When we think of nature in 2014, chances are that protected areas come to mind: Amazonian rainforests teeming with wildlife, the sweeping plains of the Serengeti, or an Alpine lake surrounded by glaciers. But the world's protected areas are at a crossroads, and next month, when the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) convenes its once-in-a-decade World Parks Congress in Sydney, Australia, nations will discuss how to address the challenges in protecting ecosystems across the world for the benefit of humanity.
Author: Julia Marton-Lefèvre
Ruths and Ruths (Reports, 21 March 2014, p. 1373) find that existing synthetic random network models fail to generate control profiles that match those found in real network models. Here, we show that a straightforward extension to the Barabási-Albert model allows the control profile to be “tuned” across the control profile space, permitting more meaningful control profile analyses of real networks.
Authors: Colin Campbell, Katriona Shea, Réka Albert
Campbell, Shea, and Albert propose an adaptation of the Barabási-Albert model of network formation that permits a level of tuning of the control profiles of these networks. We point out some limitations and generalizations of this method as well as highlight opportunities for future work to refine formation mechanisms to provide control profile tuning in synthetic networks.
Authors: Justin Ruths, Derek Ruths
Human cognitive aging differs between and is malleable within individuals. In the absence of a strong genetic program, it is open to a host of hazards, such as vascular conditions, metabolic syndrome, and chronic stress, but also open to protective and enhancing factors, such as experience-dependent cognitive plasticity. Longitudinal studies suggest that leading an intellectually challenging, physically active, and socially engaged life may mitigate losses and consolidate gains. Interventions help to identify contexts and mechanisms of successful cognitive aging and give science and society a hint about what would be possible if conditions were different.
Author: Ulman Lindenberger
Cognitive neuroscience has revealed aging of the human brain to be rich in reorganization and change. Neuroimaging results have recast our framework around cognitive aging from one of decline to one emphasizing plasticity. Current methods use neurostimulation approaches to manipulate brain function, providing a direct test of the ways that the brain differently contributes to task performance for younger and older adults. Emerging research into emotional, social, and motivational domains provides some evidence for preservation with age, suggesting potential avenues of plasticity, alongside additional evidence for reorganization. Thus, we begin to see that aging of the brain, amidst interrelated behavioral and biological changes, is as complex and idiosyncratic as the brain itself, qualitatively changing over the life span.
Author: Angela Gutchess
Language is a crucial and complex lifelong faculty, underpinned by dynamic interactions within and between specialized brain networks. Whereas normal aging impairs specific aspects of language production, most core language processes are robust to brain aging. We review recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence showing that language systems remain largely stable across the life span and that both younger and older adults depend on dynamic neural responses to linguistic demands. Although some aspects of network dynamics change with age, there is no consistent evidence that core language processes are underpinned by different neural networks in younger and older adults.
Authors: Meredith A. Shafto, Lorraine K. Tyler
The challenge of global population aging has been brought into sharper focus by the financial crisis of 2008. In particular, growing national debt has drawn government attention to two apparently conflicting priorities: the need to sustain public spending on pensions and health care versus the need to reduce budget deficits. A number of countries are consequently reconsidering their pension and health care provisions, which account for up to 40% of all government spending in advanced economies. Yet population aging is a global phenomenon that will continue to affect all regions of the world. By 2050 there will be the same number of old as young in the world, with 2 billion people aged 60 or over and another 2 billion under age 15, each group accounting for 21% of the world’s population.
Author: Sarah Harper
Imaging before an unimaginable eruption | Low oxygen limited the rise of animals | Scattering electrons off nuclear targets | History recorded in asteroid's water | A new, yet old, threat to amphibians | Hunting for the effects of huntingtin | Y male plants affect female development | How to increase charitable donations | Nanoparticles for molecular cancer imaging | Supported nanoparticles make the reaction faster | A possible sighting of Majorana states | How to achieve win-win outcomes for biodiversity | You've got to pick a Golgi tether or two | Repressing the right (and not the wrong) mRNA | Making dendritic arbors during development | Epigenetics: It's all about the individual | Pulling me apart only makes me stronger | Overcoming staph infections is hardwired
A dendritic cell target for immunotherapy | Monitoring the mineral-water interface | Sea-ice loss behind Eurasia's chills | Making a measure of quantum coherence | A drug fights off ravages of aging in mice | A surprise window to the early universe | Cancer's deadly mutational tug of war | Dissecting an RNA that dissects genomes
A protein complex involved in cell adhesion forms a two-state catch bond with the cytoskeleton under mechanical load.
Authors: Craig D. Buckley, Jiongyi Tan, Karen L. Anderson, Dorit Hanein, Niels Volkmann, William I. Weis, W. James Nelson, Alexander R. Dunn
Scanning tunneling microscopy is used to observe signatures of Majorana states at the ends of iron atom chains. [Also see Perspective by Lee]
Authors: Stevan Nadj-Perge, Ilya K. Drozdov, Jian Li, Hua Chen, Sangjun Jeon, Jungpil Seo, Allan H. MacDonald, B. Andrei Bernevig, Ali Yazdani
Structures of microRNA bound to the Ago2 repressor protein and messenger RNA elucidate target specificity. [Also see Perspective by Patel]
Authors: Nicole T. Schirle, Jessica Sheu-Gruttadauria, Ian J. MacRae
Electron scattering off various nuclear targets is used to deduce the momentum distributions of nucleons.
Authors: O. Hen, M. Sargsian, L. B. Weinstein, E. Piasetzky, H. Hakobyan, D. W. Higinbotham, M. Braverman, W. K. Brooks, S. Gilad, K. P. Adhikari, J. Arrington, G. Asryan, H. Avakian, J. Ball, N. A. Baltzell, M. Battaglieri, A. Beck, S. May-Tal Beck, I. Bedlinskiy, W. Bertozzi, A. Biselli, V. D. Burkert, T. Cao, D. S. Carman, A. Celentano, S. Chandavar, L. Colaneri, P. L. Cole, V. Crede, A. D’Angelo, R. De Vita, A. Deur, C. Djalali, D. Doughty, M. Dugger, R. Dupre, H. Egiyan, A. El Alaoui, L. El Fassi, L. Elouadrhiri, G. Fedotov, S. Fegan, T. Forest, B. Garillon, M. Garcon, N. Gevorgyan, Y. Ghandilyan, G. P. Gilfoyle, F. X. Girod, J. T. Goetz, R. W. Gothe, K. A. Griffioen, M. Guidal, L. Guo, K. Hafidi, C. Hanretty, M. Hattawy, K. Hicks, M. Holtrop, C. E. Hyde, Y. Ilieva, D. G. Ireland, B. I. Ishkanov, E. L. Isupov, H. Jiang, H. S. Jo, K. Joo, D. Keller, M. Khandaker, A. Kim, W. Kim, F. J. Klein, S. Koirala, I. Korover, S. E. Kuhn, V. Kubarovsky, P. Lenisa, W. I. Levine, K. Livingston, M. Lowry, H. Y. Lu, I. J. D. MacGregor, N. Markov, M. Mayer, B. McKinnon, T. Mineeva, V. Mokeev, A. Movsisyan, C. Munoz Camacho, B. Mustapha, P. Nadel-Turonski, S. Niccolai, G. Niculescu, I. Niculescu, M. Osipenko, L. L. Pappalardo, R. Paremuzyan, K. Park, E. Pasyuk, W. Phelps, S. Pisano, O. Pogorelko, J. W. Price, S. Procureur, Y. Prok, D. Protopopescu, A. J. R. Puckett, D. Rimal, M. Ripani, B. G. Ritchie, A. Rizzo, G. Rosner, P. Roy, P. Rossi, F. Sabatié, D. Schott, R. A. Schumacher, Y. G. Sharabian, G. D. Smith, R. Shneor, D. Sokhan, S. S. Stepanyan, S. Stepanyan, P. Stoler, S. Strauch, V. Sytnik, M. Taiuti, S. Tkachenko, M. Ungaro, A. V. Vlassov, E. Voutier, N. K. Walford, X. Wei, M. H. Wood, S. A. Wood, N. Zachariou, L. Zana, Z. W. Zhao, X. Zheng, I. Zonta,
Ambient noise tomography images the magma distribution of a large volcanic reservoir under the Toba caldera.
Authors: K. Jaxybulatov, N. M. Shapiro, I. Koulakov, A. Mordret, M. Landès, C. Sens-Schönfelder
A cerium oxide support rendered palladium-rhodium nanoparticles more reactive and harder to reduce under reaction conditions.
Authors: Núria J. Divins, Inma Angurell, Carlos Escudero, Virginia Pérez-Dieste, Jordi Llorca
Similar volatile isotopes of Earth and ancient meteorites point to an early accumulation of water for terrestrial bodies.
Authors: Adam R. Sarafian, Sune G. Nielsen, Horst R. Marschall, Francis M. McCubbin, Brian D. Monteleone
A new fungal disease from Asia threatens salamanders in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.
Authors: A. Martel, M. Blooi, C. Adriaensen, P. Van Rooij, W. Beukema, M. C. Fisher, R. A. Farrer, B. R. Schmidt, U. Tobler, K. Goka, K. R. Lips, C. Muletz, K. R. Zamudio, J. Bosch, S. Lötters, E. Wombwell, T. W. J. Garner, A. A. Cunningham, A. Spitzen-van der Sluijs, S. Salvidio, R. Ducatelle, K. Nishikawa, T. T. Nguyen, J. E. Kolby, I. Van Bocxlaer, F. Bossuyt, F. Pasmans
Oxygen levels in Earth’s early atmosphere were often less than 1% of modern levels.
Authors: Noah J. Planavsky, Christopher T. Reinhard, Xiangli Wang, Danielle Thomson, Peter McGoldrick, Robert H. Rainbird, Thomas Johnson, Woodward W. Fischer, Timothy W. Lyons
Chemical probes may help assign functions to individual members of an important family of epigenetic regulator proteins.
Authors: Matthias G. J. Baud, Enrique Lin-Shiao, Teresa Cardote, Cynthia Tallant, Annica Pschibul, Kwok-Ho Chan, Michael Zengerle, Jordi R. Garcia, Terence T.-L. Kwan, Fleur M. Ferguson, Alessio Ciulli
Cystine-knot proteins play an evolutionarily conserved dual function in nerve development and antistaphylococcal immunity.
Authors: Lucy Hepburn, Tomasz K. Prajsnar, Catherine Klapholz, Pablo Moreno, Catherine A. Loynes, Nikolay V. Ogryzko, Karen Brown, Mark Schiebler, Krisztina Hegyi, Robin Antrobus, Katherine L. Hammond, John Connolly, Bernardo Ochoa, Clare Bryant, Michael Otto, Bas Surewaard, Suranjith L. Seneviratne, Dorothy M. Grogono, Julien Cachat, Tor Ny, Arthur Kaser, M. Estée Török, Sharon J. Peacock, Matthew Holden, Tom Blundell, Lihui Wang, Petros Ligoxygakis, Liliana Minichiello, C. Geoff Woods, Simon J. Foster, Stephen A. Renshaw, R. Andres Floto