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The best in science news, commentary, and research
The Western Hemisphere is experiencing a drought of crisis proportions. In Central America, crops are failing, millions are in danger of starvation, and if the drought doesn't break soon, even vessels transiting the Panama Canal will need to lighten their loads, which will increase prices for goods transported globally. In the western United States, the drought-stricken region spans a vast area responsible for much of the nation's fruits, vegetables, and beef. As the drought's grip has tightened, water users have turned to tapping groundwater aquifers to make up the deficit for people, crops, livestock, and industry. But even when the rain does return, regreening the landscape and filling again the streams, lakes, and reservoirs, those aquifers will remain severely depleted. It is this underground drought we can't see that is enduring, worrisome, and in need of attention. Author: Marcia McNutt

A roundup of weekly science policy and related news.

The biggest result in cosmology in a decade fades into dust. Author: Adrian Cho

U.S. agency ponders future of innovative reintroduction as animal deaths and controversy mount. Author: Erik Stokstad

Identifying infections more quickly and easily could help slow the epidemic. Author: Gretchen Vogel

BLUEPRINT project studies epigenetics of various blood cells. Author: Elizabeth Pennisi

Ecologist Marten Scheffer became a leader in the science of tipping points by studying lakes. Now he's making waves in many other fields. Author: Gabriel Popkin

Despite years of delay, Fermilab's massive new experiment has a chance to take the next big step in neutrino physics. Author: Adrian Cho

Changes in the perception and goals of nature conservation require a solid scientific basis Author: Georgina M. Mace

Partial deficiency in the protein CTLA4 underlies severe autoimmune disease with incomplete penetrance [Also see Report by Kuehn et al.] Authors: Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Jean-Laurent Casanova

Human and veterinary health systems must be better integrated if rabies is to be controlled Authors: Felix Lankester, Katie Hampson, Tiziana Lembo, Guy Palmer, Louise Taylor, Sarah Cleaveland

Water plays a key role in gold-catalyzed CO oxidation [Also see Report by Saavedra et al.] Authors: Gregory M. Mullen, C. Buddie Mullins

Tissue patterning is specified relative to growth through differences between cell proliferation and the differentiation rates [Also see Research Article by Kicheva et al.] Author: Olivier Pourquie

Earth-abundant materials show promise for solar hydrogen production [Also see Report by Luo et al.] Author: Thomas Hamann

Carbon monoxide reveals new possibilities for substrate binding in nitrogenase [Also see Report by Spatzal et al.] Author: Martin Högbom

Author: Warwick Anderson

A listing of books received at Science during the week ending 19 September 2014.

Authors: Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, André Victor Lucci Freitas

Author: Jean Mercer

Authors: André Krumel Portella, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira

A monthly roundup of recent news and projects of Science's publisher, the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

A complex network makes simple pores | Crustal rebound from water drawdown | Mysterious dinosaur a swimmer? | Easier oxidation over gold with added water | Beware of T cells that don't know how to stop | Closing the loop on neuroprosthetic control | Hot electron plasma moves in from Io | Preventing vascular scarring after surgery | Differentiation rates regulate pool sizes | Carbon chains branch out on space dust | Nature or nurture for solar system ices? | A BLUEPRINT of immune cell development | Making nitrogen available for biosynthesis | The power of a pair of perovskites | Breaking down a Criegee intermediate | An early assemblage of obsidian artifacts | How plant species diversity is shaped | Animal behavior follows rewards | Views of nature, views of conservation

Timing counts for whisker development | Animal behavior follows dopamine rewards | Bring out your dead — hungry receptors await | An Arabian wintertime bloom on the rise | Hate and violence spread through the air | Social complexity creates brainy parrots | Teaching tolerance stops the bleeding | Constructing a maze full of phosphines

Embryonic chick and mouse reveal how neural tube differentiation takes on new strategies as development progresses. [Also see Perspective by Pourquie] Authors: Anna Kicheva, Tobias Bollenbach, Ana Ribeiro, Helena Pérez Valle, Robin Lovell-Badge, Vasso Episkopou, James Briscoe

Genome-wide approaches analyze human monocyte differentiation in vitro into functional macrophages. Authors: Sadia Saeed, Jessica Quintin, Hindrik H. D. Kerstens, Nagesha A. Rao, Ali Aghajanirefah, Filomena Matarese, Shih-Chin Cheng, Jacqueline Ratter, Kim Berentsen, Martijn A. van der Ent, Nilofar Sharifi, Eva M. Janssen-Megens, Menno Ter Huurne, Amit Mandoli, Tom van Schaik, Aylwin Ng, Frances Burden, Kate Downes, Mattia Frontini, Vinod Kumar, Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Willem H. Ouwehand, Jos W. M. van der Meer, Leo A. B. Joosten, Cisca Wijmenga, Joost H. A. Martens, Ramnik J. Xavier, Colin Logie, Mihai G. Netea, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg

Epigenetic profiling identifies the cellular metabolic substrate of innate immune memory. Authors: Shih-Chin Cheng, Jessica Quintin, Robert A. Cramer, Kelly M. Shepardson, Sadia Saeed, Vinod Kumar, Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Joost H. A. Martens, Nagesha Appukudige Rao, Ali Aghajanirefah, Ganesh R. Manjeri, Yang Li, Daniela C. Ifrim, Rob J. W. Arts, Brian M. J. W. van der Meer, Peter M. T. Deen, Colin Logie, Luke A. O’Neill, Peter Willems, Frank L. van de Veerdonk, Jos W. M. van der Meer, Aylwin Ng, Leo A. B. Joosten, Cisca Wijmenga, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Ramnik J. Xavier, Mihai G. Netea

RNA sequencing identifies how different cell fate decisions are made during blood cell differentiation. Authors: Lu Chen, Myrto Kostadima, Joost H. A. Martens, Giovanni Canu, Sara P. Garcia, Ernest Turro, Kate Downes, Iain C. Macaulay, Ewa Bielczyk-Maczynska, Sophia Coe, Samantha Farrow, Pawan Poudel, Frances Burden, Sjoert B. G. Jansen, William J. Astle, Antony Attwood, Tadbir Bariana, Bernard de Bono, Alessandra Breschi, John C. Chambers, , Fizzah A. Choudry, Laura Clarke, Paul Coupland, Martijn van der Ent, Wendy N. Erber, Joop H. Jansen, Rémi Favier, Matthew E. Fenech, Nicola Foad, Kathleen Freson, Chris van Geet, Keith Gomez, Roderic Guigo, Daniel Hampshire, Anne M. Kelly, Hindrik H. D. Kerstens, Jaspal S. Kooner, Michael Laffan, Claire Lentaigne, Charlotte Labalette, Tiphaine Martin, Stuart Meacham, Andrew Mumford, Sylvia Nürnberg, Emilio Palumbo, Bert A. van der Reijden, David Richardson, Stephen J. Sammut, Greg Slodkowicz, Asif U. Tamuri, Louella Vasquez, Katrin Voss, Stephen Watt, Sarah Westbury, Paul Flicek, Remco Loos, Nick Goldman, Paul Bertone, Randy J. Read, Sylvia Richardson, Ana Cvejic, Nicole Soranzo, Willem H. Ouwehand, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Mattia Frontini, Augusto Rendon

Near-Earth satellite measurements in the extreme ultraviolet examine a charged torus produced by volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon Io. Authors: K. Yoshioka, G. Murakami, A. Yamazaki, F. Tsuchiya, T. Kimura, M. Kagitani, T. Sakanoi, K. Uemizu, Y. Kasaba, I. Yoshikawa, M. Fujimoto

Millimeter-wave emission is detected from branched carbon-chain molecules that may form on interstellar dust-grain surfaces. Authors: Arnaud Belloche, Robin T. Garrod, Holger S. P. Müller, Karl M. Menten

GPS measurements of crustal rebound in the western U.S. quantify drought-induced regional water depletion. Authors: Adrian Antal Borsa, Duncan Carr Agnew, Daniel R. Cayan

A model tracing the path of deuterium in the solar system shows that its abundance hails from the parent interstellar medium. Authors: L. Ilsedore Cleeves, Edwin A. Bergin, Conel M. O’D. Alexander, Fujun Du, Dawn Graninger, Karin I. Öberg, Tim J. Harries

A pair of perovskite solar cells can power efficient hydrogen generation from water. [Also see Perspective by Hamann] Authors: Jingshan Luo, Jeong-Hyeok Im, Matthew T. Mayer, Marcel Schreier, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Nam-Gyu Park, S. David Tilley, Hong Jin Fan, Michael Grätzel

Spectroscopy in the laboratory elucidates key steps in ozone’s atmospheric reaction with unsaturated hydrocarbons. Authors: Fang Liu, Joseph M. Beames, Andrew S. Petit, Anne B. McCoy, Marsha I. Lester

Adsorbed water enables proton-transfer steps that lower the activation barrier for carbon monoxide oxidation. [Also see Perspective by Mullen and Mullins] Authors: Johnny Saavedra, Hieu A. Doan, Christopher J. Pursell, Lars C. Grabow, Bert D. Chandler

A >2-million-year soil chronosequence reveals how the environment can regulate species plant diversity. Authors: Etienne Laliberté, Graham Zemunik, Benjamin L. Turner

The molecular pathways that regulate an essential adult stem cell lineage in plant stomata are dissected. Authors: On Sun Lau, Kelli A. Davies, Jessica Chang, Jessika Adrian, Matthew H. Rowe, Catherine E. Ballenger, Dominique C. Bergmann

An assemblage of obsidian artifacts suggests independent origins of stone knapping in different hominin populations. Authors: D. S. Adler, K. N. Wilkinson, S. Blockley, D. F. Mark, R. Pinhasi, B. A. Schmidt-Magee, S. Nahapetyan, C. Mallol, F. Berna, P. J. Glauberman, Y. Raczynski-Henk, N. Wales, E. Frahm, O. Jöris, A. MacLeod, V. C. Smith, V. L. Cullen, B. Gasparian

New fossils of the sail-finned predatory dinosaur Spinosaurus reveal that it lived in and near water. Authors: Nizar Ibrahim, Paul C. Sereno, Cristiano Dal Sasso, Simone Maganuco, Matteo Fabbri, David M. Martill, Samir Zouhri, Nathan Myhrvold, Dawid A. Iurino

Dopamine promotes spine structural plasticity during a narrow time window in mouse neuron distal dendrites. Authors: Sho Yagishita, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi, Graham C.R. Ellis-Davies, Hidetoshi Urakubo, Shin Ishii, Haruo Kasai

The structure of an inhibitor bound to nitrogenase reveals rearrangements in the active-site metallocluster. [Also see Perspective by Hognom] Authors: Thomas Spatzal, Kathryn A. Perez, Oliver Einsle, James B. Howard, Douglas C. Rees

A mutation in a single copy of the CTLA4 gene in people is associated with immune dysfunction. [Also see Perspective by Rieux-Laucat and Casanova] Authors: Hye Sun Kuehn, Weiming Ouyang, Bernice Lo, Elissa K. Deenick, Julie E. Niemela, Danielle T. Avery, Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Dat Q. Tran, Jennifer Stoddard, Yu Zhang, David M. Frucht, Bogdan Dumitriu, Phillip Scheinberg, Les R. Folio, Cathleen A. Frein, Susan Price, Christopher Koh, Theo Heller, Christine M. Seroogy, Anna Huttenlocher, V. Koneti Rao, Helen C. Su, David Kleiner, Luigi D. Notarangelo, Yajesh Rampertaap, Kenneth N. Olivier, Joshua McElwee, Jason Hughes, Stefania Pittaluga, Joao B. Oliveira, Eric Meffre, Thomas A. Fleisher, Steven M. Holland, Michael J. Lenardo, Stuart G. Tangye, Gulbu Uzel

This issue of Science includes the program of the 2015 AAAS Annual Meeting. 2015 “Session I” Meetings will be held between January and May in California and Texas in the United States, and internationally in Lucca (Barga), Italy and Hong Kong, China. A PDF of the program as it appears in this issue is available here; for more information on the meeting (including registration forms and information on accommodations), please visit www.grc.org.

A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.

On this week's show: Tracing the roots of an ancient stone-age technology and a daily news round up with David Grimm.

Laurence J. N. Cooper

The CRISPR-Cas9 system is revolutionizing genomic engineering and equipping scientists with the ability to precisely modify the DNA of essentially any organism. Just how powerful is this technique? The ability for precision genome engineering comes with the potential to enhance food production, medicinal discoveries, and energy solutions, to name a few. In this booklet, we invite you to explore a selection of Science articles that highlight how this technique has grown into one of the most powerful genomic engineering tools to date. CRISPR-Cas9 (PDF, 14.6 MB)CRISPR-Cas9 (PDF, low resolution version, 3.16 MB)Read the e-bookletThis booklet brought to you by the Science/AAAS Custom Publishing Office.DOI: 10.1126/science.opms.sb0002

Author: Rodica Stan