Novel urinary kidney safety biomarkers have been identified recently that may outperform or add value to the conventional renal function biomarkers, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr). To assess the relative performance of the growing list of novel biomarkers, a comprehensive evaluation was conducted for 12 urinary biomarkers in 22 rat studies including 12 kidney toxicants and 10 compounds with toxicities observed in organs other than kidney. The kidney toxicity studies included kidney tubular toxicants and glomerular toxicants. The 12 urinary biomarkers evaluated included Kim-1, clusterin, osteopontin, osteoactivin, albumin, lipocalin-2, GST-α, β2-microglobulin, cystatin C, retinol binding protein 4, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for each biomarker and for BUN and SCr to compare the relative performance of the 12 biomarkers in individual animals against the microscopic histomorphologic changes observed in the kidney. Among the kidney toxicity biomarkers analyzed, Kim-1, clusterin, and albumin showed the highest overall performance for detecting drug-induced renal tubular injury in the rat in a sensitive and specific manner, whereas albumin showed the highest performance in detecting drug-induced glomerular injury. Although most of the evaluated kidney biomarkers were more sensitive in detecting kidney toxicity compared with BUN and SCr, all biomarkers demonstrated some lack of specificity, most notably NGAL and osteopontin, illustrating the need for caution when interpreting urinary biomarker increases in rat samples when organ toxicity is unknown.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER–mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, yet much remains unknown regarding their changes resulting from environmental exposures as they influence cellular signaling across various tissues. We set out to investigate miRNA responses to formaldehyde, a critical air pollutant and known carcinogen that disrupts miRNA expression profiles. Rats were exposed by inhalation to either 0 or 2 ppm formaldehyde for 7, 28, or 28 days followed by a 7-day recovery. Genome-wide miRNA expression profiles were assessed within the nasal respiratory epithelium, circulating white blood cells (WBC), and bone marrow (BM). miRNAs showed altered expression in the nose and WBC but not in the BM. Notably in the nose, miR-10b and members of the let-7 family, known nasopharyngeal carcinoma players, showed decreased expression. To integrate miRNA responses with transcriptional changes, genome-wide messenger RNA profiles were assessed in the nose and WBC. Although formaldehyde-induced changes in miRNA and transcript expression were largely tissue specific, pathway analyses revealed an enrichment of immune system/inflammation signaling in the nose and WBC. Specific to the nose was enrichment for apoptosis/proliferation signaling, involving let-7a, let-7c, and let-7f. Across all tissues and time points assessed, miRNAs were predicted to regulate between 7% and 35% of the transcriptional responses and were suggested to play a role in signaling processes including immune/inflammation-related pathways. These data inform our current hypothesis that formaldehyde-induced inflammatory signals originating in the nose may drive WBC effects.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) activate aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because PAHs are known as a risk factor for allergic diseases, PAH-induced AhR activation is expected to be involved in the development of the pathology. We previously generated transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active AhR (AhR-CA) under the control of Keratin 14 (K14) promoter (AhR-CA mouse). The mice develop chronic dermatitis with immune imbalance toward Th2 predominance, indicating that the AhR activation driven by K14 promoter provokes allergic response. Because hematopoietic cells actively participate in the development of allergic inflammation, it is important to understand the hematopoietic status under allergic conditions. To clarify how the K14 promoter–driven AhR activation influences hematopoiesis, we analyzed bone marrow and spleen of AhR-CA mice. We verified that AhR-CA was expressed in keratinocytes and thymic epithelial cells but not in hematopoietic cells. The AhR-CA mice with full-blown dermatitis exhibited leukocytosis and skewed differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells toward granulocyte-monocyte lineages. They also showed a significant expansion of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors and a subtle reduction in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs). Their spleens were enlarged and abundantly accumulated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. AhR-CA mice at the early stage of dermatitis did not show leukocytosis or splenomegaly but exhibited the granulocyte-monocyte skewing and the reduction in LT-HSCs. Thus, AhR activation driven by K14 promoter already alters the hematopoietic differentiation and reduces LT-HSCs at the initial stage of dermatitis development. These results suggest that nonhematopoietic exposure to PAHs triggers allergic response and concomitantly affects hematopoiesis.
We examined the immunotoxic effects of acute and subchronic exposures of goldfish to aged, fresh, and ozonated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using a flow-through exposure apparatus. We measured the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes, the antimicrobial responses of primary macrophages isolated from OSPW-exposed fish, and the ability of the goldfish to control infection with a protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma carassii. After acute (1 week) exposure to aged OSPW, we observed upregulation in the expression of interferon gamma (IFN-), tumor necrosis factor alpha-2 (TNF-α2) in the kidney and spleen but not in gills of the fish. After subchronic (12 weeks) exposure to aged OSPW, we observed significant increases in mRNA levels of proinflammatory genes in the gill (IFN-, interleukin-1 beta 1 [IL1-β1], TNF-α2), kidney (IL1-β1, TNF-α2), and spleen (IL1-β1). An upregulation of immune gene expression in the gill and kidney (IFN-, IL1-β1, TNF-α2) and spleen (IL1-β1, TNF-α2) was observed after acute exposure of fish to diluted fresh OSPW. Following subchronic exposure to diluted fresh OSPW, we observed high mRNA levels of IL1-β1 in all tissues examined. However, there were significant decreases in the mRNA levels of IFN- and TNF-α2 in the kidney and spleen and gill and spleen (IL-12p35 and IL-12p40) of exposed fish. There were no changes in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 after both acute and subchronic exposures to diluted fresh OSPW. In fish exposed to ozonated fresh OSPW, immune gene expression was similar to nonexposed control fish in all organs examined, with exception of IL1-β1. The ability of primary kidney macrophages to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates was significantly reduced in fish exposed to fresh OSPW. The enhanced proinflammatory response after acute exposure to diluted fresh OSPW was confirmed by the parasite challenge experiments, where OSPW-exposed fish controlled the infection better than nonexposed fish.
Exposure to environmental toxicants can alter a range of cellular functions involved in the immune response. Increased expression of the stress protein metallothionein 1 (MT1) is one example hereof. Previously, it has been reported that MT1 has several immunosuppressive properties. Furthermore, we earlier showed that functionally tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) expressed increased mRNA levels of MT1. Here, we demonstrate that dexamethasone-treated murine DCs are functionally tolerogenic and produce MT1. However, these DCs do not actively transport MT1 to the cell membrane and their regulatory function does not depend on MT1. Alternatively, ZnCl2-treated murine DCs transport MT1 to the cell surface are tolerogenic and promote the expansion of T cells with a regulatory phenotype. Moreover, the membrane-bound MT1 was shown to be essential for ZnCl2-treated DCs to exert their regulatory function. On the basis of this, MT1 can be used as a new marker for functionally tolerogenic DCs. Additionally, we have found a new mechanism for tolerogenic DCs to exert their immune regulatory function.
Supported by several epidemiological studies and a large number of animal studies, certain polyfluorinated alkyl acids are believed to be immunotoxic, affecting particularly humoral immunity. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between the antibody response following vaccination with an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine and circulating levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). The study population consisted of 411 adults living in the mid-Ohio region of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been inadvertently contaminated with PFOA. They participated in a larger cross-sectional study in 2005/2006 and were followed up in 2010, by which time serum levels of PFOA had been substantially reduced but were still well above those found in the general population. Hemagglutination inhibition tests were conducted on serum samples collected preinfluenza vaccination and 21±3 days postvaccination in 2010. Serum samples were also analyzed for PFOA and PFOS concentrations (median: 31.5 and 9.2ng/ml, respectively). Questionnaires were conducted regarding the occurrence and frequency of recent (during the last 12 months) respiratory infections. Our findings indicated that elevated PFOA serum concentrations are associated with reduced antibody titer rise, particularly to A/H3N2 influenza virus, and an increased risk of not attaining the antibody threshold considered to offer long-term protection. Although the direct relationship between weakened antibody response and clinical risk of influenza is not clear, we did not find evidence for an association between self-reported colds or influenza and PFOA levels nor between PFOS serum concentrations and any of the endpoints examined.
In this study, we used zinc finger nuclease–mediated knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) in MCF7 and AHR knockout in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells to investigate cross talk among AHR, ARNT, and estrogen receptor α (ERα). Knockout of AHR or ARNT prevented the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-dependent induction of all AHR target genes examined. Knockout of AHR or ARNT also significantly reduced basal cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) expression levels, which were restored with overexpression of either protein but not with a DNA binding–deficient AHR mutant. Basal and TCDD-, 17β-estradiol (E2)-, or TCDD + E2-dependent recruitment of AHR, ARNT, ERα, NCoA3, and RNA polymerase II to CYP1B1 as well as CYP1B1 mRNA levels were abolished in MCF7-AHRko and MDA-MB-231 AHRko cells. However, reduced but significant E2-dependent recruitment of ERα, NCoA3, and RNA polymerase II to CYP1B1 and weak increases in CYP1B1 mRNA levels were observed in MCF7 ARNTko cells. Interestingly, E2-dependent increases in trefoil factor 1, but not growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1 (GREB1) mRNA levels, were dependent on ARNT expression. Moreover, the TCDD-dependent increases in the proteolytic degradation of ERα were prevented by the loss of AHR or ARNT. Our data show that AHR and ARNT play critical roles in the basal, TCDD, and E2-induced regulation of CYP1B1 but also reveal distinct roles for both proteins in ERα transactivation.
Accumulating evidences indicate that pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is associated with increased risk of lung diseases, whereas the effect on the vascular system is less studied. We investigated vascular effects of 2 types of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) in apolipoprotein E–/– mice, wild-type mice, and cultured cells. The ApoE–/– mice had accelerated plaque progression in aorta after 5 intracheal instillations of MWCNT (25.6 μg/mouse weekly for 5 weeks). The exposure was associated with pulmonary inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, DNA repair, and vascular activation response genes. The level of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung tissue was unaltered, probably due to increased DNA repair capacities. Despite upregulation of inflammatory genes in the liver, effects on systemic cytokines and lipid peroxidation were minimal. The exposure to MWCNTs in cultured human endothelial cells increased the expression of cell adhesion molecules (ICAM1 and VCAM1). In cocultures, there was increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells after exposure to MWCNT. The exposure to both types of MWCNT was also associated with increased lipid accumulation in monocytic-derived foam cells, which was dependent on concomitant oxidative stress because the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited the lipid accumulation. Collectively, our results indicate that exposure to MWCNT is associated with accelerated progression of atherosclerosis, which could be related to both increased adherence of monocytes onto the endothelium and oxidative stress-mediated transformation of monocytes to foam cells.
Partition and localization of C60 and its derivative C60(OH)18–22 in lipid membranes and their impact on mitochondrial activity were studied, attempting to correlate those events with fullerene characteristics (size, surface chemistry, and surface charge). Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that C60(OH)18–22 preferentially populated the outer regions of the bilayer, whereas C60 preferred to localize in deeper regions of the bilayer. Partition coefficient values indicated that C60 exhibited higher affinity for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and mitochondrial membranes than C60(OH)18–22. Both fullerenes affected the mitochondrial function, but the inhibitory effects promoted by C60 were more pronounced than those induced by C60(OH)18–22 (up to 20 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein). State 3 and p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-uncoupled respirations are inhibited by both fullerenes when glutamate/malate or succinate was used as substrate. Phosphorylation system and electron transport chain of mitochondria are affected by both fullerenes, but only C60 increased the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability to protons, suggesting perturbations in the structure and dynamics of that membrane. At concentrations of C60(OH)18–22 above 20 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein, the activity of FoF1-ATP synthase was also decreased. The evaluation of transmembrane potential showed that the mitochondria phosphorylation cycle decreased upon adenosine diphosphate addition with increasing fullerenes concentration and the time of the repolarization phase increased as a function of C60(OH)18–22 concentration. Our results suggest that the balance between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity resulting from the surface chemistry of fullerene nanoparticles, rather than the cluster size or the surface charge acquired by fullerenes in water, influences their membrane interactions and consequently their effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics.
3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), a primary metabolite of MDMA, are phenylethylamine derivatives that cause serotonergic neurotoxicity. Although several phenylethylamine derivatives activate microglia, little is known about the effects of MDMA on glial cells, and evidence of MDMA-induced microglial activation remains ambiguous. We initially determined microglial occupancy status of the parietal cortex in rats at various time points following a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (20mg/kg, SC). A biphasic microglial response to MDMA was observed, with peak microglial occupancy occurring 12- and 72-h post-MDMA administration. Because direct injection of MDMA into the brain does not produce neurotoxicity, the glial response to MDMA metabolites was subsequently examined in vivo and in vitro. Rats were treated with MDA (20mg/kg, SC) followed by ex vivo biopsy culture to determine the activation of quiescent microglia. A reactive microglial response was observed 72h after MDA administration that subsided by 7 days. In contrast, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of MDA failed to produce a microglial response. However, thioether metabolites of MDA derived from α-methyldopamine (α-MeDA) elicited a robust microglial response following icv injection. We subsequently determined the direct effects of various MDMA metabolites on primary cultures of E18 hippocampal mixed glial and neuronal cells. 5-(Glutathion-S-yl)-α-MeDA, 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-α-MeDA, and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-α-MeDA all stimulated the proliferation of glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive astrocytes at a dose of 10µM. The findings indicate that glial cells are activated in response to MDMA/MDA and support a role for thioether metabolites of α-MeDA in the neurotoxicity.
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2x30mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2x30mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.
In utero exposure to antiandrogenic xenobiotics such as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) has been linked to congenital defects of the male reproductive tract, including cryptorchidism and hypospadias, as well as later life effects such as testicular cancer and decreased sperm counts. Experimental evidence indicates that DBP has in utero antiandrogenic effects in the rat. However, it is unclear whether DBP has similar effects on androgen biosynthesis in human fetal testis. To address this issue, we developed a xenograft bioassay with multiple androgen-sensitive physiological endpoints, similar to the rodent Hershberger assay. Adult male athymic nude mice were castrated, and human fetal testis was xenografted into the renal subcapsular space. Hosts were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin for 4 weeks to stimulate testosterone production. During weeks 3 and 4, hosts were exposed to DBP or abiraterone acetate, a CYP17A1 inhibitor. Although abiraterone acetate (14 d, 75mg/kg/d po) dramatically reduced testosterone and the weights of androgen-sensitive host organs, DBP (14 d, 500mg/kg/d po) had no effect on androgenic endpoints. DBP did produce a near-significant trend toward increased multinucleated germ cells in the xenografts. Gene expression analysis showed that abiraterone decreased expression of genes related to transcription and cell differentiation while increasing expression of genes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression. DBP induced expression of oxidative stress response genes and altered expression of actin cytoskeleton genes.
Genistein (Gen), the primary isoflavone in soy, has been shown to adversely affect various endocrine-mediated endpoints in rodents and humans. Soy formula intake by human infants has been associated with early age at menarche and decreased female-typical behavior in girls. Adipose deposition and expansion are also hormonally regulated and Gen has been shown to alter these processes. However, little is known about the impact of early-life soy intake on metabolic homeostasis in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of early-life Gen exposure on adulthood body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging) and the molecular signals mediating adipose expansion. From postnatal day (PND) 1 to 22, rat pups were daily orally dosed with 50mg/kg Gen to mimic blood Gen levels in human infants fed soy formula. Female but not male Gen-exposed rats had increased fat/lean mass ratio, fat mass, adipocyte size and number, and decreased muscle fiber perimeter. PND22 Gen-exposed females, but not males, had increased expression of adipogenic factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (Cebpα), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (Cebpβ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Ppar). Furthermore, Wingless-related MMTV integration site 10b (Wnt10b), a critical regulator of adipogenic cell fate determination, was hypermethylated and had decreased expression in adipose of PND22 Gen-exposed females. These data suggest that developmental Gen exposure in rats has gender-specific effects on adiposity that closely parallel the effects of a postweaning high-fat diet and underscore the importance of considering timing of exposure and gender when establishing safety recommendations for early-life dietary Gen intake.
Ozone pollution is associated with adverse effects on respiratory health in adults and children but its effects on the neonatal lung remain unknown. This study was carried out to define the effect of acute ozone exposure on the neonatal lung and to profile the transcriptome response. Newborn mice were exposed to ozone or filtered air for 3h. Total RNA was isolated from lung tissues at 6 and 24h after exposure and was subjected to microarray gene expression analysis. Compared to filtered air-exposed littermates, ozone-exposed newborn mice developed a small but significant neutrophilic airway response associated with increased CXCL1 and CXCL5 expression in the lung. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 455 genes were down-regulated and 166 genes were up-regulated by at least 1.5-fold at 6h post-ozone exposure (t-test, p < .05). At 24h, 543 genes were down-regulated and 323 genes were up-regulated in the lungs of ozone-exposed, compared to filtered air-exposed, newborn mice (t-test, p < .05). After controlling for false discovery rate, 50 genes were identified as significantly down-regulated and only a few (RORC, GRP, VREB3, and CYP2B6) were up-regulated at 24h post-ozone exposure (q < .05). Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that cell cycle-associated functions including cell division/proliferation were the most impacted pathways, which were negatively regulated by ozone exposure, an adverse effect that was associated with reduced bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation. These results demonstrate that acute ozone exposure alters cell proliferation in the developing neonatal lung through a global suppression of cell cycle function.
Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute one of the hottest areas in chemistry since they have become increasingly popular as reaction and extraction media. Their almost limitless structural possibilities, as opposed to limited structural variations within molecular solvents, make ILs "designer solvents." They also have been widely promoted as "green solvents" although their claimed relative nontoxicity has been frequently questioned. The Thinking in Structure-Activity Relationships (T-SAR) approach has proved to be an efficient method to gather relevant toxicological information of analog series of ILs. However, when data sets significantly grow in size and structural diversity, the use of computational models becomes essential. We provided such a computational solution in a previous work by introducing a reliable, predictive, simple, and chemically interpretable Classification and Regression Tree (CART) classifier enabling the prioritization of ILs with a favorable cytotoxicity profile. Even so, an efficient and exhaustive mining of SAR information goes beyond analog compound series and the applicability domain of quantitative SAR modeling. So, we decided to complement our previous findings based on the use of the CART classifier by applying the network-like similarity graph (NSG) approach to the mining of relevant structure-cytotoxicity relationship (SCR) trends. Finally, the SCR information concurrently gathered by both, quantitative (CART classifier) and qualitative (NSG) approaches was used to design a focused combinatorial library enriched with potentially safe ILs.
The ten Berge model, also known as the toxic load model, is an empirical approach in hazard assessment modeling for estimating the relationship between the inhalation toxicity of a chemical and the exposure duration. The toxic load (TL) is normally expressed as a function of vapor concentration (C) and duration (t), with TL equaling Cn x t being a typical form. Hypothetically, any combination of concentration and time that yields the same "toxic load" will give a constant biological response. These formulas have been developed and tested using controlled, constant concentration animal studies, but the validity of applying these assumptions to time-varying concentration profiles has not been tested. Experiments were designed to test the validity of the model under conditions of non-constant acute exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats inhaled constant or pulsed concentrations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated in a nose-only exposure system for 5, 15, or 30min. The observed lethality of HCN for the 11 different C versus t profiles was used to evaluate the ability of the model to adequately describe the lethality of HCN under the conditions of non-constant inhalation exposure. The model was found to be applicable under the tested conditions, with the exception of the median lethality of very brief, high concentration, discontinuous exposures.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates cereal-based food, interacts with the ribosome to cause translation inhibition and activate stress kinases in mononuclear phagocytes via the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ribosome functions as a platform for spatiotemporal regulation of translation inhibition and RSR. Specifically, we employed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics to quantify the early (≤30min) DON-induced changes in ribosome-associated proteins in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage. Changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome were determined using off-gel isoelectric focusing and titanium dioxide chromatography, respectively, in conjunction with LC-MS/MS. Following exposure of RAW 264.7 to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250ng/ml), we observed an overall decrease in translation-related proteins interacting with the ribosome, concurrently with a compensatory increase in proteins that mediate protein folding, biosynthesis, and cellular organization. Alterations in the ribosome-associated phosphoproteome reflected proteins that modulate translational and transcriptional regulation, and others that converged with signaling pathways known to overlap with phosphorylation changes characterized previously in intact RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the ribosome plays a central role as a hub for association and phosphorylation of proteins involved in the coordination of early translation inhibition as well as recruitment and maintenance of stress-related proteins—both of which enable cells to adapt and respond to ribotoxin exposure. This study provides a template for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of DON and other ribosome-targeting agents.
Development of LNA gapmers, antisense oligonucleotides used for efficient inhibition of target RNA expression, is limited by non-target mediated hepatotoxicity issues. In the present study, we investigated hepatic transcription profiles of mice administered non-toxic and toxic LNA gapmers. After repeated administration, a toxic LNA gapmer (TS-2), but not a non-toxic LNA gapmer (NTS-1), caused hepatocyte necrosis and increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels. Microarray data revealed that, in addition to gene expression patterns consistent with hepatotoxicity, 17 genes in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway were altered in the TS-2 group. TS-2 significantly down-regulated myosin 1E (Myo1E), which is involved in release of clathrin-coated pits from plasma membranes. To map the earliest transcription changes associated with LNA gapmer-induced hepatotoxicity, a second microarray analysis was performed using NTS-1, TS-2, and a severely toxic LNA gapmer (HTS-3) at 8, 16, and 72h following a single administration in mice. The only histopathological change observed was minor hepatic hypertrophy in all LNA groups across time points. NTS-1, but not 2 toxic LNA gapmers, increased immune response genes at 8 and 16h but not at 72h. TS-2 significantly perturbed the CME pathway only at 72h, while Myo1E levels were decreased at all time points. In contrast, HTS-3 modulated DNA damage pathway genes at 8 and 16h and also modulated the CME pathway genes (but not Myo1E) at 16h. Our results may suggest that different LNAs modulate distinct transcriptional genes and pathways contributing to non-target mediated hepatotoxicity in mice.