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Pediatrics

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PEDIATRICS

Most studies of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) prevalence in the general population of the United States have been carried out using passive methods (surveillance or clinic-based studies), which underestimate rates of FASD.

Using active case ascertainment methods among children in a representative middle class community, rates of fetal alcohol syndrome and total FASD are found to be substantially higher than most often cited estimates for the general US population. (Read the full article)


Medication errors involving children represent a frequently occurring public health problem. Since 2003, >200 000 out-of-hospital medication errors have been reported to US poison control centers annually, and ~30% of these involve children <6 years of age.

During 2002–2012, an average of 63 358 children <6 years experienced out-of-hospital medication errors annually, or 1 child every 8 minutes. There was a significant increase in the number and rate of non–cough and cold medication errors during the study period. (Read the full article)


Movie ratings designed to warn parents about violence and sexual content have permitted increasing amounts of each in popular films. One potential explanation for this "ratings creep" is parental desensitization to this content as it becomes more prevalent in movies.

This study adds experimental evidence that parents become desensitized to movie violence and sex and are more willing to allow children to view such content. (Read the full article)


The population of youth with chronic medical conditions is growing and many attend college. Yet we know little about US colleges’ capacity to identify and care for these youth, nor how transition guidelines and financing models should incorporate college health.

This is the first study to find that although many colleges can provide some clinical care for youth with chronic conditions, few colleges have systems to identify and track these students, elucidating gaps that pediatricians and institutions need to address. (Read the full article)


Little is known about how pediatricians communicate with overweight Latino children and their parents regarding overweight and obesity.

Findings suggest that many overweight Latino children and their parents do not receive direct communication that the child is overweight, weight-management plans, culturally relevant dietary recommendations, or follow-up visits. (Read the full article)


More children with special health care needs are surviving to adulthood and entering the adult health care system. Effective transition of care can promote continuity of developmental and age-appropriate care for these individuals.

Existing studies provide modest transition care support. Methods for providing transition care warrant attention, and future research needs are wide ranging. Consistent and accepted measures of transition success are critical to establishing an adequate body of literature to affect practice. (Read the full article)


Professional organizations recommend ultrasound as the initial diagnostic imaging modality for children with suspected nephrolithiasis. Computed tomography utilization for children with nephrolithiasis treated at freestanding children’s hospitals is common and varies substantially by hospital.

The high prevalence and regional variability of CT as the first imaging study for children with nephrolithiasis who presented to emergency departments, outpatient clinics, and hospitals throughout the United States indicate that current imaging practices deviate substantially from guidelines. (Read the full article)


The detection of critical congenital heart disease by fetal echocardiography or neonatal physical examination can have limitations. The addition of pulse oximetry screening in the newborn nursery increases the rate of diagnosis of these conditions before hospital discharge.

In a tertiary-care center with comprehensive fetal echocardiography, nearly all newborns with critical congenital heart disease are diagnosed prenatally. Pulse oximetry will identify more infants from settings with lower prenatal detection. Improving access to and training in fetal echocardiography should also improve detection of these conditions. (Read the full article)


Family meals are protective for child health, but there are inconsistent findings in relation to child weight status. More research is needed examining why family meals are protective for child health and whether there are differences by child weight status.

The current mixed-methods study used direct observational methods to examine family dynamics during family meals and child weight status. Results indicated that positive family interpersonal and food-related dynamics during family meals were associated with reduced prevalence of childhood obesity. (Read the full article)


Parental smoking cessation helps eliminate children’s exposure to tobacco smoke. A child’s visit to the doctor provides a teachable moment for parental smoking cessation. Effective strategies to help parents quit smoking are available for implementation.

Evidence-based outpatient intervention for parents who smoke can be delivered successfully after the initial implementation. Maximizing parental quit rates in the pediatric context will require more complete and sustained systems-level integration. (Read the full article)


The built environment may affect weight status by presenting opportunities or barriers for exercise and nutritious eating. Although there is substantial cross-sectional evidence linking neighborhood factors and childhood obesity, causal uncertainty remains, owing to conceptual and methodological challenges.

This prospective study examined neighborhood influences on obesity during the transition to adolescence, a sensitive period for excess weight gain. Girls living in neighborhoods characterized by physical disorder or increased access to food and service retailers exhibited higher obesity risk. (Read the full article)


Neonatal circumcision in the United States has been estimated to be performed in ~58% of all neonates, and varies by US geographic region.

This study estimates neonatal and postneonatal circumcision rates among commercially insured males aged 0 to 18 years that were performed in both inpatient and outpatient settings. This study also estimates indications and payments for the procedure. (Read the full article)


School-based health centers (SBHCs) are known to increase access to medical care and mental health services for at-risk adolescents. Policymakers have suggested that SBHCs could function as patient-centered medical homes, but SBHCs have not been evaluated in that context.

Using the constructs of the patient-centered medical home as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (accessibility, continuity, comprehensiveness, family-centeredness, coordination, and compassion), this study shows that SBHCs have the potential to function as medical homes from the perspective of adolescents and parents. (Read the full article)


Delivering competent oral case presentations is an important clinical communication skill, yet effective means of improving trainees’ presentations have not been identified.

Oral presentation feedback sessions facilitated by faculty by using an 18-item competency-based evaluation form early in pediatric clerkships improved medical students’ subsequent oral presentations. Medical schools should consider implementing this evidence-supported practice. (Read the full article)


Cross-sectional research indicates that teen sexting is common, may be associated with other adolescent behaviors such as substance use, does not appear to be a marker of mental well being, and is probably an indicator of actual sexual behaviors.

Although mounting evidence links teen sexting to sexual behavior, little is known about the temporal sequencing of these 2 behaviors. Knowing which comes first will aid tween- and teen-focused health care providers in their interaction with patients and patients’ parents. (Read the full article)


Sleeping on a sofa increases the risk of sudden and unexpected infant death.

Infant deaths on sofas are associated with nonsupine placement, being found in side position, surface sharing, changing sleep location, and experiencing prenatal tobacco exposure. These results may help explain why sofa sleeping is hazardous for infants. (Read the full article)


There are discrepancies regarding which treatment is best in clinical practice for children with parapneumonic empyema, with some authors favoring video-assisted thoracoscopy and others favoring intrapleural fibrinolytic agents.

This study is one of the few randomized clinical trials on this subject in children and the first multicenter trial. It exclusively included patients with septated empyema. Thoracoscopy and fibrinolysis with urokinase were equally effective for this condition. (Read the full article)


In 2003, the US Food and Drug Administration issued warnings about hyperglycemia and diabetes with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Since 2004, hyperglycemic and diabetes risk with SGAs has been stated in product labels, and published guidelines have recommended baseline metabolic screening.

Between 2006 and 2011, 11% of children 2 to 18 years starting an SGA had baseline glucose assessed. Youth at risk for diabetes may not be identified. Further, lack of screening impedes determining the contribution of SGAs to hyperglycemia. (Read the full article)


Perinatal complications predict increased risk for morbidity and early mortality. Evidence of perinatal programming of adult mortality raises the question of what mechanisms embed this long-term effect. Telomere length and perceived facial age are 2 indicators of accelerated aging.

Perinatal complications predicted greater signs of accelerated aging "inside," as measured objectively by leukocyte telomere length, an indicator of cellular aging, and "outside," as measured subjectively by perceived age, an indicator of declining integrity of tissues. (Read the full article)


Phototherapy decreases bilirubin concentration in skin more rapidly than in blood. During and after phototherapy, transcutaneous bilirubin measurements are considered unreliable and therefore discouraged.

Transcutaneous bilirubin underestimates total serum bilirubin by 2.4 mg/dL (SD, 2.1 mg/dL) during the first 8 hours after phototherapy. This gives a safety margin of ~7 mg/dL below the treatment threshold to omit confirmatory blood sampling. (Read the full article)


Jaundiced newborns without additional risk factors rarely develop kernicterus if the total serum bilirubin is <25 mg/dL. Measuring the bilirubin/albumin ratio might improve risk assessment, but the relationships of both indicators to advancing stages of neurotoxicity are poorly documented.

Both total serum bilirubin and bilirubin/albumin ratio are strong predictors of advancing stages of acute and post-treatment auditory and neurologic impairment. However, bilirubin/albumin ratio, adjusted to the same sensitivity, does not improve prediction over total serum bilirubin alone. (Read the full article)


Direct antiglobulin titer (DAT) positive, blood group A or B newborns born to group O mothers have a high incidence of hyperbilirubinemia, attributable to increased hemolysis.

DAT ++ readings were associated with a higher incidence of hyperbilirubinemia and a greater degree of hemolysis than DAT ± or DAT + counterparts. DAT strength should be taken into consideration when planning treatment strategies or follow-up of ABO-heterospecific newborns. (Read the full article)


Admissions to the ICU during off-hours (nights and weekends) have been variably associated with increased mortality in both adults and children. Changes in staffing patterns, patient characteristics, or other factors may have influenced this relationship over time.

This study demonstrates in a large, current, multicenter database sample that off-hours admissions to PICUs are not associated with increased risk-adjusted mortality. Admissions in the morning from 6:00 am to 10:59 am are associated with increased mortality and warrant further attention. (Read the full article)


Earlier adiposity rebound may increase fatness in later life; however, there is limited evidence from large cohorts of contemporary children with direct measures of fatness in adolescence or adulthood.

Early adiposity rebound is strongly associated with increased BMI and fatness in adolescence. Future preventive interventions should consider targeting early childhood to delay timing of adiposity rebound. (Read the full article)


Allostatic load (AL), a biomarker of cardiometabolic risk, predicts the onset of the chronic diseases of aging including cardiac disease, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Socioeconomic-related stressors, such as low family income, are associated with AL.

African American youth who grow up in neighborhoods in which poverty levels increase across adolescence evince high AL. The study also highlights the benefits of emotional support in ameliorating this association. (Read the full article)


Prophylactic indomethacin in extremely low birth weight infants decreases severe intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus but it is unknown whether concurrent enteral feeding and prophylactic indomethacin is associated with increased risk of spontaneous intestinal perforation.

The combination of prophylactic indomethacin and enteral feeding during the first 3 days after birth does not increase the risk of spontaneous intestinal perforation. (Read the full article)


Quality improvement (QI) studies generally do not account for concurrent trends of improvement and it is difficult to distinguish the impact of a multihospital collaborative QI project without a contemporary control group.

A multihospital collaborative QI model led to greater declines in hypothermia and invasive ventilation rates in the delivery room compared with an individual NICU QI model and NICUs that did not participate in formal QI activities. (Read the full article)


Despite breastfeeding recommendations by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics, there is less agreement on appropriate use of infant solid foods. There are currently no well-established dietary guidelines for US infants that are similar to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (aged >2 years).

Distinct dietary patterns exist among US infants and have differential influences on growth. Use of "Infant guideline solids" (vegetables, fruits, baby cereal, and meat) with prolonged breastfeeding is a promising healthy dietary pattern for infants after age 6 months. (Read the full article)


Restrictive feeding by parents is associated with poorer eating self-regulation and increased child weight status. However, this association could be due to confounding home environmental or genetic factors that are challenging to control.

Differential maternal restrictive feeding is associated with differences in twins' caloric compensation and BMI z score. Controlling for the shared home environment and partially for genetics, these findings further support a true (ie, unconfounded) association between restriction and childhood obesity. (Read the full article)




OBJECTIVES:

To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community.

METHODS:

From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children’s mothers were interviewed for maternal risk.

RESULTS:

Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for the index child’s father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Children who have FASD are more prevalent among first graders in this Midwestern city than predicted by previous, popular estimates.


OBJECTIVE:

To investigate out-of-hospital medication errors among young children in the United States.

METHODS:

Using data from the National Poison Database System, a retrospective analysis of out-of-hospital medication errors among children <6 years old from 2002 through 2012 was conducted.

RESULTS:

During 2002–2012, 696 937 children <6 years experienced out-of-hospital medication errors, averaging 63 358 episodes per year, or 1 child every 8 minutes. The average annual rate of medication errors was 26.42 per 10 000 population. Cough and cold medication errors decreased significantly, whereas the number (42.9% increase) and rate (37.2% increase) of all other medication errors rose significantly during the 11-year study period. The number and rate of medication error events decreased with increasing child age, with children <1 year accounting for 25.2% of episodes. Analgesics (25.2%) were most commonly involved in medication errors, followed by cough and cold preparations (24.6%). Ingestion accounted for 96.2% of events, and 27.0% of medication errors were attributed to inadvertently taking or being given medication twice. Most (93.5%) cases were managed outside of a health care facility; 4.4% were treated and released from a health care facility; 0.4% were admitted to a non–critical care unit; 0.3% were admitted to a critical care unit; and 25 children died.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of out-of-hospital medication errors among children <6 years of age on a national level. Increased efforts are needed to prevent medication errors, especially those involving non–cough and cold preparations, among young children.


OBJECTIVES:

To assess desensitization in parents’ repeated exposure to violence and sex in movies.

METHODS:

A national US sample of 1000 parents living with at least 1 target child in 1 of 3 age groups (6 to 17 years old) viewed a random sequence of 3 pairs of short scenes with either violent or sexual content from popular movies that were unrestricted to youth audiences (rated PG-13 or unrated) or restricted to those under age 17 years without adult supervision (rated R). Parents indicated the minimum age they would consider appropriate to view each film. Predictors included order of presentation, parent and child characteristics, and parent movie viewing history.

RESULTS:

As exposure to successive clips progressed, parents supported younger ages of appropriate exposure, starting at age 16.9 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8 to 17.0) for violence and age 17.2 years (95% CI, 17.0 to 17.4) for sex, and declining to age 13.9 years (95% CI, 13.7 to 14.1) for violence and 14.0 years (95% CI, 13.7 to 14.3) for sex. Parents also reported increasing willingness to allow their target child to view the movies as exposures progressed. Desensitization was observed across parent and child characteristics, violence toward both human and non-human victims, and movie rating. Those who frequently watched movies were more readily desensitized to violence.

CONCLUSIONS:

Parents become desensitized to both violence and sex in movies, which may contribute to the increasing acceptance of both types of content by both parents and the raters employed by the film industry.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Twenty percent of US youth have a chronic medical condition and many attend college. Guidelines for transition from pediatric to adult care do not address college health services, and little is known about their capacity to identify, support, and provide care for these youth. The objective of this study was to describe college health center policies, practices, and resources for youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC).

METHODS:

Survey of medical directors from health centers of a representative sample of 200 4-year US colleges with ≥400 enrolled undergraduate students. Patterns of identification, management, and support for youth with a general chronic medical condition and with asthma, diabetes, and depression, were investigated; 2 and Fisher exact tests were used to ascertain differences by institutional demographics.

RESULTS:

Directors at 153 institutions completed the survey (76.5% response rate). Overall, 42% of schools had no system to identify YCMC. However, almost a third (31%) did identify and add to a registry of incoming YCMC on review of medical history, more likely in private (P < .001) and small (<5000 students, P = .002) colleges; 24% of health centers contacted YCMC to check-in/make initial appointments. Most institutions could manage asthma and depression (83% and 69%, respectively); 51% could manage diabetes on campus.

CONCLUSIONS:

Relatively few US colleges have health systems to identify and contact YCMC, although many centers have capacity to provide primary care and management of some conditions. Guidelines for transition should address policy and practices for pediatricians and colleges to enhance comanagement of affected youth.


OBJECTIVE:

To examine pediatrician weight-management communication with overweight Latino children and their parents and whether communication differs by pediatrician-patient language congruency.

METHODS:

Mixed-methods analysis of video-recorded primary care visits with overweight 6- to 12-year-old children. Three independent reviewers used video/transcript data to identify American Academy of Pediatrics–recommended communication content and establish communication themes/subthemes. Language incongruence (LI) was defined as pediatrician limited Spanish proficiency combined with parent limited English proficiency (LEP). Bivariate analyses examined associations of LI with communication content/themes.

RESULTS:

The mean child age (N = 26) was 9.5 years old; 81% were obese. Sixty-two percent of parents had LEP. Twenty-seven percent of pediatricians were Spanish-proficient. An interpreter was used in 25% of LI visits. Major themes for how pediatricians communicate overweight included BMI, weight, obese, chubby, and no communication (which only occurred in LI visits). The pediatrician communicated child overweight in 81% of visits, a weight-management plan in 50%, a culturally relevant dietary recommendation in 42%, a recommendation for a follow-up visit in 65%, and nutrition referral in 50%. Growth charts were used in 62% of visits but significantly less often in LI (13%) versus language-congruent (83%) visits (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Many overweight Latino children do not receive direct communication of overweight, culturally sensitive dietary advice, or follow-up visits. LI is associated with a lower likelihood of growth chart use. During primary care visits with overweight Latino children, special attention should be paid to directly communicating child overweight, formulating culturally sensitive weight-management plans, and follow-up. With LEP families, vigilance is needed in providing a trained interpreter and using growth charts.


BACKGROUND:

Approximately 750 000 children in the United States with special health care needs will transition from pediatric to adult care annually. Fewer than half receive adequate transition care.

METHODS:

We had conversations with key informants representing clinicians who provide transition care, pediatric and adult providers of services for individuals with special health care needs, policy experts, and researchers; searched online sources for information about currently available programs and resources; and conducted a literature search to identify research on the effectiveness of transition programs.

RESULTS:

We identified 25 studies evaluating transition care programs. Most (n = 8) were conducted in populations with diabetes, with a smaller literature (n = 5) on transplant patients. We identified an additional 12 studies on a range of conditions, with no more than 2 studies on the same condition. Common components of care included use of a transition coordinator, a special clinic for young adults in transition, and provision of educational materials.

CONCLUSIONS:

The issue of how to provide transition care for children with special health care needs warrants further attention. Research needs are wide ranging, including both substantive and methodologic concerns. Although there is widespread agreement on the need for adequate transition programs, there is no accepted way to measure transition success. It will be essential to establish consistent goals to build an adequate body of literature to affect practice.


OBJECTIVE:

We sought to determine the prevalence of initial computed tomography (CT) utilization and to identify regions in the United States where CT is highly used as the first imaging study for children with nephrolithiasis.

METHODS:

We performed a cross-sectional study in 9228 commercially insured children aged 1 to 17 years with nephrolithiasis who underwent diagnostic imaging in the United States between 2003 and 2011. Data were obtained from MarketScan, a commercial insurance claims database of 17 827 229 children in all 50 states. We determined the prevalence of initial CT use, defined as CT alone or CT performed before ultrasound in the emergency department, inpatient unit, or outpatient clinic, and identified regions of high CT utilization by using logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Sixty-three percent of children underwent initial CT study and 24% had ultrasound performed first. By state, the proportion of children who underwent initial CT ranged from 41% to 79%. Regional variations persisted after adjusting for age, gender, year of presentation, and insurance type. Relative to children living in West South Central states, the highest odds of initial CT utilization were observed for children living in the East South Central US Census division (odds ratio: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.54). The lowest odds of initial CT were observed for children in the New England states (odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.38–0.62).

CONCLUSIONS:

Use of CT as the initial imaging study for children with nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent and shows extensive regional variability in the United States. Current imaging practices deviate substantially from recently published guidelines that recommend ultrasound as the initial imaging study.


BACKGROUND:

Delayed diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) in neonates increases morbidity and mortality. The use of pulse oximetry screening is recommended to increase detection of these conditions. The contribution of pulse oximetry in a tertiary-care birthing center may be different from at other sites.

METHODS:

We analyzed CCHD pulse oximetry screening for newborns ≥35 weeks’ gestation born at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and cared for in the well-infant nursery during 2013. We identified patients with prenatal diagnosis of CCHD. We also identified infants born at other medical centers who were transferred to Boston Children’s Hospital for CCHD and determined if the condition was diagnosed prenatally.

RESULTS:

Of 6838 infants with complete pulse oximetry data, 6803 (99.5%) passed the first screening. One infant failed all 3 screenings and had the only echocardiogram prompted by screening that showed persistent pulmonary hypertension. There was 1 false-negative screening in an infant diagnosed with interrupted aortic arch. Of 112 infants born at Brigham and Women’s Hospital with CCHD, 111 had a prenatal diagnosis, and none was initially diagnosed by pulse oximetry. Of 81 infants transferred to Boston Children’s Hospital from other medical centers with CCHD, 35% were diagnosed prenatally.

CONCLUSIONS:

In our tertiary-care setting, pulse oximetry did not detect an infant with CCHD because of effective prenatal echocardiography screening. Pulse oximetry will detect more infants in settings with a lower prenatal diagnosis rate. Improving training in complete fetal echocardiography scans should also improve timely diagnosis of CCHD.


BACKGROUND:

Family meals have been found to be associated with a number of health benefits for children; however, associations with obesity have been less consistent, which raises questions about the specific characteristics of family meals that may be protective against childhood obesity. The current study examined associations between interpersonal and food-related family dynamics at family meals and childhood obesity status.

METHODS:

The current mixed-methods, cross-sectional study included 120 children (47% girls; mean age: 9 years) and parents (92% women; mean age: 35 years) from low-income and minority communities. Families participated in an 8-day direct observational study in which family meals were video-recorded in their homes. Family meal characteristics (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) were described and associations between dyadic (eg, parent-child, child-sibling) and family-level interpersonal and food-related dynamics (eg, communication, affect management, parental food control) during family meals and child weight status were examined.

RESULTS:

Significant associations were found between positive family- and parent-level interpersonal dynamics (ie, warmth, group enjoyment, parental positive reinforcement) at family meals and reduced risk of childhood overweight. In addition, significant associations were found between positive family- and parent-level food-related dynamics (ie, food warmth, food communication, parental food positive reinforcement) and reduced risk of childhood obesity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Results extend previous findings on family meals by providing a better understanding of interpersonal and food-related family dynamics at family meals by childhood weight status. Findings suggest the importance of working with families to improve the dyadic and family-level interpersonal and food-related dynamics at family meals.


OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether an evidence-based pediatric outpatient intervention for parents who smoke persisted after initial implementation.

METHODS:

A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 pediatric practices in 16 states that received either Clinical and Community Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention or usual care. The intervention provided practices with training to provide evidence-based assistance to parents who smoke. The primary outcome, assessed by the 12-month follow-up telephone survey with parents, was provision of meaningful tobacco control assistance, defined as discussing various strategies to quit smoking, discussing smoking cessation medication, or recommending the use of the state quitline after initial enrollment visit. We also assessed parental quit rates at 12 months, determined by self-report and biochemical verification.

RESULTS:

Practices’ rates of providing any meaningful tobacco control assistance (55% vs 19%), discussing various strategies to quit smoking (25% vs 10%), discussing cessation medication (41% vs 11%), and recommending the use of the quitline (37% vs 9%) were all significantly higher in the intervention than in the control groups, respectively (P < .0001 for each), during the 12-month postintervention implementation. Receiving any assistance was associated with a cotinine-confirmed quitting adjusted odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.13–3.19). After controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, the adjusted odds ratio for cotinine-confirmed quitting in intervention versus control practices was 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.64–1.78).

CONCLUSIONS:

Intervention practices had higher rates of delivering tobacco control assistance than usual care practices over the 1-year follow-up period. Parents who received any assistance were more likely to quit smoking; however, parents’ likelihood of quitting smoking was not statistically different between the intervention and control groups. Maximizing parental quit rates will require more complete systems-level integration and adjunctive cessation strategies.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls.

METHODS:

Participants were 174 girls (aged 8–10 years at baseline), a subset from the Cohort Study of Young Girls’ Nutrition, Environment, and Transitions. Trained observers completed street audits within a 0.25-mile radius around each girl’s residence. Four scales (food and service retail, recreation, walkability, and physical disorder) were created from 40 observed neighborhood features. BMI was calculated from clinically measured height and weight. Obesity was defined as BMI-for-age ≥95%. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to examine neighborhood influences on obesity risk over 4 years of follow-up, controlling for race/ethnicity, pubertal status, and baseline BMI. Fully adjusted models also controlled for household income, parent education, and a census tract measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status.

RESULTS:

A 1-SD increase on the food and service retail scale was associated with a 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.61; P < .001) increased odds of being obese. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.44; P = .005) increased odds of being obese. Other neighborhood scales were not associated with risk for obesity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Neighborhood food and retail environment and physical disorder around a girl’s home predict risk for obesity across the transition from late childhood to adolescence.


BACKGROUND:

Male circumcision confers protection against HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and urinary tract infections. Compared with circumcision of postneonates (>28 days), circumcision of neonates is associated with fewer complications and usually performed with local rather than general anesthesia. We assessed circumcision of commercially insured males during the neonatal or postneonatal period.

METHODS:

We analyzed 2010 MarketScan claims data from commercial health plans, using procedural codes to identify circumcisions performed on males aged 0 to 18 years, and diagnostic codes to assess clinical indications for the procedure. Among circumcisions performed in the first year of life, we estimated rates for neonates and postneonates. We estimated the percentage of circumcisions by age among males who had circumcisions in 2010, and the mean payment for neonatal and postneonatal procedures.

RESULTS:

We found that 156 247 circumcisions were performed, with 146 213 (93.6%) in neonates and 10 034 (6.4%) in postneonates. The neonatal circumcision rate was 65.7%, and 6.1% of uncircumcised neonates were circumcised by their first birthday. Among postneonatal circumcisions, 46.6% were performed in males younger than 1 year and 25.1% were for nonmedical indications. The mean payment was $285 for a neonatal and $1885 for a postneonatal circumcision.

CONCLUSIONS:

The large number of nonmedical postneonatal circumcisions suggests that neonatal circumcision might be a missed opportunity for these boys. Delay of nonmedical circumcision results in greater risk for the child, and a more costly procedure. Discussions with parents early in pregnancy might help them make an informed decision about circumcision of their child.


OBJECTIVE:

School-based health centers (SBHCs) have been suggested as possible patient-centered medical homes. Our objectives were to determine, in a low-income, urban population, adolescents’ reasons for visiting SBHCs and the value parents place on SBHC services, and adolescents’ and parents’ assessment of how well SBHCs fulfill criteria for a medical home as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional, mailed survey of a random sample of 495 adolescent SBHC users and 497 parents of SBHC users from 10 SBHCs in Denver, CO from May to October 2012. Eligible adolescents were registered in an SBHC with ≥1 visit during the 2011 to 2012 school year.

RESULTS:

Response rates were 40% (198/495) among adolescents and 36% (181/497) among parents. The top 3 reasons for visits were for illness (78%), vaccines (69%), and sexual health education (63%). Factors reported as very important by >75% of parents in the decision to enroll their adolescent in an SBHC included clinic offering sick or injury visits, sports physicals, and vaccinations. More than 70% of adolescents gave favorable responses (always or usually, excellent or good) to questions about American Academy of Pediatrics medical home criteria (accessibility, continuity, comprehensiveness, family-centeredness, coordination, and compassion). Most parents (83%) reported that they could always or usually trust the SBHC provider to take good care of their child; 82% were satisfied with provider-to-provider communication.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a low-income urban population, SBHCs met criteria of a medical home from adolescents’ and parents’ perspectives. Policymakers and communities should recognize that SBHCs play an important role in the medical community, especially for underserved adolescents.


OBJECTIVE:

To measure the effects of participating in structured oral presentation evaluation sessions early in pediatric clerkships on students' subsequent presentations.

METHODS:

We conducted a single-blind, 3-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial during pediatric clerkships at Boston University School of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Blocks of students at each school were randomly assigned to experience either (1) no formal presentation feedback (control) or a small-group presentation feedback session early in pediatric clerkships in which students gave live presentations and received feedback from faculty who rated their presentations by using a (2) single-item (simple) or (3) 18-item (detailed) evaluation form. At the clerkship end, overall quality of subjects’ presentations was rated by faculty blinded to randomization status, and subjects reported whether their presentations had improved. Analyses included multivariable linear and logistic regressions clustered on clerkship block that controlled for medical school.

RESULTS:

A total of 476 participants were evenly divided into the 3 arms, which had similar characteristics. Compared with controls, presentation quality was significantly associated with participating in detailed (coefficient: 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07–0.69) but not simple (coefficient: 0.16; 95% CI: –0.12–0.43) feedback sessions. Similarly, student self-report of presentation improvement was significantly associated with participating in detailed (odds ratio: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.11–4.18] but not simple (odds ratio: 1.89; 95% CI: 0.91–3.93) feedback sessions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Small-group presentation feedback sessions led by faculty using a detailed evaluation form resulted in clerkship students delivering oral presentations of higher quality compared with controls.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Hearing loss caused by congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection was first observed in 1964. Today cCMV is the most common cause of nonhereditary sensorineural hearing loss in childhood. Our objective was to provide an overview of the prevalence of cCMV-related hearing loss, to better define the nature of cCMV-associated hearing loss, and to investigate the importance of cCMV infection in hearing-impaired children.

METHODS:

Two reviewers independently used Medline and manual searches of references from eligible studies and review articles to select cohort studies on children with cCMV infection with audiological follow-up and extracted data on population characteristics and hearing outcomes.

RESULTS:

Thirty-seven studies were included: 10 population-based natural history studies, 14 longitudinal cohort studies, and 13 retrospective studies. The prevalence of cCMV in developed countries is 0.58% (95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.79). Among these newborns 12.6% (95% confidence interval, 10.2–16.5) will experience hearing loss: 1 out of 3 symptomatic children and 1 out of 10 asymptomatic children. Among symptomatic children, the majority have bilateral loss; among asymptomatic children, unilateral loss predominates. In both groups the hearing loss is mainly severe to profound. Hearing loss can have a delayed onset, and it is unstable, with fluctuations and progression. Among hearing-impaired children, cCMV is the causative agent in 10% to 20%. Despite strict selection criteria, some heterogeneity was found between selected studies.

CONCLUSIONS:

This systematic review underscores the importance of cCMV as a cause of sensorineural hearing loss in childhood.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

No consensus has yet been reached with regard to the link between otitis media with effusion (OME), hearing loss, and language development in children with cleft palate. The objective of this study was to address the effectiveness of ventilation tube insertion (VTI) for OME in children with cleft palate.

METHODS:

A dual review process was used to assess eligible studies drawn from PubMed, Medline via Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, and reference lists between 1948 and November 2013. Potentially relevant papers were selected according to the full text of the articles. Relevant data were extracted onto a data extraction sheet.

RESULTS:

Nine high- or moderate-quality cohort studies were included in this study. VTI was administered in 38% to 53% of the OME cases, and more severe cases appeared more likely to undergo VTI. Compared with conservative forms of management (eg, watchful waiting), VTI has been shown to be beneficial to the recovery of hearing in children with cleft palate and OME. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of VTI in the development of speech and language in children with cleft palate and OME. These children face a higher risk of complications than those undergoing conservative treatments, the most common of which are eardrum retraction and tympanosclerosis, with an incidence of ~11% to 37%.

CONCLUSIONS:

This review provides evidence-based information related to the selection of treatment for OME in children with cleft palate. Additional randomized controlled trials are required to obtain bias-resistant evidence capable of reliably guiding treatment decisions. The conclusions in this review are based on underpowered cohort studies and very-low-strength evidence.


Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of inherited intellectual disability and the most common known single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. It has been reported that a spectrum of medical problems are commonly experienced by people with FXS, such as otitis media, seizures, and gastrointestinal problems. Previous studies examining the prevalence of medical problems related to FXS have been challenging to interpret because of their marked differences in population, setting, and sampling. Through this comprehensive review, we update the literature by reviewing studies that have reported on prominent medical problems associated with FXS. We then compare prevalence results from those studies with results from a large cross-sectional database consisting of data collected by fragile X clinics that specialize in the care of children with FXS and are part of the Fragile X Clinical and Research Consortium. It is vital for pediatricians and other clinicians to be familiar with the medical problems related to FXS so that affected patients may receive proper diagnosis and treatment; improved care may lead to better quality of life for these patients and their families.


It is difficult to do scientifically rigorous research on treatments that must be administered urgently or emergently. Therefore, such treatments are often provided without a strong evidence base. Research would be facilitated if it were permissible to waive the requirement for parental consent. However, that raises a different set of concerns. Federal regulations allow waiver of the requirement for consent but only if studies meet certain conditions. Institutional review boards must decide whether those conditions are met. Sometimes, reasonable people disagree. We present and analyze a protocol for which investigators request a waiver of consent.