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Science

The best in science news, commentary, and research
Australians are constantly told that our economy is ‘“in transition.”’ We need to move up the global value chain, build knowledge-based industries, prepare for the Asian Century, and be the “food bowl of the world.” These are grand ambitions that we share with many other nations, in our region and beyond. The question for all of us is: How? Author: Ian Chubb

A roundup of weekly science policy and related news.

PETA study finds violations more often in approved labs. Author: David Grimm

Viral sequences demonstrate how the disease spread in Sierra Leone. Author: Gretchen Vogel

Ash sensors ready to deploy on ground, planes. Author: Carolyn Gramling

Residues on pottery suggest close ties between Mesoamerica and cultures to the north. Author: Michael Bawaya

“File drawer” study proposes registry for unpublished social science data. Author: Jeffrey Mervis

A massive explosion in a nearby galaxy both confirms and confounds astronomers' expectations. Author: Daniel Clery

Researchers are scouring the now-barren Arabian Peninsula to uncover its hidden role in ancient human migration. Author: Andrew Lawler

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a glass under pressure adds to our understanding of network structure [Also see Report by Edwards et al.] Author: Randall E. Youngman

Domestication of rabbits led to changes across the genome, particularly in regions related to brain development [Also see Report by Carneiro et al.] Author: Kirk E. Lohmueller

Radio-wave interferometry provides an accurate measurement of cosmic distances [Also see Report by Melis et al.] Author: Léo Girardi

Cells use a piston-driven mechanism, among others, to migrate [Also see Report by Petrie et al.] Authors: Douglas W. DeSimone, A. Rick Horwitz

Genetic data elucidate the population history of the North American Arctic [Also see Research Article by Raghavan et al.] Author: Robert W. Park

What does the “Mississippi baby” tell us about curing HIV-1 infection? Authors: Janet D. Siliciano, Robert F. Siliciano

Should funding focus on scientific research? Authors: Yutao Sun, Cong Cao

Author: J. Andrew DeWoody

A listing of books received at Science during the week ending 22 August 2014.

Authors: Isao Arita, Donald Francis

Author: David Gurwitz

Authors: Kenneth A. Oye, Kevin M. Esvelt

Brucker and Bordenstein (Reports, 9 August 2013, p. 667) claim that adaptive codivergence of gut bacteria with hosts contributes to hybrid lethality. Yet, they provide no evidence for coadaptation of bacteria and Nasonia hosts. Their data on hybrid viability suggest that bacteria contribute to inviability only because intrinsic hybrid dysfunction increases susceptibility to free-living bacteria. Hologenomic speciation remains testable speculation without experimental support. Authors: James Angus Chandler, Michael Turelli

Chandler and Turelli postulate that intrinsic hybrid dysfunction underscores hybrid lethality in Nasonia. Although it is a suitable conception for examining hybrid incompatibilities, their account of the evidence is factually inaccurate and leaves out the evolutionary process for why lethality became conditional on nuclear-microbe interactions. Hybrid incompatibilities in the context of phylosymbiosis are resolved by hologenomic principles and exemplify this emerging postmodern synthesis. Authors: Robert M. Brucker, Seth R. Bordenstein

A monthly roundup of recent news and projects of Science's publisher, the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Cost-effective conservation on private land | Signature microbes follow you from house to house | Distance score settled for Seven Sisters | Strong yet creeping megathrust faults | Rabbits softly swept to domestication | Cutting out a kinase for T cell survival | Push me, pull you, that's the way to move | An enzyme offers a new path to pain control | A cosmic dust storm that came and went | Making a superfluid lithium mixture | Catching changing boron coordination | Arctic genetics comes in from the cold | Activating a receptor to excite a neuron | Brain stimulation to improve human memory | Chromatin mutations disrupt development | T and B cells' intricate molecular dance | Oxidizing hydrogen in place of nitrite | El Niño shifted between the center and the East

Need proteasomes? Make some! | Incentives work on economists, too! | Eliminating the effects of the pesky bulk | Making mantle melt analogs more accurate | Cleaving RNA dials down inflammation | Moving from one novelty to the next | Seals infected early Americans with TB | Interior design with nanoparticles

Early Arctic humans differed from both present-day Inuit and Native Americans. [Also see Perspective by Park] Authors: Maanasa Raghavan, Michael DeGiorgio, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Pontus Skoglund, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen, Bjarne Grønnow, Martin Appelt, Hans Christian Gulløv, T. Max Friesen, William Fitzhugh, Helena Malmström, Simon Rasmussen, Jesper Olsen, Linea Melchior, Benjamin T. Fuller, Simon M. Fahrni, Thomas Stafford, Vaughan Grimes, M. A. Priscilla Renouf, Jerome Cybulski, Niels Lynnerup, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Kate Britton, Rick Knecht, Jette Arneborg, Mait Metspalu, Omar E. Cornejo, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Yong Wang, Morten Rasmussen, Vibha Raghavan, Thomas V. O. Hansen, Elza Khusnutdinova, Tracey Pierre, Kirill Dneprovsky, Claus Andreasen, Hans Lange, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Joan Coltrain, Victor A. Spitsyn, Anders Götherström, Ludovic Orlando, Toomas Kivisild, Richard Villems, Michael H. Crawford, Finn C. Nielsen, Jørgen Dissing, Jan Heinemeier, Morten Meldgaard, Carlos Bustamante, Dennis H. O’Rourke, Mattias Jakobsson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev

X-ray structures provide insight into how an ion channel involved in activation of neurons is gated. Authors: Lei Chen, Katharina L. Dürr, Eric Gouaux

Boron atoms move out of plane with pressure as they transition from threefold to fourfold coordination in borosilicate glass. [Also see Perspective by Youngman] Authors: Trenton Edwards, Takatsugu Endo, Jeffrey H. Walton, Sabyasachi Sen

A highly accurate and precise radio measurement overrules a contrary result from the Hipparcos satellite. [Also see Perspective by Girardi] Authors: Carl Melis, Mark J. Reid, Amy J. Mioduszewski, John R. Stauffer, Geoffrey C. Bower

Variations in the brightness of warm dust indicate recent destructive collisions among protoplanets. Authors: Huan Y. A. Meng, Kate Y. L. Su, George H. Rieke, David J. Stevenson, Peter Plavchan, Wiphu Rujopakarn, Carey M. Lisse, Saran Poshyachinda, Daniel E. Reichart

An ultracold gas mixture of two lithium isotopes, one bosonic and the other fermionic, manifests superfluidity. Authors: I. Ferrier-Barbut, M. Delehaye, S. Laurent, A. T. Grier, M. Pierce, B. S. Rem, F. Chevy, C. Salomon

Megathrusts subducting rugged sea floor have high fault strength but do not unleash great earthquakes. Authors: Xiang Gao, Kelin Wang

A small portion of Brazil’s agricultural subsidies would be enough to preserve private land in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Authors: Cristina Banks-Leite, Renata Pardini, Leandro R. Tambosi, William D. Pearse, Adriana A. Bueno, Roberta T. Bruscagin, Thais H. Condez, Marianna Dixo, Alexandre T. Igari, Alexandre C. Martensen, Jean Paul Metzger

El Niño–Southern Oscillation warming of the sea surface was strongly skewed toward the central Pacific in the Mid-Holocene. Authors: Matthieu Carré, Julian P. Sachs, Sara Purca, Andrew J. Schauer, Pascale Braconnot, Rommel Angeles Falcón, Michèle Julien, Danièle Lavallée

Microbes colonize not only our guts, but also our homes. Authors: Simon Lax, Daniel P. Smith, Jarrad Hampton-Marcell, Sarah M. Owens, Kim M. Handley, Nicole M. Scott, Sean M. Gibbons, Peter Larsen, Benjamin D. Shogan, Sophie Weiss, Jessica L. Metcalf, Luke K. Ursell, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Will Van Treuren, Nur A. Hasan, Molly K. Gibson, Rita Colwell, Gautam Dantas, Rob Knight, Jack A. Gilbert

Bacteria thought to rely on the oxidation of nitrite for energy can, in fact, do just fine by oxidizing hydrogen instead. Authors: Hanna Koch, Alexander Galushko, Mads Albertsen, Arno Schintlmeister, Christiane Gruber-Dorninger, Sebastian Lücker, Eric Pelletier, Denis Le Paslier, Eva Spieck, Andreas Richter, Per H. Nielsen, Michael Wagner, Holger Daims

Noninvasive stimulation of the brain can improve memories for episodes by boosting the connectivity between cortical regions. Authors: Jane X. Wang, Lynn M. Rogers, Evan Z. Gross, Anthony J. Ryals, Mehmet E. Dokucu, Kelly L. Brandstatt, Molly S. Hermiller, Joel L. Voss

Live-cell imaging in mice reveals the molecular details of B cell selection in germinal centers. Authors: Ziv Shulman, Alexander D. Gitlin, Jason S. Weinstein, Begoña Lainez, Enric Esplugues, Richard A. Flavell, Joseph E. Craft, Michel C. Nussenzweig

Human fibroblast migration in a physiological extracellular matrix relies on a polarized intracellular pressure gradient. [Also see Perspective by DeSimone and Horwitz] Authors: Ryan J. Petrie, Hyun Koo, Kenneth M. Yamada

Mutations in the DNA packaging material disrupt fruit fly development and reveal epigenetic regulatory pathways. Authors: Hans-Martin Herz, Marc Morgan, Xin Gao, Jessica Jackson, Ryan Rickels, Selene K. Swanson, Laurence Florens, Michael P. Washburn, Joel C. Eissenberg, Ali Shilatifard

X-ray structures provide insight into how an ion channel involved in activation of neurons is gated. Authors: Maria V. Yelshanskaya, Minfen Li, Alexander I. Sobolevsky

The domestication of rabbits primarily shifted the frequencies of alleles represented, rather than creating new genes. [Also see Perspective by Lohmueller] Authors: Miguel Carneiro, Carl-Johan Rubin, Federica Di Palma, Frank W. Albert, Jessica Alföldi, Alvaro Martinez Barrio, Gerli Pielberg, Nima Rafati, Shumaila Sayyab, Jason Turner-Maier, Shady Younis, Sandra Afonso, Bronwen Aken, Joel M. Alves, Daniel Barrell, Gerard Bolet, Samuel Boucher, Hernán A. Burbano, Rita Campos, Jean L. Chang, Veronique Duranthon, Luca Fontanesi, Hervé Garreau, David Heiman, Jeremy Johnson, Rose G. Mage, Ze Peng, Guillaume Queney, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Magali Ruffier, Steve Searle, Rafael Villafuerte, Anqi Xiong, Sarah Young, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson, Jeffrey M. Good, Eric S. Lander, Nuno Ferrand, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Leif Andersson

A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.

On this week's show: Our microbial housemates and a news roundup.

Author: Jyoti Mishra