Mutations can alter protein conformations in the same way that allosteric small molecules do.
Authors: Tina Perica, Yasushi Kondo, Sandhya P. Tiwari, Stephen H. McLaughlin, Katherine R. Kemplen, Xiuwei Zhang, Annette Steward, Nathalie Reuter, Jane Clarke, Sarah A. Teichmann
Long before I dreamed of becoming a scientist, I wondered why Earth was teeming with life, while Mars was a barren, rocky outpost and Venus was shrouded in a dense atmosphere. Somewhere, I read that comets were the reason. Strike a rocky planet with one volatile- and organic-rich comet and an Earth-like environment results. Two comets produce a Venus. No comets: Mars. Of course, this theory was far too simple to explain the differences in the evolution of the inner planets, but no one had ever explored comets up close to know how they might alter a planet's composition and history—until now. Last month, after many years of planning and a decade in transit, the European Space Agency's spacecraft Rosetta reached Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, surveyed landing sites, and deployed its probe, Philae, to execute the first-ever soft landing on a comet's surface (see the News story, p. 1442).
Author: Marcia McNutt
Rosetta's short-lived lander grabbed the headlines, but the ongoing orbital mission is the real news for science. And this year, Science decided to give its readers a say in picking their own top breakthroughs of 2014.
Author: Eric Hand
Science is a moving target. In addition to looking back on achievements of the previous year, the Breakthrough staff also hazards a few informed guesses about developments likely to make news in months to come.
Slow international response and missed opportunities to contain the outbreak make this year's Ebola epidemic Science's breakdown of the year. Also, Breakthrough staff chose a few of this year's notable flaps, stumbles, and reverses as runners-up.
Zhang et al. (Reports, 4 April 2014, p. 84) interpret TEX86 and U37K' paleotemperature data as providing a fundamentally new view of tropical Pacific climate during the warm Pliocene period. We argue that, within error, their Pliocene data actually support previously published data indicating average western warm-pool temperature similar to today and a reduced zonal gradient, referred to as a permanent El Niño–like state.
Authors: Ana Christina Ravelo, Kira Trillium Lawrence, Alexey Fedorov, Heather Louise Ford
Contrary to our conclusions, Ravelo et al. argue that our TEX86-based sea surface temperature (SST) records do not conflict with the supposition of “permanent El Niño–like” conditions during the early Pliocene. We show that the way Ravelo et al. treat the existing temperature data perpetuates an inaccurate impression of cooler Pacific warm-pool SSTs and low equatorial temperature gradients in the past.
Authors: Yi Ge Zhang, Mark Pagani, Zhonghui Liu
Success for Europe's large carnivores? | Using ozone below may conserve it above | Drug resistance, up close and personal | A brief hiccup in deep ocean circulation | For the immune system, silence is golden | How trans-polar arcs transpire above | Building transmembrane zinc transporters | Look, pathologists! No lens! | Controlling the state of dynamic proteins | Modeling brain cancer from stem to stern | Endogenous retroviruses trigger B cells | Big impact from a well-placed shake | Dispersing catalytic gold as widely as possible | Nanoparticle growth starts at the edges | Stark influence on reaction rates | Promoters tune gene expression noise | Designing activity at an interface | Can regional climate change be predicted? | Menacing exosomes spread cancer | Stopping inflammation after infection
Document DNA shows agriculture's course | Meeting the demands of a complex network | Better cloning through expression | Neuronal function requires the real deal | Parasites are rising with the seas | Translating clicks into efficiency | The right combination of additives | The socioeconomics of good sanitation
Secondary chemotherapies can be developed by screening drug-resistant cells from individual cancer patients.
Authors: Adam S. Crystal, Alice T. Shaw, Lecia V. Sequist, Luc Friboulet, Matthew J. Niederst, Elizabeth L. Lockerman, Rosa L. Frias, Justin F. Gainor, Arnaud Amzallag, Patricia Greninger, Dana Lee, Anuj Kalsy, Maria Gomez-Caraballo, Leila Elamine, Emily Howe, Wooyoung Hur, Eugene Lifshits, Hayley E. Robinson, Ryohei Katayama, Anthony C. Faber, Mark M. Awad, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Mari Mino-Kenudson, A. John Iafrate, Cyril H. Benes, Jeffrey A. Engelman
Endogenous retroviruses materially contribute to humoral immunity in mice. [Also see Perspective by Grasset and Cerutti]
Authors: Ming Zeng, Zeping Hu, Xiaolei Shi, Xiaohong Li, Xiaoming Zhan, Xiao-Dong Li, Jianhui Wang, Jin Huk Choi, Kuan-wen Wang, Tiana Purrington, Miao Tang, Maggy Fina, Ralph J. DeBerardinis, Eva Marie Y. Moresco, Gabriel Pedersen, Gerald M. McInerney, Gunilla B. Karlsson Hedestam, Zhijian J. Chen, Bruce Beutler
Vibrational excitation can modulate electron transfer probabilities in real time.
Authors: Milan Delor, Paul A. Scattergood, Igor V. Sazanovich, Anthony W. Parker, Gregory M. Greetham, Anthony J. H. M. Meijer, Michael Towrie, Julia A. Weinstein
Alkali atoms help disperse catalytically active gold on high–surface-area alumina and silica supports.
Authors: Ming Yang, Sha Li, Yuan Wang, Jeffrey A. Herron, Ye Xu, Lawrence F. Allard, Sungsik Lee, Jun Huang, Manos Mavrikakis, Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos
Plasma observed in magnetotail lobes results from trapped magnetic flux and is also manifested as transpolar arc auroras.
Authors: R. C. Fear, S. E. Milan, R. Maggiolo, A. N. Fazakerley, I. Dandouras, S. B. Mende
Vibrational spectroscopy pinpoints a surprisingly large local electric field where an enzyme binds its substrate. [Also see Perspective by Hildebrandt]
Authors: Stephen D. Fried, Sayan Bagchi, Steven G. Boxer
Southern Hemisphere deep water formation stuttered during the last interglacial period.
Authors: Christopher T. Hayes, Alfredo Martínez-García, Adam P. Hasenfratz, Samuel L. Jaccard, David A. Hodell, Daniel M. Sigman, Gerald H. Haug, Robert F. Anderson
Many populations of brown bears, lynx, grey wolves, and wolverines persist successfully outside protected areas in Europe.
Authors: Guillaume Chapron, Petra Kaczensky, John D. C. Linnell, Manuela von Arx, Djuro Huber, Henrik Andrén, José Vicente López-Bao, Michal Adamec, Francisco Álvares, Ole Anders, Linas Balčiauskas, Vaidas Balys, Péter Bedő, Ferdinand Bego, Juan Carlos Blanco, Urs Breitenmoser, Henrik Brøseth, Luděk Bufka, Raimonda Bunikyte, Paolo Ciucci, Alexander Dutsov, Thomas Engleder, Christian Fuxjäger, Claudio Groff, Katja Holmala, Bledi Hoxha, Yorgos Iliopoulos, Ovidiu Ionescu, Jasna Jeremić, Klemen Jerina, Gesa Kluth, Felix Knauer, Ilpo Kojola, Ivan Kos, Miha Krofel, Jakub Kubala, Saša Kunovac, Josip Kusak, Miroslav Kutal, Olof Liberg, Aleksandra Majić, Peep Männil, Ralph Manz, Eric Marboutin, Francesca Marucco, Dime Melovski, Kujtim Mersini, Yorgos Mertzanis, Robert W. Mysłajek, Sabina Nowak, John Odden, Janis Ozolins, Guillermo Palomero, Milan Paunović, Jens Persson, Hubert Potočnik, Pierre-Yves Quenette, Georg Rauer, Ilka Reinhardt, Robin Rigg, Andreas Ryser, Valeria Salvatori, Tomaž Skrbinšek, Aleksandar Stojanov, Jon E. Swenson, László Szemethy, Aleksandër Trajçe, Elena Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, Martin Váňa, Rauno Veeroja, Petter Wabakken, Manfred Wölfl, Sybille Wölfl, Fridolin Zimmermann, Diana Zlatanova, Luigi Boitani
Computational design yields a transmembrane protein that selectively transports zinc cations. [Also see Perspective by Lupas]
Authors: Nathan H. Joh, Tuo Wang, Manasi P. Bhate, Rudresh Acharya, Yibing Wu, Michael Grabe, Mei Hong, Gevorg Grigoryan, William F. DeGrado
A stem cell model of a lethal brain tumor in children shows how a recurrent histone mutation leads to cancer. [Also see Perspective by Becher and Wechsler-Reya]
Authors: Kosuke Funato, Tamara Major, Peter W. Lewis, C. David Allis, Viviane Tabar