Bacteremia occurs in 2.2% of febrile infants who have a blood culture drawn. Regional data suggest that Escherichia coli, group B Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus are leading causes; however, the geographic boundaries of these data limit universal applicability.
This is the first national study examining epidemiology of bacteremia in febrile infants admitted to a general inpatient unit. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (42%), group B Streptococcus (23%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (6%). No Listeria monocytogenes was identified. (Read the full article)
Although community engagement is considered an important professional role of physicians, there has been declining involvement of pediatricians in community child health activities. Whether enhanced training is associated with increased involvement is unclear.
This study reveals a continued decline in pediatricians’ involvement in community child health activities and is the first national study to identify a link between formal training and pediatricians’ community involvement. (Read the full article)
One study examined the incidence of obesity among low-income children aged <5 years who participated in federally funded child health and nutrition programs during 1985–1990. The study examined the variations by baseline age but not by gender or race/ethnicity.
This study provides most recent data on incidence and reversing of obesity and variations across gender, baseline age, and racial/ethnic subgroups among young low-income children. We conducted multivariable analyses to examine the relative risk of obesity in population subgroups. (Read the full article)
Previous research has shown the following: the mere presence of weapons can increase aggression, dubbed the "weapons effect"; violence in films has increased over time; and violent films can increase aggression.
This study examines a potential source of the "weapons effect": the presence of guns in films. In just 20 years, gun violence in PG-13 films (age 13+) has increased from the level in films rated G/PG to the point where it exceeds the level in R films. (Read the full article)
Several studies have documented earlier onset of pubertal maturation in girls, with several potential factors attributed to the earlier onset.
This study demonstrates earlier maturation in white non-Hispanic girls, with greater BMI linked as a major factor. The entire distribution of pubertal timing has shifted to a younger age, suggesting redefinition of ages for both early and late maturation. (Read the full article)
Young age at first sexual intercourse (FSI) is related to risk-taking behaviors and negative outcomes. Previous studies using a cohort or cross-sectional design have concluded that younger age at menarche (AAM) is related to younger age at FSI.
This large birth cohort study is the first to address the temporal relationship between AAM and FSI. We found that younger AAM does not confer higher risk of early FSI, whether in terms of calendar age or time since menarche. (Read the full article)
An increasing number of parents have concerns about childhood vaccines. Parents consistently cite their child’s provider as influential in their vaccine decision-making. Little is known about how providers communicate with parents about vaccines and which communication strategies are important.
How providers initiate the vaccine recommendation at health supervision visits appears to be an important determinant of parent resistance. Also, when providers pursue their original vaccine recommendations in the face of parental resistance, many parents subsequently agree to vaccination. (Read the full article)
In 2007, manufacturers voluntarily withdrew over-the-counter (OTC) infant cough and cold medications (CCMs) from the US market. A year later, manufacturers announced OTC CCM labeling would be revised to warn against OTC CCM use by children aged <4 years.
Among children aged <2 and 2 to 3 years, emergency department visits for CCM adverse events declined nationally after the withdrawal and labeling revision announcement relative to all adverse drug event visits. Unsupervised ingestions caused most CCM adverse events after each intervention. (Read the full article)
Late-onset sepsis is a frequent complication of prematurity, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Although evidence is accumulating that administration of probiotics to very preterm infants reduces necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and all-cause mortality, the effect on late-onset sepsis is less clear.
The probiotic combination Bifidobacterium infantis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis reduced NEC in very preterm infants, but not mortality or late-onset sepsis. Probiotics may be of greatest global value in neonatal settings with high rates of NEC. (Read the full article)
Over the past 10 years, children’s hospitals increasingly have established pediatric palliative care programs, but little is known about the prevalence of these programs or their geographic distribution, range of services offered, staff composition, or funding.
Among the 162 hospitals that responded to this survey (71.7% response rate), 69% have a pediatric palliative care program, with substantial variation across programs in terms of how they are staffed and funded and what services they provide. (Read the full article)
The World Health Organization estimates that ~700 million children breathe tobacco smoke polluted air, particularly at home. Educational strategies either directly or indirectly targeting household decision-makers through other family members are effective in reducing children's exposure in private homes.
Intensive intervention was effective in decreasing children’s personal exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), educating mothers about SHS, and promoting smoking restrictions at home. However, superiority over minimal intervention to decrease children’s personal exposure to SHS was not statistically significant. (Read the full article)
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for sleep disturbances and excessive media use. However, the relationship between media use and sleep in children with ASD or ADHD has not been studied.
In-room access to screen-based media and video game hours were associated with less sleep among boys with ASD. The relationships between media use and sleep were much more pronounced among boys with ASD than among boys with ADHD or typical development. (Read the full article)
Medication errors occur frequently among pediatric patients, particularly those treated in rural emergency departments (EDs). Although telemedicine has been proposed as a potential solution, there are few data supporting its clinical effectiveness and its effect on medication errors.
The use of telemedicine to provide pediatric critical care consultations to rural EDs is associated with less frequent physician-related ED medication errors among seriously ill and injured children. Therefore, this model of care may improve patient safety in rural hospital EDs. (Read the full article)
Adverse effects of excess weight are likely related to both obesity severity and duration. Little is known about the contribution of adolescent weight status to development of specific comorbid conditions in adults.
Severe obesity at age 18 was independently associated with increased risk of lower extremity venous edema, walking limitation, kidney dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome, respiratory conditions, diabetes, and hypertension in adulthood. (Read the full article)
Pediatric surgery is performed in a variety of hospital types. General surgeons as well as fellowship-trained pediatric surgeons and surgical subspecialists perform inpatient operative procedures on infants and children. The distribution of procedures between specialists is not well characterized.
This study describes the demographics of pediatric surgery: the hospital type, the surgical procedures, and the quantity of inpatient pediatric surgery in the U.S. today. By implication, the data has much to inform health care about hospital and practitioner workforce. (Read the full article)
Epidemiologic studies have documented that children’s sleep duration is associated with obesity risk. Experimental studies with adults suggest that short sleep may lead to changes in appetite-regulating hormones and food intake, which could lead to weight gain over time.
This controlled experimental study demonstrates that compared to sleeping less, when children increase sleep, they report decreased caloric intake, have lower fasting leptin levels, and weigh less. Such changes, if maintained, could help prevent excess weight gain over time. (Read the full article)
Bullying involvement is associated with deleterious psychological, educational, and health effects. However, little is known about relations between bullying involvement and sexual risk-taking behaviors or whether similar patterns hold for heterosexual and gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, or questioning adolescents.
Among adolescents, bullies and bully-victims engaged in more casual sex and sex under the influence than their peers. Controlling for demographic characteristics and other victimization exposures, bully and bully-victim status predicted sexual risk taking but primarily for heterosexual adolescents. (Read the full article)
Preterm infants can be successfully resuscitated with <100% oxygen (O2); however, initiation with room air remains controversial. Current Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) guidelines suggest using air or blended O2 to titrate O2 to meet target preductal saturation goals.
This is the first trial to compare a limited O2 strategy to target NRP–recommended transitional goal saturations versus a high O2 strategy in preterm infants. The limited O2 strategy decreased integrated excess oxygen and oxidative stress and improved respiratory outcomes. (Read the full article)
Screen time has risen to unprecedented levels among youth. Greater television time is known to be associated with gains in pediatric adiposity, but few studies have examined the longitudinal relations of other forms of screen-based media with weight gain.
Among adolescents aged 9 to 19 years, television viewing was the type of screen time most consistently associated with gains in BMI. However, time with digital versatile discs/videos and video/computer games was also associated with gains in BMI among girls. (Read the full article)
Psychosocial stress in childhood has been associated with a greater risk of future overweight, although the associations have not always been consistent, the types of psychosocial stressors have often been somewhat extreme, and moderators of the association have rarely been examined.
Experiencing many negative life events in childhood, particularly with chronicity or events that are family health related, increases risk of overweight by age 15 years. Maternal obesity and greater delay of gratification for food each intensify this risk. (Read the full article)
Parents influence their child’s overweight development through lifestyle-related parenting practices. Although broader parenting dimensions may also affect children’s BMI, reverse causality is possible and there have been calls to examine the possible impacts of fathers.
More consistent parenting prospectively predicted lower child BMI with effects equally strong for fathers and mothers. There was little evidence of child BMI influencing parenting. Improved child BMI could be among the benefits of promoting parenting consistency of both parents. (Read the full article)
Several studies have suggested that very low birth weight young adults have increased risks of physical and health problems, educational underachievement, and poorer social functioning than their peers, but there are limited population-based and longitudinal data.
Former VLBW young adults in this national cohort scored as well as term controls on many measures of health and social functioning, including quality-of-life scores, with some differences largely confined to those with disability at age 7 to 8 years. (Read the full article)
Breast milk is protective against many conditions, but its role in allergy has not been established. Infant-feeding recommendations support exclusive breastfeeding for 26 weeks, whereas allergy prevention recommendations advise exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months with continued breastfeeding thereafter.
Evidence that continued breastfeeding while solids are introduced into the diet and delaying the introduction of solids until at least 17 weeks of age are associated with fewer food allergies. (Read the full article)
Few data on treating children hospitalized for influenza with neuraminidase inhibitors are available, contributing to uncertainty regarding the benefits of treatment.
This study of nearly 800 critically ill children suggests that treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors improves survival from influenza. This message needs additional emphasis, given that in the past 2 seasons over one-third of cases did not receive antiviral treatment. (Read the full article)
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a rare phenomenon that results in devastating injuries to children. It is necessary to analyze large samples to examine changes in rates over time.
This is the first study to examine rates of AHT at the national, regional, and state level. The results provide a more detailed description of AHT trends than has been previously available. (Read the full article)
To prevent asthma exacerbations, asthma guidelines recommend ongoing monitoring of patients’ asthma symptoms to promote timely adjustments of therapy to achieve and maintain optimal control. Existing tools, validated for ongoing monitoring, have significant limitations in children.
Our study established longitudinal validation of the Asthma Symptom Tracker, a novel tool designed for use by children or their parents to facilitate ongoing monitoring of patients’ asthma symptoms and proactive medical decision-making to prevent acute exacerbations. (Read the full article)
Preterm birth is associated with increased morbidity during childhood. Many studies have focused on outcomes for preterm births before 32 weeks’ gestation, but there are few follow-up data for late preterm infants (34–36 weeks’ gestation).
The risk of respiratory admission during childhood decreased with each successive week in gestation up to 40 to 42 weeks. The increased risk is small for late preterm infants, but the number affected is large and has an impact on health care services. (Read the full article)
Global health is of increasing interest and relevance to North American pediatric trainees. Opportunities for resident global health training and exposure are most often limited to electives or trainees in dedicated global health tracks.
A series of short, structured, participatory global child health modules improved knowledge and were well received and integrated within academic programs. Such modules enable global health learning for all residents, including those who never intend to practice overseas. (Read the full article)
It has previously been shown that exposure to intimate partner violence and/or parental depression or anxiety may increase a child’s risk for specific adverse health outcomes.
By using a large pediatric primary care sample, this study examined associations of child exposure to intimate partner violence and parental psychological distress with developmental milestone attainment by analyzing their combined and separate effects while adjusting for other family factors. (Read the full article)
Stable health insurance coverage facilitates access to health care. Despite expanded coverage options for children, parents report barriers to accessing insurance programs for their children, including uncertainty about a child’s coverage status and eligibility.
Electronic health records can be used as an emerging data source for conducting health insurance surveillance to track trends in patients’ insurance coverage status, and to identify patients who may benefit from outreach and support to obtain and maintain coverage. (Read the full article)
Socioeconomic status is known to influence health and health care utilization, but few studies have explored the relationship between community-level income and inpatient resource utilization for children.
In a large sample of pediatric hospitalizations, lower community-level household income is associated with higher inpatient costs of care for common conditions. These findings highlight the need to consider socioeconomic status in health care system design and reimbursement. (Read the full article)
Children with chronic illnesses tend to be sicker during infections than previously healthy children but are triaged in the same way, even though the validity of triage systems has not yet been evaluated in these chronically sick children.
The performance of the Manchester Triage System was lower for children with a chronic illness than for previously healthy children. Children with cardiovascular illnesses, respiratory illnesses, gastrointestinal illnesses, or other congenital or genetic defects were especially at risk of being undertriaged. (Read the full article)
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are essential to deliver life-saving treatment to neonates. Longer PICC dwell times may increase the risk of central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonates, but previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, likely due to different study designs, analytic methods, and small sample sizes.
The risk of CLABSIs increases during the 2 weeks after PICC insertion and remains elevated for the catheter duration. These data support daily review of PICC necessity, optimization of catheter maintenance practices, and consideration of novel strategies to prevent CLABSIs. (Read the full article)
Certain characteristics of the sleep environment increase the risk for sleep-related, sudden, and unexplained infant death. These characteristics have the potential to generate asphyxia. The relationship between the deaths occurring in these environments and neurochemical abnormalities in the brainstem that may impair protective responses to asphyxia is unknown.
We report neurochemical brainstem abnormalities underlying cases of sudden infant death that are associated with and without potential asphyxial situations in the sleep environment at death. The means to detect and treat these abnormalities in infants at risk are needed. (Read the full article)
Preterm infants are born with low serum levels and low body stores of tocopherol. Serum levels ≥0.5 mg/dL are required for protection against lipid peroxidation. Previous studies have shown good intestinal absorption of vitamin E given intragastrically to preterm infants.
Serum α-tocopherol increases after a single 50-IU/kg dose of vitamin E as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate given intragastrically to very preterm infants soon after birth; however, 30% of infants still have serum α-tocopherol level <0.5 mg/dL 24 hours after dosing. (Read the full article)
Vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs) are a common complication of sickle cell disease, resulting in morbidity. Magnesium is a vasodilator and has been shown to improve red blood cell hydration. Previous small studies have suggested that treatment with magnesium may decrease VOEs.
Intravenous magnesium sulfate is well tolerated in relatively high doses but had no effect on the length of stay in hospital, pain scores, or cumulative analgesia used in children admitted with painful VOEs in sickle cell disease. (Read the full article)
NF1 is the commonest single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder with known neurobiology and developmental impact on attention and cognition. Its impact on social functioning is described but poorly understood, with no population-based study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence in the disorder.
This epidemiological study shows high prevalence of 25% ASD in NF1 not explained by learning difficulties. ASD should be considered during clinical practice with NF1. Further research into NF1 as a single-gene model of ASD is warranted. (Read the full article)
Prenatal and postnatal organophosphate (cholinesterase inhibitor) pesticide exposure has been associated with delays in attention, memory, intelligence, and inhibitory control. Two recent studies reported decreased attention and working memory with greater exposure to organophosphates in boys but not in girls.
This is the first study to report associations between decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, a stable marker of cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide exposure, and lower overall neurodevelopment, attention, inhibitory control, and memory. These associations were present in boys but not in girls. (Read the full article)
Fever in infants is a common clinical dilemma. The objective of this study was to present data from hospital systems across the northeast, southeast, mid-west, and western United States to identify the pathogens causing bacteremia in febrile infants admitted to general care units.
This was a retrospective review of positive blood culture results in febrile infants aged ≤90 days admitted to a general care unit across 6 hospital systems. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2012 from emergency departments and general inpatient units. Cultures from ICUs, central lines, or infants who had complex comorbidities were excluded, as were repeat cultures positive for the same bacteria. Common contaminants were considered pathogens if they were treated as such.
We identified 181 cases of bacteremia in 177 infants. The most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (42%), followed by group B Streptococcus (23%). Streptococcus pneumoniae was more likely in older infants (P = .01). Non-low-risk bacteremic infants were more likely to have E coli or group B Streptococcus than low-risk bacteremic infants. We identified no cases of Listeria monocytogenes. Variation between sites was minimal.
This is the largest and most geographically diverse study to date examining the epidemiology of bacteremia in infants. We suggest E coli is the most common cause of bacteremia in previously healthy febrile infants admitted to a general inpatient unit. We identified no cases of L monocytogenes and question whether empirical therapy remains necessary for this pathogen.
Pediatricians are encouraged to engage in community child health activities, yet practice constraints and personal factors may limit involvement. The objective was to compare community involvement in 2004 and 2010 and factors associated with participation in the past year.
Analysis of 2 national mailed surveys of pediatricians (2004: n = 881; response rate of 58%; 2010: n = 820; response rate of 60%). Respondents reported personal characteristics (age, gender, marital status, child ≤5 years old, underrepresented in medicine), practice characteristics (type, setting, full-time status, time spent in general pediatrics), formal community pediatrics training, and community pediatrics involvement and related perspectives. We used 2 statistics to measure associations of personal and practice characteristics, previous training, and perspectives with involvement in the past 12 months. Logistic regression assessed independent contributions.
Fewer pediatricians were involved in community child health in 2010 (45.1% in 2004 vs 39.9% in 2010) with a higher percentage participating as volunteers (79.5% vs 85.8%; both P = .03). In 2010, fewer reported formal training at any time (56.1% vs 42.9%), although more reported training specifically in residency (22.0% vs 28.4%; both P < .05). Factors associated with participation in 2010 included older age, not having children ≤5 years old, practice in rural settings, practice type, training, and feeling moderately/very responsible for child health. In adjusted models, older age, practice setting and type, feeling responsible, and training were associated with involvement (P < .05).
Formal training is associated with community child health involvement. Efforts are needed to understand how content, delivery, and timing of training influence involvement.
To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups.
We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010–2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity at follow-up was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile. We used a multivariable log-binomial model to estimate relative risk of obesity adjusting for gender, baseline age, race/ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and baseline weight-for-length percentile.
The incidence of obesity was 11.0% after the follow-up period. The incidence was significantly higher among boys versus girls and higher among children aged 0 to 11 months at baseline versus those older. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the risk of obesity was 35% higher among Hispanics and 49% higher among American Indians (AIs)/Alaska Natives (ANs), but 8% lower among non-Hispanic African Americans. Among children who were obese at baseline, 36.5% remained obese and 63.5% were nonobese at follow-up. The proportion of reversing of obesity was significantly lower among Hispanics and AIs/ANs than that among other racial/ethnic groups.
The high incidence underscores the importance of early-life obesity prevention in multiple settings for low-income children and their families. The variations within population subgroups suggest that culturally appropriate intervention efforts should be focused on Hispanics and AIs/ANs.
Many scientific studies have shown that the mere presence of guns can increase aggression, an effect dubbed the "weapons effect." The current research examines a potential source of the weapons effect: guns depicted in top-selling films.
Trained coders identified the presence of violence in each 5-minute film segment for one-half of the top 30 films since 1950 and the presence of guns in violent segments since 1985, the first full year the PG-13 rating (age 13+) was used. PG-13–rated films are among the top-selling films and are especially attractive to youth.
Results found that violence in films has more than doubled since 1950, and gun violence in PG-13–rated films has more than tripled since 1985. When the PG-13 rating was introduced, these films contained about as much gun violence as G (general audiences) and PG (parental guidance suggested for young children) films. Since 2009, PG-13–rated films have contained as much or more violence as R-rated films (age 17+) films.
Even if youth do not use guns, these findings suggest that they are exposed to increasing gun violence in top-selling films. By including guns in violent scenes, film producers may be strengthening the weapons effect and providing youth with scripts for using guns. These findings are concerning because many scientific studies have shown that violent films can increase aggression. Violent films are also now easily accessible to youth (eg, on the Internet and cable). This research suggests that the presence of weapons in films might amplify the effects of violent films on aggression.
There is growing evidence of pubertal maturation occurring at earlier ages, with many studies based on cross-sectional observations. This study examined age at onset of breast development (thelarche), and the impact of BMI and race/ethnicity, in the 3 puberty study sites of the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program, a prospective cohort of >1200 girls.
Girls, 6 to 8 years at enrollment, were followed longitudinally at regular intervals from 2004 to 2011 in 3 geographic areas: the San Francisco Bay Area, Greater Cincinnati, and New York City. Sexual maturity assessment using Tanner staging was conducted by using standardized observation and palpation methods by trained and certified staff. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to describe age at onset of breast maturation by covariates.
The age at onset of breast stage 2 varied by race/ethnicity, BMI at baseline, and site. Median age at onset of breast stage 2 was 8.8, 9.3, 9.7, and 9.7 years for African American, Hispanic, white non-Hispanic, and Asian participants, respectively. Girls with greater BMI reached breast stage 2 at younger ages. Age-specific and standardized prevalence of breast maturation was contrasted to observations in 2 large cross-sectional studies conducted 10 to 20 years earlier (Pediatric Research in Office Settings and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III) and found to have occurred earlier among white, non-Hispanic, but not African American girls.
We observed the onset of thelarche at younger ages than previously documented, with important differences associated with race/ethnicity and BMI, confirming and extending patterns seen previously. These findings are consistent with temporal changes in BMI.
Younger age at menarche (AAM) may put girls at risk for earlier first sexual intercourse (FSI). Young age at FSI has far-reaching negative outcomes. We describe the longitudinal relationship between AAM and FSI in a large prospective birth cohort.
AAM was collected from 554 girls from the Western Australia (Raine) Pregnancy Cohort Study, prospectively from age 10 or retrospectively at age 14. Age at FSI was collected at ages 17 and 20. Cox regression models describe likelihood of FSI by age and years since menarche for younger (<12 years) and older (≥14 years) AAM relative to average AAM (12–13 years).
Girls with younger AAM and average AAM were equally likely to have FSI by age 16 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60–1.35]). FSI by age 16 was less likely among girls with older AAM than those with average AAM (aHR: 0.35 [95% CI: 0.17–0.72]). Girls with younger AAM had a longer median interval between menarche and FSI than girls with average AAM (5.0 years [interquartile range: 4.4–8.5 years] vs 3.7 years [interquartile range: 2.4–5.3 years]). Those with younger AAM were less likely to report FSI within 4 years of menarche than those with average AAM (0–2 years aHR: 0.04 [95% CI: 0.01–0.31]; 2–4 years aHR: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.23–0.55]). By age 20, 429 girls (77.4%) reported FSI.
Younger AAM was not a risk factor for younger age at FSI in this cohort.
To characterize provider-parent vaccine communication and determine the influence of specific provider communication practices on parent resistance to vaccine recommendations.
We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in which we videotaped provider-parent vaccine discussions during health supervision visits. Parents of children aged 1 to 19 months old were screened by using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey. We oversampled vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs), defined as a score ≥50. We developed a coding scheme of 15 communication practices and applied it to all visits. We used multivariate logistic regression to explore the association between provider communication practices and parent resistance to vaccines, controlling for parental hesitancy status and demographic and visit characteristics.
We analyzed 111 vaccine discussions involving 16 providers from 9 practices; 50% included VHPs. Most providers (74%) initiated vaccine recommendations with presumptive (eg, "Well, we have to do some shots") rather than participatory (eg, "What do you want to do about shots?") formats. Among parents who voiced resistance to provider initiation (41%), significantly more were VHPs than non-VHPs. Parents had significantly higher odds of resisting vaccine recommendations if the provider used a participatory rather than a presumptive initiation format (adjusted odds ratio: 17.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–253.5). When parents resisted, 50% of providers pursued their original recommendations (eg, "He really needs these shots"), and 47% of initially resistant parents subsequently accepted recommendations when they did.
How providers initiate and pursue vaccine recommendations is associated with parental vaccine acceptance.
In October 2007, manufacturers voluntarily withdrew over-the-counter (OTC) infant cough and cold medications (CCMs) from the US market. A year later, manufacturers announced OTC CCM labeling would be revised to warn against OTC CCM use by children aged <4 years. We determined whether emergency department (ED) visits for CCM adverse drug events (ADEs) declined after these interventions.
We used National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance data from 2004 to 2011 to estimate the number of ED visits for CCM ADEs before and after each intervention.
Among children aged <2 years, ED visits for CCM ADEs decreased from 4.1% of all ADE ED visits before the market withdrawal to 2.4% of all ADE visits afterward (difference in proportion: –1.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: –2.7% to –0.6%). Among children aged 2 to 3 years, ED visits for CCM ADEs decreased from 9.5% of all ADE ED visits before the labeling revision announcement to 6.5% of all ADE visits afterward (difference in proportion: –3.0%, 95% CI: –5.4% to –0.6%). Unsupervised ingestions accounted for 64.3% (95% CI: 51.1% to 77.5%) of CCM ADE ED visits involving children aged <2 years after the withdrawal and 88.8% (95% CI: 83.8% to 93.8%) of visits involving children aged 2 to 3 years after the labeling revision announcement.
After a voluntary market withdrawal and labeling revision, ED visits for CCM ADEs declined among children aged <2 years and 2 to 3 years relative to ADE ED visits for all drugs. Interventions addressing unsupervised ingestions are needed to reduce CCM ADEs.