of lead.

METHODS:

A total of 1150 pregnant women, and their subsequent offspring, enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study (Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study), were evaluated. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of prenatal maternal blood lead levels on growth at each follow-up.

RESULTS:

The blood lead levels of participating mothers were <5.0 μg/dL and mean levels were 1.25 μg/dL during the early (before 20 gestational weeks) and late (at delivery) gestational periods. Prenatal exposure to lead, particularly in late pregnancy, was significantly associated with a reduction in infantile growth at 24 months. When pregnant women had dietary calcium intake at mean or upper level, the association was not significant. In contrast, lower than mean level of calcium intake intensified the adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on growth in children.

CONCLUSIONS:

Prenatal lead exposure <5.0 μg/dL adversely affects postnatal growth and low calcium intake aggravates the effect, indicating more stringent control of lead and sufficient intake of calcium are necessary to help children’s health.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare inherited disease affecting motile cilia lining the respiratory tract. Despite neonatal respiratory distress as an early feature, diagnosis is typically delayed until late childhood. Our objective was to identify characteristics that differentiate PCD from common causes of term neonatal respiratory distress.

METHODS:

This was a case-control study. Patients with PCD born after 1994 attending a regional PCD clinic who had a history of neonatal respiratory distress (n = 46) were included. Controls (n = 46), term neonates with respiratory distress requiring a chest radiograph, were randomly selected from hospital birth records and matched on gender, birth month/year, and mode of delivery. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between neonatal characteristics and PCD diagnosis. The diagnostic performance of the best predictive variables was estimated by calculating sensitivity and specificity.

RESULTS:

PCD cases required more oxygen therapy (39 cases, 29 controls, P = .01), longer duration of oxygen therapy (PCD mean = 15.2 days, control mean = 0.80 days, P < .01), had later onset of neonatal respiratory distress (PCD median = 12 hours, control median = 1 hour, P < .001), and higher frequency of lobar collapse and situs inversus (PCD = 70% and 48% respectively, control = 0% for both, P < .001). Situs inversus, lobar collapse, or oxygen need for >2 days had 87% (95% confidence interval: 74–94) sensitivity and 96% (95% confidence interval: 85–99) specificity for PCD.

CONCLUSIONS:

When encountering term neonates with unexplained respiratory distress, clinicians should consider PCD in those with lobar collapse, situs inversus, and/or prolonged oxygen therapy (>2 days).


OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this study was to assess state licensing and administrative regulations promoting healthy sleep practices in child care and to compare these regulations to national recommendations.

METHODS:

We reviewed regulations related to healthy sleep practices for all states and territories for both child care centers (centers) and family child care homes (homes). We compared regulations with Institute of Medicine recommendations to promote sleep in child care, including (1) create environments that ensure restful sleep; (2) encourage sleep-promoting behaviors and practices; (3) encourage practices that promote child self-regulation of sleep; and (4) seek consultation yearly from a sleep expert. We used Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel trend tests to assess associations between geographic region and number of regulations consistent with the recommendations.

RESULTS:

The mean number of regulations for states was 0.9 for centers and 0.8 for homes out of a possible 4.0. For centers, no state had regulations for all 4 recommendations; 11 states had regulations for 2 of the 4 recommendations. For homes, 9 states had regulations for 2 of the recommendations. States in the Northeast had the greatest mean number of regulations for centers (1.2) and homes (1.1), and states in the South had the fewest (0.7 and 0.7, respectively); these geographic differences were significant for centers (P = .03) but not homes (P = .14).

CONCLUSIONS:

More states in the Northeast had regulations consistent with the Institute of Medicine sleep recommendations, but overall few states had regulations consistent with the recommendations.


OBJECTIVES:

Describe rates of adherence for sickle cell disease (SCD) medications, identify patient and medication characteristics associated with nonadherence, and determine the effect of nonadherence and moderate adherence (defined as taking 60%–80% of doses) on clinical outcomes.

METHODS:

In February 2012 we systematically searched 6 databases for peer-reviewed articles published after 1940. We identified articles evaluating medication adherence among patients <25 years old with SCD. Two authors reviewed each article to determine whether it should be included. Two authors extracted data, including medication studied, adherence measures used, rates of adherence, and barriers to adherence.

RESULTS:

Of 24 articles in the final review, 23 focused on 1 medication type: antibiotic prophylaxis (13 articles), iron chelation (5 articles), or hydroxyurea (5 articles). Adherence rates ranged from 16% to 89%; most reported moderate adherence. Medication factors contributed to adherence. For example, prophylactic antibiotic adherence was better with intramuscular than oral administration. Barriers included fear of side effects, incorrect dosing, and forgetting. Nonadherence was associated with more vaso-occlusive crises and hospitalizations. The limited data available on moderate adherence to iron chelation and hydroxyurea indicates some clinical benefit.

CONCLUSIONS:

Moderate adherence is typical among pediatric patients with SCD. Multicomponent interventions are needed to optimally deliver life-changing medications to these children and should include routine monitoring of adherence, support to prevent mistakes, and education to improve understanding of medication risks and benefits.


Gender nonconforming (GN) children and adolescents, collectively referred to as GN youth, may seek care to understand their internal gender identities, socially transition to their affirmed genders, and/or physically transition to their affirmed genders. Because general pediatricians are often the first point of contact with the health care system for GN youth, familiarity with the psychological and medical approaches to providing care for this population is crucial. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of existing clinical practice guidelines for GN youth. Such guidelines emphasize a multidisciplinary approach with collaboration of medical, mental health, and social services/advocacy providers. Appropriate training needs to be provided to promote comprehensive, culturally competent care to GN youth, a population that has traditionally been underserved and at risk for negative psychosocial outcomes.


Preterm birth (PTB) is a serious problem, with >450 000 neonates born prematurely in the United States every year. Beginning in 1980, the United States experienced a nearly 3-decade rise in the PTB rate, peaking in 2006 at 12.8%. PTB has declined for 7 consecutive years to 11.4% in 2013, but it still accounts for 1 in 9 neonates born every year. In addition to elevated neonatal and infant mortality among those born preterm, many who survive will have lifelong morbidities and disabilities. Because of the burden of morbidity, disability, and mortality for PTB, as well as its impact more broadly on society, including excess annual costs estimated to be at least $26.2 billion by a committee for the Institute of Medicine, the March of Dimes initiated the Prematurity Campaign in 2003. In 2008 the March of Dimes established a goal of reducing the US PTB rate to 9.6% by 2020. However, the United States ranks extremely poorly for PTB rates among Very High Human Development Index (VHHDI) countries, subjecting untold numbers of neonates to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the March of Dimes proposes an aspirational goal of 5.5% for the 2030 US PTB rate, which would put the United States in the top 4 (10%) of 39 VHHDI countries. This 5.5% PTB rate is being achieved in VHHDI countries and by women from diverse settings receiving optimal care. This goal can be reached and will ensure a better start in life for many more neonates in the next generation.