Invasive pneumococcal disease causes enormous morbidity in children. The spectrum and severity of illness caused by pneumococcal serotypes not present in the current vaccine, and whether the clinical profile and severity of disease have changed, are largely unknown.
Initial data suggest that nonvaccine serotypes are more common in children with underlying conditions, who have greater morbidity from disease. In the post-PCV13 era, a larger proportion of patients are hospitalized, but mortality rates are unchanged. (Read the full article)
Massachusetts implemented a major health reform in 2006 to reduce uninsurance, improve access to care, and increase financial protection for its citizens, but little is known about its effect on privately and publicly insured children with special health care needs.
Massachusetts health reform improved access to specialists for privately insured children with special health care needs but did not reduce uninsurance, increase access to primary care, or improve financial protection. National reform may produce similarly modest outcomes for these children. (Read the full article)
Hookah use is increasing dramatically among US adolescents. Many consider it a safer alternative to cigarettes. Existing studies often use nonrepresentative local populations to assess prevalence and correlates of hookah use.
This study used a nationally representative sample of US high school seniors. It confirmed some previously found correlates and determined that adolescents of higher socioeconomic status were at high risk for hookah use. (Read the full article)
Numerous studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of medical emergency team (MET) implementation, including reductions in mortality, cardiac arrests, and critical deterioration events. No studies have evaluated the financial costs and benefits of METs.
The costs of operating an MET can plausibly be recouped with a modest reduction in critical deterioration events. Hospitals reimbursed with bundled payments could see real financial savings by reducing critical deterioration events with a MET. (Read the full article)
A previous study suggested that spine and pelvis views may be omitted from the follow-up skeletal survey protocol for suspected child abuse, when these views are normal on the initial skeletal survey, without limiting the sensitivity of the study.
This multicenter study provides estimates of the risk of missing occult fractures in the evaluation of suspected child abuse with omission of spine and pelvis views from the follow-up skeletal survey protocol. Results may be used to update practice recommendations. (Read the full article)
Available bowel preparation solutions for colonoscopy continue to represent a challenge for children and their families due to poor taste, high volume, and dietary restrictions with subsequent poor compliance and need to place nasogastric tube for administration.
Low-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) preparations and sodium picosulphate plus magnesium oxide and citric acid (NaPico+MgCit) are noninferior to PEG 4000 with simethicon for bowel preparation before colonoscopy in children. Given its higher tolerability and acceptability profile, NaPico+MgCit should be preferred in children. (Read the full article)
Clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord at birth is the most prevalent of all operations; however, the optimal timing of cord clamping is still a controversial issue, with different timings offering advantages and disadvantages.
Our findings suggest a protective effect of late cord clamping, increasing the antioxidant capacity and decreasing the inflammatory-mediated effects induced during delivery of term neonates. (Read the full article)
Delaying cord clamping beyond 30 to 60 seconds after birth seems beneficial for all infants due to blood transfusion from placenta. Experimental data have demonstrated that ventilation implemented before cord clamping improved cardiovascular stability by increasing pulmonary blood flow.
Healthy self-breathing neonates in a low-resource setting are more likely to die if cord clamping occurs before or immediately after onset of spontaneous respirations. The risk of death/admission decreases by 20% for every 10-second delay in clamping after breathing. (Read the full article)
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) prevalence in children with sickle cell anemia is not well described. Although these children often experience nocturnal oxygen desaturation, it is unclear whether they are more likely to have OSAS.
Children with sickle cell anemia have a high prevalence of OSAS with typical symptoms, beyond just nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation. This study supports the need for increased efforts to screen for, diagnose, and treat OSAS in this vulnerable population. (Read the full article)
Growth failure has been frequently reported in children who have obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) owing to adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Adenotonsillectomy (AT) has been reported to accelerate weight gain in children who have OSAS in nonrandomized uncontrolled studies.
This randomized controlled trial of AT for pediatric OSAS demonstrated significantly greater weight increases 7 months after AT in all weight categories. AT normalizes weight in children who have failure to thrive, but increases risk for obesity in overweight children. (Read the full article)
Pediatricians need to treat overweight in early childhood. Family-based interventions in specialized clinics are efficacious in children age 8 years and older. Data regarding treatment of younger children are limited in specialty clinics and primary care.
This study shows that a 12-month family-based behavioral intervention in primary care is more efficacious compared with Control condition with a child-only focus. Weight outcome differences between Intervention and Control persist in children and parents after a 12-month follow-up. (Read the full article)
Children with autism sleep poorly compared with their peers. Sensory integration, including use of weighted blankets, is proposed as a means to reduce arousal and stress. There is, however, no evidence that weighted blankets can improve sleep for these children.
This is the first robust study to evaluate the impact of weighted blankets and show that they do not improve sleep parameters in children with autism spectrum disorder. (Read the full article)
Immigrant children are more likely to be uninsured versus nonimmigrant children. The extent to which immigrant families are aware of and interested in obtaining insurance is unclear. Obstacles to participation in insurance exchanges and public insurance programs are also unknown.
Barriers for children in immigrant families include awareness of and experience with various health insurance options, perceived costs and benefits of insurance, structural/policy restrictions on eligibility, and the likelihood of working organizations likely to offer employee insurance coverage. (Read the full article)
To date, studies of adaptive behavior in fragile X syndrome have focused on particular age points, either longitudinally or cross-sectionally across a broad age spectrum. Studies have shown variable patterns in adaptive behavior among people with fragile X syndrome.
This study fills a critical gap in knowledge about the profile of adaptive behavior across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood in fragile X syndrome. This study is the first to incorporate longitudinal data from an age-matched typically developing group. (Read the full article)
Previous studies showed that prevalence of abdominal obesity among US children and adolescents increased significantly between 1988–1994 and 2003–2004. However, little is known about recent time trends in abdominal obesity since 2003–2004.
In 2011–2012, 17.95% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years were abdominally obese defined by waist circumference. The prevalence of abdominal obesity leveled off among US children and adolescents from 2003–2004 to 2011–2012. (Read the full article)
Newborn infants who are predominantly breastfed are much more likely to develop prolonged hyperbilirubinemia than those fed formula, but the prevalence of prolonged hyperbilirubinemia in a largely white, North American, breastfed population is unknown.
Practitioners can be reassured that it is normal for 20% to 30% of predominantly breastfed infants to be jaundiced at age 3 to 4 weeks and for 30% to 40% of these infants to have bilirubin levels ≥5 mg/dL. (Read the full article)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that health departments in all 50 states deliver AFIX (Assessment, Feedback, Incentives, and eXchange) consultations to 25% of federally funded vaccine providers each year. AFIX effectively raises vaccination coverage among young children.
AFIX consultations achieved short-term gains in coverage for 11- to 12-year-olds for vaccines in the adolescent platform. No gains occurred for older adolescents or over the long term. Consultations were equally effective when delivered in-person or by webinar. (Read the full article)
There is growing support for adopting the milliliter as the standard unit for liquid medication instruction; teaspoon and tablespoon units can be confusing and may endorse kitchen spoon use. There are concerns that parents may not understand milliliter-based instructions.
Parents who used milliliter-only units made fewer dosing errors than those who used teaspoon or tablespoon units. Moving to a milliliter-only standard could reduce confusion and decrease medication errors, especially for parents with low health literacy and non-English speakers. (Read the full article)
Oral vaccine responses are low in children from less-developed countries perhaps as a result of intestinal dysbiosis. New high-throughput DNA-based methods allow characterization of intestinal microbiota as a predictor of vaccine responses.
High abundance of stool Actinobacteria, including Bifidobacterium, was associated with higher responses to oral and parenteral vaccines and a larger thymus in Bangladeshi infants. Conversely, high abundance of Clostridiales, Enterobacteriales, and Pseudomonadales was associated with neutrophilia and lower vaccine responses. (Read the full article)
Delayed diagnosis of critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
Despite increasing prenatal diagnosis rates, delayed diagnosis of CCHDs continues to occur, with rates highest among isolated cases and those delivered at nontertiary care hospitals. Better understanding of delayed diagnosis could help to improve screening efforts. (Read the full article)
Prenatal maternal smoking has been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, but the causal nature of this association is unclear. Controlling for the association with paternal smoking has been inconsistent.
Women who used nicotine replacement also had children with a higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Mother's smoking behavior appears more important than father's, suggesting a possible causal effect of nicotine exposure or factors related to maternal nicotine dependence. (Read the full article)
Graduating from high school is associated with better health and health behaviors. However, no rigorous studies have tested whether exposure to a high-performing school improves health or health behaviors, thus the causal relationship is unknown.
Exposure to successful schools can reduce very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents. The primary mechanism is mostly due to better school retention and also due to better academic achievement. (Read the full article)
Sleep disturbance affects 47% to 60% of children with atopic dermatitis and is a leading cause of impaired quality of life for the patients and their family.
Sleep disturbance in children with atopic dermatitis can be predicted by a Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index of ≥48.7, and lower nocturnal melatonin secretion might play a role in the pathophysiology. (Read the full article)
Sudden infant death syndrome and other sleep-related causes of infant mortality have several known risk factors. Less is known about the association of those risk factors at different times during infancy.
Risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths may be different for different age groups. The predominant risk factor for younger infants is bed-sharing, whereas rolling to prone, with objects in the sleep area, is the predominant risk factor for older infants. (Read the full article)
Predicting high-risk populations in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can help target care strategies. Prediction rules for infants with CDH often lack validation, are aimed at a prenatal population, and are of limited generalizability. We cannot currently discriminate the highest risk neonates during the crucial period shortly after birth.
This clinical prediction rule was developed and validated on an international database. It discriminates patients and high, intermediate, and low risk of mortality; is easy to apply; and is generalizable to most infants with CDH. (Read the full article)
The role of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) in the treatment of newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is poorly defined and not rigorously proven. Contemporary rates of INO use for CDH have not been reported.
INO use in neonates with CDH is widespread, and has increased in many US tertiary pediatric hospitals without associated decrease in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use or mortality. (Read the full article)
After neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment, children are at risk for neurodevelopmental problems including delayed motor function. So far this has only been studied cross-sectionally until age 7 years.
We describe, in a nationwide evaluation, the longitudinal course of motor function development after neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with persisting problems up to 12 years. At risk are children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and those with chronic lung disease. (Read the full article)
As the number of chronically ill children grows in the United States, end-of-life discussions and advance directives (AD) will become increasingly important. Although pediatric palliative care is gaining interest, little is known about parental preferences regarding ADs for chronically ill children.
Knowledge about ADs is limited among caregivers of children who have chronic illness. However, interest in creating ADs is high, suggesting an unmet need and opportunity for health care providers to improve the care of children who have chronic illness. (Read the full article)
Term MRI can assist in identifying the nature and extent of brain injury in preterm infants. However, brain injury detected by MRI does not fully account for neurodevelopmental impairments, particularly cognitive and behavioral impairments, common in preterm survivors.
In addition to brain injury, an assessment of brain growth by using one-dimensional measurements on MRI is helpful for predicting neurodevelopment. Two different patterns of impaired brain growth are observed that relate independently to early cognitive development in preterm infants. (Read the full article)
Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities often experience poor health, high stress, anxiety, and depression. Highly stressed parents are less effective in their parenting roles, risking their children's developmental progress.
Evidence-based interventions in mindfulness and positive psychology significantly reduce distress in mothers of children with disabilities. Well-trained peer-mentors are effective interventionists. Adult-oriented services are needed for these mothers to improve their mental health and sustain their caregiving over the long-term. (Read the full article)
Research has shown that HIV-affected children face considerable threats to health and mental health. Few studies have investigated the effects of HIV on the health and well-being of HIV-negative children living with HIV-positive caregivers.
By comparing the prevalence of mental health problems and protective and risk factors among HIV-positive, HIV-affected, and HIV-unaffected children in Rwanda, this study demonstrates that the mental health of HIV-affected children requires policy and programmatic responses comparable to HIV-positive children. (Read the full article)
Preterm birth has been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in infancy, but the longer-term risk is unknown.
In a large national cohort, low gestational age at birth was associated with increased risk of VTE in infancy, early childhood, and young adulthood. These findings call for better awareness of the long-term risk of VTE among preterm birth survivors. (Read the full article)
Interventions based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy have been shown to reduce symptoms of trauma and depression in mothers of premature infants. It is not known whether these benefits are sustained at long-term follow-up.
A brief, cost-effective 6-session manualized intervention for parents of infants in the NICU was effective in reducing symptoms of parental trauma, anxiety, and depression at 6-month follow-up. There were no added benefits from a 9-session version of the treatment. (Read the full article)
Supplemented mother’s own milk is the preferred nutrition for very low birth weight infants.
Through targeted encouragement and guidance, most mothers are able to provide milk to their very low birth weight infants, both for early and prolonged feeding, in an open-bay NICU. (Read the full article)
Passive or opt-out consent has been successfully used to recruit subjects in several investigational studies. However, institutional review boards are often inconsistent in their application of federal regulations regarding passive consent.
This study documented the variability among 24 local institutional review boards in their application of federal regulations regarding passive consent and parental acceptance of a passive consent strategy in a multicenter pediatric study. (Read the full article)
Socioeconomic status (SES) often influences timeliness of health care delivery, even in publicly funded systems. Children need prompt surgical care for a variety of time-sensitive developmental conditions, and children of lower SES may be especially vulnerable to delays in surgery.
It is unknown whether a publicly funded system’s ability to provide timely pediatric surgical care is related to SES. In 39 327 consecutive surgical cases, we demonstrate that SES need not influence timeliness of surgical care in a publicly funded system. (Read the full article)
Most therapeutic products used in children have not been studied in that population. There is a need for special incentives and market protection (pediatric exclusivity) to compensate drug sponsors for studying these products in children.
Of 189 products studied under pediatric exclusivity, 173 (92%) received new labeling information. Pediatric efficacy was not established for 78 (42%), including 81% of oncology drugs. Probability of demonstrating efficacy was related to therapeutic area and year exclusivity was granted. (Read the full article)
Few studies have performed precise cardiovascular assessments and regular follow-up of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) patients’ clinical courses. A few studies have reported mortalities among children who have CRS; however, the causes of death have not been precisely described.
A total of 38 CRS cases in Vietnam were studied after a rubella outbreak in 2011. The mortality associated with pulmonary hypertension was significantly high if untreated. Conducting careful cardiologic assessments and providing continuous follow-up for each patient is required. (Read the full article)
Neonatal narcotic abstinence syndrome (NAS) has become more prevalent in the United States. There is no strong evidence base for NAS treatment and thus no consensus regarding NAS management, including the best treatment drug or best taper strategy.
This study demonstrates that regardless of the initial treatment opioid chosen, use of a standard treatment protocol with stringent weaning guidelines reduces duration of opioid exposure and length of hospital stay for infants with NAS. (Read the full article)
To examine whether there is a different clinical profile and severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children caused by nonvaccine types in the era of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).
Observational study of childhood IPD in Massachusetts based on state public health surveillance data comparing pre-PCV13 (2007–2009) and post-PCV13 (2010–2012) eras.
There were 168 pre-PCV13 cases of IPD and 85 post-PCV13 cases of IPD in Massachusetts children ≤5 years of age. PCV13 serotypes declined by 18% in the first 2 years after PCV13 use (P = .011). In the post-PCV13 phase, a higher proportion of children were hospitalized (57.6% vs 50.6%), and a higher proportion of children had comorbidity (23.5% vs 19.6%). Neither difference was statistically significant, nor were comparisons of IPD caused by vaccine and nonvaccine types. Children with comorbidities had higher rates of IPD caused by a nonvaccine type (27.6% vs 17.2%; P = .085), were more likely to be hospitalized (80.4% vs 50%; P < .0001), and were more likely to have a longer hospital stay (median of 3 days vs 0.5 days; P = .0001).
Initial data suggest that nonvaccine serotypes are more common in children with underlying conditions, who have greater morbidity from disease. In the post-PCV13 era, a larger proportion of patients are hospitalized, but mortality rates are unchanged. Routine vaccination with PCV13 may not be enough to reduce the risk in patients with comorbidity.
Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) face unique challenges in accessing affordable health care. Massachusetts implemented major health reform in 2006; little is known about the impact of this state’s health reform on uninsurance, access to care, and financial protection for privately and publicly insured CSHCN.
We used a difference-in-differences (DD) approach to compare uninsurance, access to primary and specialty care, and financial protection in Massachusetts versus other states and Washington, DC before and after Massachusetts health reform. Parent-reported data were used from the 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs and adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, non-English language at home, and functional difficulties.
Postreform, living in Massachusetts was not associated with significant decreases in uninsurance or increases in access to primary care for CSHCN. For privately insured CSHCN, Massachusetts was associated with increased access to specialists (DD = 6.0%; P ≤ .001) postreform. For publicly insured CSHCN, however, there was a significant decrease in access to prescription medications (DD = –7.2%; P = .003) postreform. Living in Massachusetts postreform was not associated with significant changes in financial protection compared with privately or publicly insured CSHCN in other states.
Massachusetts health reform likely improved access to specialists for privately insured CSHCN but did not decrease instances of uninsurance, increase access to primary care, or improve financial protection for CSHCN in general. Comparable provisions within the Affordable Care Act may produce similarly modest outcomes for CSHCN.
Prevalence of hookah use is increasing significantly among adolescents. This study aimed to delineate demographic and socioeconomic correlates of hookah use among high school seniors in the United States. We hypothesized that more impoverished adolescents and those who smoked cigarettes would be more likely to use hookahs.
Data were examined for 5540 high school seniors in Monitoring the Future (years 2010–2012), an annual nationally representative survey of high school students in the United States. Using data weights provided by Monitoring the Future, we used multivariable binary logistic regression to delineate correlates of hookah use in the last 12 months.
Eighteen percent of students reported hookah use in the past year. Compared with white students, black students were at lower odds for use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.27, P < .0001). High parent education increased the odds for use (AOR = 1.58, P < .001), and student weekly income from a job of >$50/week (AOR = 1.26, P < .05) or $11 to $50 per week from other sources (AOR = 1.35, P < .01) also increased odds for use. Males and urban students were also at higher odds for use, as were users of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit substances. Former cigarette smokers were at higher risk, and current smokers were at highest risk for use.
Adolescents of higher socioeconomic status appear to be at particularly high risk for hookah use in the United States. Prevention efforts must target this group as prevalence continues to increase.
Medical emergency teams (METs) can reduce adverse events in hospitalized children. We aimed to model the financial costs and benefits of operating an MET and determine the annual reduction in critical deterioration (CD) events required to offset MET costs.
We performed a single-center cohort study between July 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012 to determine the cost of CD events (unplanned transfers to the ICU with mechanical ventilation or vasopressors in the 12 hours after transfer) as compared with transfers to the ICU without CD. We then performed a cost-benefit analysis evaluating varying MET compositions and staffing models (freestanding or concurrent responsibilities) on the annual reduction in CD events needed to offset MET costs.
Patients who had CD cost $99 773 (95% confidence interval, $69 431 to $130 116; P < .001) more during their post-event hospital stay than transfers to the ICU that did not meet CD criteria. Annual MET operating costs ranged from $287 145 for a nurse and respiratory therapist team with concurrent responsibilities to $2 358 112 for a nurse, respiratory therapist, and ICU attending physician freestanding team. In base-case analysis, a nurse, respiratory therapist, and ICU fellow team with concurrent responsibilities cost $350 698 per year, equivalent to a reduction of 3.5 CD events.
CD is expensive. The costs of operating a MET can plausibly be recouped with a modest reduction in CD events. Hospitals reimbursed with bundled payments could achieve real financial savings by reducing CD with an MET.
Reducing radiation exposure to minimize risk has been emphasized in recent years. In child abuse, the risk of missing occult injuries is often believed to outweigh radiation risk associated with skeletal surveys. Our hypothesis was that there would be no clinically significant difference in results from a limited view, follow-up skeletal survey (SS2) protocol, which omits spine and pelvis views unless these views have findings on the initial skeletal survey (SS1), compared with a traditional SS2 protocol for radiographic evaluation of suspected physical abuse.
This study was a retrospective record review involving 5 child protection teams. Consultations for suspected physical abuse were reviewed to identify subjects <24 months of age who had an SS1 and a traditional SS2. The results of these studies were compared to identify subjects in which newly identified spine and pelvis fractures (fractures seen only on SS2 and not on SS1) would have been missed by using a limited view SS2 protocol.
We identified 534 study subjects. Five subjects had newly identified spine fractures, and no subjects had newly identified pelvis fractures on traditional SS2 studies. Only 1 subject with a newly identified spine fracture would have been missed with the limited view SS2 protocol used in this study (0.2% [95% confidence interval: <0.005–1.0]). None of the newly identified fractures changed the abuse-related diagnosis.
We found no clinically significant difference in the results of a limited view SS2 protocol versus a traditional SS2 protocol for radiographic evaluation of suspected abuse.
The ideal preparation regimen for pediatric colonoscopy remains elusive, and available preparations continue to represent a challenge for children. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and acceptance of 4 methods of bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in children.
This randomized, investigator-blinded, noninferiority trial enrolled all children aged 2 to 18 years undergoing elective colonoscopy in a referral center for pediatric gastroenterology. Patients were randomly assigned to receive polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 with simethicon (PEG-ELS group) or PEG-4000 with citrates and simethicone plus bisacodyl (PEG-CS+Bisacodyl group), or PEG 3350 with ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc group), or sodium picosulfate plus magnesium oxide and citric acid (NaPico+MgCit group). Bowel cleansing was evaluated according to the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. The primary end point was overall colon cleansing. Tolerability, acceptability, and compliance were also evaluated.
Two hundred ninety-nine patients were randomly allocated to the 4 groups. In the per-protocol analysis, PEG-CS+Bisacodyl, PEG-Asc, and NaPico+MgCit were noninferior to PEG-ELS in bowel-cleansing efficacy of both the whole colon (P = .910) and colonic segments. No serious adverse events occurred in any group. Rates of tolerability, acceptability, and compliance were significantly higher in the NaPico+MgCit group.
Low-volume PEG preparations (PEG-CS+Bisacodyl, PEG-Asc) and NaPico+MgCit are noninferior to PEG-ELS in children, representing an attractive alternative to high-volume regimens in clinical practice. Because of the higher tolerability and acceptability profile, NaPico+MgCit would appear as the most suitable regimen for bowel preparation in children.
Clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord is the most prevalent of all operations, but the optimal timing of cord clamping is controversial, with different timings offering advantages and disadvantages. This study, for the first time, compares the influence of early and late cord clamping in correlation with oxidative stress and inflammation signaling, Because cord clamping timing may have a significant influence on placenta-to-infant blood transfer, thereby modifying oxygenation of maternal and fetal tissues, and on the transfer of inflammatory mediators throughout the placenta.
Sixty-four pregnant subjects were selected at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Services Department of the Clinico San Cecilio Hospital, Granada, Spain, based on disease-free women who experienced a normal course of pregnancy and a spontaneous, vaginal, single delivery. Half of the subjects had deliveries with early-clamped newborn infants (at 10 s), and the other half had late-clamped deliveries (at 2 min).
Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly greater in the late-clamped group than in the early-clamped group (P < .01 for the umbilical vein and P < .001 for the artery). The values for superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant status, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II were all significantly higher in the late-clamped group compared with the early-clamped group (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively).
The results suggest a beneficial effect of late cord clamping, produced by an increase in antioxidant capacity and moderation of the inflammatory-mediated effects induced during delivery of term neonates.