About a year ago, Bruce Alberts and I announced the launch of Science in the Classroom (scienceintheclassroom.org), an online resource of annotated research papers published in Science, with associated teaching materials designed to help pre-college and college students understand how science moves forward as a structured way of revealing the laws of nature. Since its fledgling beginning last year, the project has expanded its subject diversity and continues to add articles at the rate of two per month. These articles have reached about 3000 users per month. But now it is time to take this project to the next level—and you can help, by annotating new papers and designing creative activities to accompany them.
Author: Marcia McNutt
Mammalian skin research represents the convergence of three complementary disciplines: cell biology, mouse genetics, and dermatology. The skin provides a paradigm for current research in cell adhesion, inflammation, and tissue stem cells. Here, I discuss recent insights into the cell biology of skin. Single-cell analysis has revealed that human epidermal stem cells are heterogeneous and differentiate in response to multiple extrinsic signals. Live-cell imaging, optogenetics, and cell ablation experiments show skin cells to be remarkably dynamic. High-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded unprecedented insights into the circuitry that controls epidermal stem cell fate. Last, integrative biological analysis of human skin disorders has revealed unexpected functions for elements of the skin that were previously considered purely structural.
Author: Fiona M. Watt
The ability of the skin to repair itself after injury is vital to human survival and is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders. The process of cutaneous wound healing is complex, requiring a coordinated response by immune cells, hematopoietic cells, and resident cells of the skin. We review the classic paradigms of wound healing and evaluate how recent discoveries have enriched our understanding of this process. We evaluate current and experimental approaches to treating cutaneous wounds, with an emphasis on cell-based therapies and skin transplantation.
Authors: Bryan K. Sun, Zurab Siprashvili, Paul A. Khavari
Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is an aggressive disease that is rising in incidence. Although melanoma is a historically treatment-resistant malignancy, in recent years unprecedented breakthroughs in targeted therapies and immunotherapies have revolutionized the standard of care for patients with advanced disease. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in our understanding of melanoma risk factors, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis and how these insights have driven advances in melanoma treatment. In addition, we review benefits and limitations of current therapies and look ahead to continued progress in melanoma prevention and therapy. Remarkable achievements in the field have already produced a paradigm shift in melanoma treatment: Metastatic melanoma, once considered incurable, can now be treated with potentially curative rather than palliative intent.
Authors: Jennifer A. Lo, David E. Fisher
The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch.
Authors: Amanda Zimmerman, Ling Bai, David D. Ginty
Human skin, the body’s largest organ, functions as a physical barrier to bar the entry of foreign pathogens, while concomitantly providing a home to myriad commensals. Over a human’s life span, keratinized skin cells, immune cells, and microbes all interact to integrate the processes of maintaining skin’s physical and immune barrier under homeostatic healthy conditions and also under multiple stresses, such as wounding or infection. In this Review, we explore the intricate interactions of microbes and immune cells on the skin surface and within associated appendages to regulate this orchestrated maturation in the context of both host physiological changes and environmental challenges.
Authors: Yasmine Belkaid, Julia A. Segre
Tibetan gorge avoids a tectonic aneurysm | A cohesin ring around two DNA strands | Compensating optical loss for laser gain | Containing the nuclear elephant's foot | Recharging Ebola mitigation measures | Using a diabetes drug to treat tuberculosis | Transit marked by magnetosphere effects | Making the brain promote fat loss in mice | Hills and valleys of influenza infection | Variety of Ebola symptoms in mice | HIV drugs can dampen inflammation, too | Similar regulation of digit and genital development | Rewiring the gene regulatory landscape | How a fungus can live for centuries
Mycoplasma doubles the cost of an STD | Disorder enhances binding cooperativity | Climbing up the walls like a gecko | Symmetric photons make good communicators | Dark matter may yield x-ray glow nearby | Redox regulation of Lon protease | Follow scientists, not the lab notebook | A (w)holistic approach to track T cells
The presence of a DNA “exit gate” in a tripartite ring of proteins confirms that the ring holds together sister chromatid DNA strands.
Authors: Thomas G. Gligoris, Johanna C. Scheinost, Frank Bürmann, Naomi Petela, Kok-Lung Chan, Pelin Uluocak, Frédéric Beckouët, Stephan Gruber, Kim Nasmyth, Jan Löwe
The presence of a DNA “exit gate” in a tripartite ring of proteins confirms the ring holds together sister chromatid DNA strands.
Authors: Pim J. Huis in ’t Veld, Franz Herzog, Rene Ladurner, Iain F. Davidson, Sabina Piric, Emanuel Kreidl, Venugopal Bhaskara, Ruedi Aebersold, Jan-Michael Peters
Sediment cores from a buried canyon upstream of the Tsangpo Gorge support a rapid uplift event to explain gorge formation. [Also see Perspective by Whipple]
Authors: Ping Wang, Dirk Scherler, Jing Liu-Zeng, Jürgen Mey, Jean-Philippe Avouac, Yunda Zhang, Dingguo Shi
An exoplanet’s magnetic field is manifested as a particular absorption pattern in the transmitted spectrum of the host star.
Authors: Kristina G. Kislyakova, Mats Holmström, Helmut Lammer, Petra Odert, Maxim L. Khodachenko
Levitation of molten uranium dioxide allowed structural determination of the solid and melt at high temperature. [Also see Perspective by Navrotsky]
Authors: L. B. Skinner, C. J. Benmore, J. K. R. Weber, M. A. Williamson, A. Tamalonis, A. Hebden, T. Wiencek, O. L. G. Alderman, M. Guthrie, L. Leibowitz, J. B. Parise
Intercrossed mice infected with Ebola virus show a spectrum of pathology from prolonged coagulation to total resistance.
Authors: Angela L. Rasmussen, Atsushi Okumura, Martin T. Ferris, Richard Green, Friederike Feldmann, Sara M. Kelly, Dana P. Scott, David Safronetz, Elaine Haddock, Rachel LaCasse, Matthew J. Thomas, Pavel Sova, Victoria S. Carter, Jeffrey M. Weiss, Darla R. Miller, Ginger D. Shaw, Marcus J. Korth, Mark T. Heise, Ralph S. Baric, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Heinz Feldmann, Michael G. Katze
A combination of hygienic practices could feasibly check Ebola within 6 months.
Authors: Abhishek Pandey, Katherine E. Atkins, Jan Medlock, Natasha Wenzel, Jeffrey P. Townsend, James E. Childs, Tolbert G. Nyenswah, Martial L. Ndeffo-Mbah, Alison P. Galvani
Preemptive vaccine updates may substantially improve influenza vaccine efficacy in previously exposed individuals. [Also see Perspective by Lessler]
Authors: J. M. Fonville, S. H. Wilks, S. L. James, A. Fox, M. Ventresca, M. Aban, L. Xue, T. C. Jones, Le N. M. H., Pham Q. T., Tran N. D., Y. Wong, A. Mosterin, L. C. Katzelnick, D. Labonte, Le T. T., G. van der Net, E. Skepner, C. A. Russell, T. D. Kaplan, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, N. Masurel, J. C. de Jong, A. Palache, W. E. P. Beyer, Le Q. M., Nguyen T. H., H. F. L. Wertheim, A. C. Hurt, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, I. G. Barr, R. A. M. Fouchier, P. W. Horby, D. J. Smith
Anti-HIV nucleoside analogs treat retinal degeneration and graft-versus-host disease in mice.
Authors: Benjamin J. Fowler, Bradley D. Gelfand, Younghee Kim, Nagaraj Kerur, Valeria Tarallo, Yoshio Hirano, Shoba Amarnath, Daniel H. Fowler, Marta Radwan, Mark T. Young, Keir Pittman, Paul Kubes, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, David R. Hinton, Ana Bastos-Carvalho, Shengjian Li, Tetsuhiro Yasuma, Takeshi Mizutani, Reo Yasuma, Charles Wright, Jayakrishna Ambati
Mouse-to-human genomic comparisons illuminate conserved transcriptional programs despite regulatory rewiring.
Authors: Jeff Vierstra, Eric Rynes, Richard Sandstrom, Miaohua Zhang, Theresa Canfield, R. Scott Hansen, Sandra Stehling-Sun, Peter J. Sabo, Rachel Byron, Richard Humbert, Robert E. Thurman, Audra K. Johnson, Shinny Vong, Kristen Lee, Daniel Bates, Fidencio Neri, Morgan Diegel, Erika Giste, Eric Haugen, Douglas Dunn, Matthew S. Wilken, Steven Josefowicz, Robert Samstein, Kai-Hsin Chang, Evan E. Eichler, Marella De Bruijn, Thomas A. Reh, Arthur Skoultchi, Alexander Rudensky, Stuart H. Orkin, Thalia Papayannopoulou, Piper M. Treuting, Licia Selleri, Rajinder Kaul, Mark Groudine, M. A. Bender, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos