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Steven P. Balk, MD, PhD


  • Yu Z, Cai C, Gao S, Simon NI, Shen H, Balk SP.Galeterone Prevents Androgen Receptor Binding to Chromatin and Enhances Degradation of Mutant Androgen Receptor.Clin Cancer Res. 2014 May 29.
  • Yuan X, Cai C, Chen S, Chen S, Yu Z, Balk SP.Androgen receptor functions in castration-resistant prostate cancer and mechanisms of resistance to new agents targeting the androgen axis.Oncogene. 2014 May 29(22):2815-25.
  • Sun T, Wang X, He HH, Sweeney CJ, Liu SX, Brown M, Balk S, Lee GS, Kantoff PW.MiR-221 promotes the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of HECTD2 and RAB1A.Oncogene. 2014 May 22(21):2790-800.
  • Hsieh CL, Fei T, Chen Y, Li T, Gao Y, Wang X, Sun T, Sweeney CJ, Lee GS, Chen S, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M, Kantoff PW.Enhancer RNAs participate in androgen receptor-driven looping that selectively enhances gene activation.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 20(20):7319-24.
  • Chin YM, Yuan X, Balk SP, Toker A.Pten-deficient tumors depend on akt2 for maintenance and survival.Cancer Discovery. 2014 May 16.
  • Balk SP.Androgen receptor functions in prostate cancer development and progression.Asian J. Androl. 2014 Apr 11.
  • Yu Z, Chen S, Sowalsky AG, Voznesensky OS, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Cai C, Balk SP.Rapid induction of androgen receptor splice variants by androgen deprivation in prostate cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Mar 15;20(6):1590-600.
  • Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Lange P, Lin DW, Taplin ME, Balk S, Ellis W, Kantoff P, Marck B, Tamae D, Matsumoto AM, True LD, Vessella R, Penning T, Hunter Merrill R, Gulati R, Montgomery B.Targeted androgen pathway suppression in localized prostate cancer: a pilot study.J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jan 20;32(3):229-37.
  • Liu F, Zhang X, Weisberg E, Chen S, Hur W, Wu H, Zhao Z, Wang W, Mao M, Cai C, Simon NI, Sanda T, Wang J, Look AT, Griffin JD, Balk SP, Liu Q, Gray NS.Discovery of a Selective Irreversible BMX Inhibitor for Prostate Cancer.ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Apr 17.
  • Wang H, He L, Ma F, Regan MM, Balk SP, Richardson AL, Yuan X.SOX9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) expression and Wnt/β-catenin activation in breast cancer.J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 1;288(9):6478-87.
  • Cai C, Wang H, He HH, Chen S, He L, Ma F, Mucci L, Wang Q, Fiore C, Sowalsky AG, Loda M, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP, Yuan X.ERG induces androgen receptor-mediated regulation of SOX9 in prostate cancer.J Clin Invest. 2013 Mar 1;123(3):1109-22.
  • Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP.Clonal progression of prostate cancers from Gleason grade 3 to grade 4.Cancer Res. 2013 Feb 1;73(3):1050-5.
  • Xu K, Wu ZJ, Groner AC, He HH, Cai C, Lis RT, Wu X, Stack EC, Loda M, Liu T, Xu H, Cato L, Thornton JE, Gregory RI, Morrissey C, Vessella RL, Montironi R, Magi-Galluzzi C, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M.EZH2 oncogenic activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells is Polycomb-independent.Science. 2012 Dec 14;338(6113):1465-9.
  • Shen HC, Shanmugasundaram K, Simon NI, Cai C, Wang H, Chen S, Balk SP, Rigby AC.In silico discovery of androgen receptor antagonists with activity in castration resistant prostate cancer.Mol Endocrinol. 2012 Nov;26(11):1836-46.
  • Lynch L, Nowak M, Varghese B, Clark J, Hogan AE, Toxavidis V, Balk SP, O'Shea D, O'Farrelly C, Exley MA.Adipose Tissue Invariant NKT Cells Protect against Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorder through Regulatory Cytokine Production.Immunity. 2012 Sep 21;37(3):574-87.
  • Wang H, Xu Y, Fang Z, Chen S, Balk SP, Yuan X.Doxycycline regulated induction of AKT in murine prostate drives proliferation independently of p27 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor downregulation.PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e41330.
  • Exley MA, Wilson B, Balk SP.Isolation and functional use of human NKT cells.Curr Protoc Immunol. 2010 Aug;Chapter 14:Unit 14.11.
  • Nowak M, Arredouani MS, Tun-Kyi A, Schmidt-Wolf I, Sanda MG, Balk SP, Exley MA.Defective NKT cell activation by CD1d+ TRAMP prostate tumor cells is corrected by interleukin-12 with alpha-galactosylceramide.PLoS ONE. 2010;5(6):e11311.
  • Jiang X, Chen S, Asara JM, Balk SP.Phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway activation in PTEN deficient prostate cancer cells is independent of receptor tyrosine kinases and mediated by the p110{beta} and p110{delta} catalytic subunits.J Biol Chem. 2010 May 14;285(20):14980-9.
  • Porcelli S, Brenner MB, Greenstein JL, Terhorst C, Balk SP, Bleicher PA.Pillars Article: Recognition of Cluster of Differentiation 1 Antigens by Human CD4-CD8- CytolyticT Lymphocyte. Nature. 1989. 341: 447-450.J Immunol. 2010 Apr 1;184(7):3306-9.
  • Nowak M, Lynch L, Yue S, Ohta A, Sitkovsky M, Balk SP, Exley MA.The A2aR adenosine receptor controls cytokine production in iNKT cells.Eur J Immunol. 2010 Mar;40(3):682-7.
  • Yue SC, Nowak M, Shaulov-Kask A, Wang R, Yue D, Balk SP, Exley MA.Direct CD1d-mediated stimulation of APC IL-12 production and protective immune response to virus infection in vivo.J Immunol. 2010 Jan 1;184(1):268-76.
  • Taplin ME, Regan MM, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ, Duggan SE, Werner L, Beer TM, Ryan CW, Mathew P, Tu SM, Denmeade SR, Oh WK, Sartor O, Mantzoros CS, Rittmaster R, Kantoff PW, Balk SP.Phase II study of androgen synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride in asymptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15;15(22):7099-105.
  • Lu B, Maqsodi B, Yang W, McMaster GK, Perner S, Regan M, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Rubin M, Sanda MG.Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer specimens by a novel assay using branched DNA.Urology. 2009 Nov;74(5):1156-61.
  • Sartor O, Nakabayashi M, Taplin ME, Ross RW, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Oh WK.Activity of dutasteride plus ketoconazole in castration-refractory prostate cancer after progression on ketoconazole alone.Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2009 Oct;7(3):E90-2.
  • Chen S, Kesler CT, Paschal BM, Balk SP.Androgen receptor phosphorylation and activity are regulated by an association with protein phosphatase 1.J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18;284(38):25576-84.
  • Cai C, Wang H, Xu Y, Chen S, Balk SP.Reactivation of androgen receptor-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG gene expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer.Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 1;69(15):6027-32.
  • Wang Q, Li W, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Xu K, Yu J, Chen Z, Beroukhim R, Wang H, Lupien M, Wu T, Regan MM, Meyer CA, Carroll JS, Manrai AK, Jänne OA, Balk SP, Mehra R, Han B, Chinnaiyan AM, Rubin MA, True L, Fiorentino M, Fiore C, Loda M, Kantoff PW, Liu XS, Brown M.Androgen receptor regulates a distinct transcription program in androgen-independent prostate cancer.Cell. 2009 Jul 23;138(2):245-56.
  • Cai C, Portnoy DC, Wang H, Jiang X, Chen S, Balk SP.Androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells is suppressed by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2.Cancer Res. 2009 Jun 15;69(12):5202-9.
  • Shen HC,Balk SP.Development of androgen receptor antagonists with promising activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer.Cancer Cell. 2009 Jun 2;15(6):461-3.
  • Sun T, Wang Q, Balk S, Brown M, Lee GS, Kantoff P.The role of microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines.Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 15;69(8):3356-63.
  • Yuan X,Balk SP.Mechanisms mediating androgen receptor reactivation after castration.Urol Oncol. 2009 Jan-Feb;27(1):36-41. Review.
  • Song W,van der Vliet HJ,Tai YT,Prabhala R,Wang R,Podar K,Catley L,Shammas MA,Anderson KC,Balk SP,Exley MA,Munshi NC.Generation of antitumor invariant natural killer T cell lines in multiple myeloma and promotion of their functions via lenalidomide: a strategy for immunotherapy.Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 1;14(21):6955-62.
  • Hodgson MC,Shen HC,Hollenberg AN,Balk SP.Structural basis for nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment by antagonist-liganded androgen receptor.Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Oct;7(10):3187-94.
  • Bhatt RS, Landis DM, Zimmer M, Torregrossa J, Chen S, Sukhatme VP, Iliopoulos O, Balk S, Bubley GJ.Hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha: effect on radiation sensitivity and differential regulation by an mTOR inhibitor.BJU Int. 2008 Aug;102(3):358-63.
  • Hur W,Velentza A,Kim S,Flatauer L,Jiang X,Valente D,Mason DE,Suzuki M,Larson B,Zhang J,Zagorska A,Didonato M,Nagle A,Warmuth M,Balk SP,Peters EC,Gray NS.Clinical stage EGFR inhibitors irreversibly alkylate Bmx kinase.Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Nov 15;18(22):5916-9.
  • Kaur R,Yuan X,Lu ML,Balk SP.Increased PAK6 expression in prostate cancer and identification of PAK6 associated proteins.Prostate. 2008 Oct 1;68(14):1510-6.
  • Exley MA,Hou R,Shaulov A,Tonti E,Dellabona P,Casorati G,Akbari O,Akman HO,Greenfield EA,Gumperz JE,Boyson JE,Balk SP,Wilson SB.Selective activation, expansion, and monitoring of human iNKT cells with a monoclonal antibody specific for the TCR alpha-chain CDR3 loop.Eur J Immunol. 2008 Jun;38(6):1756-66.
  • van der Vliet HJ,Wang R,Yue SC,Koon HB,Balk SP,Exley MA.Circulating myeloid dendritic cells of advanced cancer patients result in reduced activation and a biased cytokine profile in invariant NKT cells.J Immunol. 2008 Jun 1;180(11):7287-93.
  • Taplin ME, Manola J, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Bubley GJ, Smith M, Barb D, Mantzoros C, Gelmann EP, Balk SP.A phase II study of mifepristone (RU-486) in castration-resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones.BJU Int. 2008 May;101(9):1084-9.
  • Wang H, Leav I, Ibaragi S, Wegner M, Hu GF, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X.SOX9 is expressed in human fetal prostate epithelium and enhances prostate cancer invasion.Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 15;68(6):1625-30.
  • Balk SP, Knudsen KE.AR, the cell cycle, and prostate cancer.Nucl Recept Signal. 2008;6:e001. Review.
  • Bao BY,Chuang BF,Wang Q,Sartor O,Balk SP,Brown M,Kantoff PW,Lee GS.Androgen receptor mediates the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B15 and B17 genes.Prostate. 2008 Jun 1;68(8):839-48.
  • Barb D, Neuwirth A, Mantzoros CS, Balk SP.Adiponectin signals in prostate cancer cells through Akt to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007 Dec;14(4):995-1005.
  • Jiang X, Borgesi RA, McKnight NC, Kaur R, Carpenter CL, Balk SP.Activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Bmx/Etk mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells.J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 9;282(45):32689-98.
  • Hodgson MC, Astapova I, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP.Activity of androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide in prostate cancer cells is independent of NCoR and SMRT corepressors.Cancer Res. 2007 Sep 1;67(17):8388-95.
  • van der Vliet HJ, Koon HB, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA.Exploiting regulatory T-cell populations for the immunotherapy of cancer.J Immunother. 2007 Sep;30(6):591-5. Review.
  • Li H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Gaziano JM, Pollak M, Stampfer MJ, Ma J.Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) gene polymorphisms, circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels and prostate cancer.Prostate. 2007 Sep 1;67(12):1354-61.
  • van Dervliet HJ, Koon HB, Yue SC, Uzunparmak B, Seery V, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA.Effects of the administration of high-dose interleukin-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1;13(7):2100-8.
  • Reddy GK, Balk SP.Clinical utility of microarray-derived genetic signatures in predicting outcomes in prostate cancer.Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2006 Dec;5(3):187-9. Review.
  • Wang H, McKnight NC, Zhang T, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X.SOX9 is expressed in normal prostate basal cells and regulates androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells.Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 15;67(2):528-36.
  • Masiello D, Mohi MG, McKnight NC, Smith B, Neel BG, Balk SP, Bubley GJ.Combining an mTOR Antagonist and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Feb;6(2):195-201.
  • van der Vliet HJ, Balk SP, Exley MA.Natural killer T cell-based cancer immunotherapy.Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15;12(20 Pt 1):5921-3.
  • Chen S, Xu Y, Yuan X, Bubley GJ, Balk SP.Androgen receptor phosphorylation and stabilization in prostate cancer by cyclin-dependent kinase 1.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 24;103(43):15969-74.
  • Cai C, Chen SY, Zheng Z, Omwancha J, Lin MF, Balk SP, Shemshedini L.Androgen regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclasealpha1 mediates prostate cancer cell proliferation.Oncogene. 2007 Mar 8;26(11):1606-15.
  • Xu Y, Chen SY, Ross KN, Balk SP.Androgens induce prostate cancer cell proliferation through mammalian target of rapamycin activation and post-transcriptional increases in cyclin D proteins.Cancer Res. 2006 Aug 1;66(15):7783-92.
  • Yuan X, Li T, Wang H, Zhang T, Barua M, Borgesi RA, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP.Androgen receptor remains critical for cell-cycle progression in androgen-independent CWR22 prostate cancer cells.Am J Pathol. 2006 Aug;169(2):682-96.
  • Ilyinskii PO, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA.CD1d mediates T-cell-dependent resistance to secondary infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in vitro and immune response to EMCV infection in vivo.J Virol. 2006 Jul;80(14):7146-58.
  • Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, Golub TR, Rubin MA, Penning TM, Febbo PG, Balk SP.Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer.Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1;66(5):2815-25.
  • Chen SY, Wulf G, Zhou XZ, Rubin MA, Lu KP, Balk SP.Activation of beta-catenin signaling in prostate cancer by peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1-mediated abrogation of the androgen receptor-beta-catenin interaction.Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Feb;26(3):929-39.
  • Sonoda KH, Sakamoto T, Qiao H, Hisatomi T, Oshima T, Tsutsumi-Miyahara C, Exley M, Balk SP, Taniguchi M, Ishibashi T.The analysis of systemic tolerance elicited by antigen inoculation into the vitreous cavity: vitreous cavity-associated immune deviation.Immunology. 2005 Nov;116(3):390-9.
  • Yue SC, Shaulov A, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA.CD1d ligation on human monocytes directly signals rapid NF-kappaB activation and production of bioactive IL-12.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 16;102(33):11811-6.
  • Nieuwenhuis EE, Gillessen S, Scheper RJ, Exley MA, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Dranoff G, Blumberg RS, Wilson SB.CD1d and CD1d-restricted iNKT-cells play a pivotal role in contact hypersensitivity.Exp Dermatol. 2005 Apr;14(4):250-8.
  • Fu XS, Choi E, Bubley GJ, Balk SP.Identification of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) polymorphism as a mutation in prostate cancer that prevents normoxia-induced degradation.Prostate. 2005 May 15;63(3):215-21.
  • Exley MA, Bigley NJ, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Tahir SM, Carter QL, Garcia J, Wang C, Patten K, Stills HF, Alt FW, Snapper SB, Balk SP.Innate immune response to encephalomyocarditis virus infection mediated by CD1d.Immunology. 2003 Dec;110(4):519-26.
  • Spentzos D, Mantzoros C, Regan MM, Morrissey ME, Duggan S, Flickner-Garvey S, McCormick H, DeWolf W, Balk S, Bubley GJ.Minimal effect of a low-fat/high soy diet for asymptomatic, hormonally naive prostate cancer patients.Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;9(9):3282-7.
  • Rossi S, Graner E, Febbo P, Weinstein L, Bhattacharya N, Onody T, Bubley G, Balk S, Loda M.Fatty acid synthase expression defines distinct molecular signatures in prostate cancer.Mol Cancer Res. 2003 Aug;1(10):707-15.
  • Gillessen S, Naumov YN, Nieuwenhuis EE, Exley MA, Lee FS, Mach N, Luster AD, Blumberg RS, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Dranoff G, Wilson SB.CD1d-restricted T cells regulate dendritic cell function and antitumor immunity in a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent fashion.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 22;100(15):8874-9.
  • Amir AL, Barua M, McKnight NC, Cheng S, Yuan X, Balk SP.A direct beta-catenin-independent interaction between androgen receptor and T cell factor 4.J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 15;278(33):30828-34.
  • Balk SP, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ.Biology of prostate-specific antigen.J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jan 15;21(2):383-91.
  • Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Regan MM, Duggan S, Morrissey ME, Dewolf WC, Salgami E, Mantzoros C.Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 binding proteins after radical prostatectomy.J Urol. 2002 Nov;168(5):2249-52.
  • Boyson JE, Rybalov B, Koopman LA, Exley M, Balk SP, Racke FK, Schatz F, Masch R, Wilson SB, Strominger JL.CD1d and invariant NKT cells at the human maternal-fetal interface.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13741-6.
  • Carroll PR, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Brown MA, D'amico AV, George DJ, Grossfeld GD, Johnson CS, Kelly WK, Klotz L, Lee WR, Lubeck DP, Mcleod DG, Oh WK, Pollack A, Sartor O, Smith MR, Hart C,.Overview consensus statement. Newer approaches to androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer.Urology. 2002 Sep;60(3 Suppl 1):1-6.
  • Masiello D, Cheng S, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP.Bicalutamide functions as an androgen receptor antagonist by assembly of a transcriptionally inactive receptor.J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 19;277(29):26321-6.
  • Exley MA, He Q, Cheng O, Wang RJ, Cheney CP, Balk SP, Koziel MJ.Cutting edge: Compartmentalization of Th1-like noninvariant CD1d-reactive T cells in hepatitis C virus-infected liver.J Immunol. 2002 Feb 15;168(4):1519-23.
  • Exley MA, Tahir SM, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Joyce R, Avigan D, Sackstein R, Balk SP.A major fraction of human bone marrow lymphocytes are Th2-like CD1d-reactive T cells that can suppress mixed lymphocyte responses.J Immunol. 2001 Nov 15;167(10):5531-4.
  • Tahir SM, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Koezuka Y, Bubley GJ, Wilson SB, Balk SP, Exley MA.Loss of IFN-gamma production by invariant NK T cells in advanced cancer.J Immunol. 2001 Oct 1;167(7):4046-50.
  • Stanbrough M, Leav I, Kwan PW, Bubley GJ, Balk SP.Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice expressing an androgen receptor transgene in prostate epithelium.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 11;98(19):10823-8.
  • Exley MA, Bigley NJ, Cheng O, Tahir SM, Smiley ST, Carter QL, Stills HF, Grusby MJ, Koezuka Y, Taniguchi M, Balk SP.CD1d-reactive T-cell activation leads to amelioration of disease caused by diabetogenic encephalomyocarditis virus.J Leukoc Biol. 2001 May;69(5):713-8.
  • Ko YJ, Small EJ, Kabbinavar F, Chachoua A, Taneja S, Reese D, DePaoli A, Hannah A, Balk SP, Bubley GJ.A multi-institutional phase ii study of SU101, a platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor, for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):800-5.
  • Exley M, Garcia J, Wilson SB, Spada F, Gerdes D, Tahir SM, Patton KT, Blumberg RS, Porcelli S, Chott A, Balk SP.CD1d structure and regulation on human thymocytes, peripheral blood T cells, B cells and monocytes.Immunology. 2000 May;100(1):37-47.
  • Sonoda KH, Exley M, Snapper S, Balk SP, Stein-Streilein J.CD1-reactive natural killer T cells are required for development of systemic tolerance through an immune-privileged site.J Exp Med. 1999 Nov 1;190(9):1215-26.
  • Taplin ME, Bubley GJ, Ko YJ, Small EJ, Upton M, Rajeshkumar B, Balk SP.Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist.Cancer Res. 1999 Jun 1;59(11):2511-5.
  • Fenton MA, Shuster TD, Fertig AM, Taplin ME, Kolvenbag G, Bubley GJ, Balk SP.Functional characterization of mutant androgen receptors from androgen-independent prostate cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 1997 Aug;3(8):1383-8.
  • Exley M, Porcelli S, Furman M, Garcia J, Balk S.CD161 (NKR-P1A) costimulation of CD1d-dependent activation of human T cells expressing invariant V alpha 24 J alpha Q T cell receptor alpha chains.J Exp Med. 1998 Sep 7;188(5):867-76.
  • Joyce S, Woods AS, Yewdell JW, Bennink JR, De Silva AD, Boesteanu A, Balk SP, Cotter RJ, Brutkiewicz RR.Natural ligand of mouse CD1d1: cellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol.Science. 1998 Mar 6;279(5356):1541-4.
  • Wilson SB, Kent SC, Patton KT, Orban T, Jackson RA, Exley M, Porcelli S, Schatz DA, Atkinson MA, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Hafler DA.Extreme Th1 bias of invariant Valpha24JalphaQ T cells in type 1 diabetes.Nature. 1998 Jan 8;391(6663):177-81.
  • Koningsberger JC, Chott A, Logtenberg T, Wiegman LJ, Blumberg RS, van Berge Henegouwen GP, Balk SP.TCR expression in human fetal intestine and identification of an early T cell receptor beta-chain transcript.J Immunol. 1997 Aug 15;159(4):1775-82.
  • Sun Z, Pan J, Balk SP.Androgen receptor-associated protein complex binds upstream of the androgen-responsive elements in the promoters of human prostate-specific antigen and kallikrein 2 genes.Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Aug 15;25(16):3318-25.
  • Chott A, Gerdes D, Spooner A, Mosberger I, Kummer JA, Ebert EC, Blumberg RS, Balk SP.Intraepithelial lymphocytes in normal human intestine do not express proteins associated with cytolytic function.Am J Pathol. 1997 Aug;151(2):435-42.
  • Exley M, Garcia J, Balk SP, Porcelli S.Requirements for CD1d recognition by human invariant Valpha24+ CD4-CD8- T cells.J Exp Med. 1997 Jul 7;186(1):109-20.
  • Porcelli S, Gerdes D, Fertig AM, Balk SP.Human T cells expressing an invariant V alpha 24-J alpha Q TCR alpha are CD4- and heterogeneous with respect to TCR beta expression.Hum Immunol. 1996 Jun-Jul;48(1-2):63-7.
  • Bubley GJ, Balk SP.Treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Lessons from the androgen receptor.Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1996 Jun;10(3):713-25.
  • Chott A, Probert CS, Gross GG, Blumberg RS, Balk SP.A common TCR beta-chain expressed by CD8+ intestinal mucosa T cells in ulcerative colitis.J Immunol. 1996 Apr 15;156(8):3024-35.
  • Taplin ME, Frantz ME, Canning C, Ritz J, Blumberg RS, Balk SP.Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression.Immunology. 1996 Mar;87(3):402-7.
  • Balk SP, Polischuk JE, Probert C, Stevens C, Ebert E, She J, Terhorst C, Blumberg RS.Composition of TCR-CD3 complex in human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: lack of Fc epsilon RI gamma chain.Int Immunol. 1995 Aug;7(8):1237-41.
  • Taplin ME, Bubley GJ, Shuster TD, Frantz ME, Spooner AE, Ogata GK, Keer HN, Balk SP.Mutation of the androgen-receptor gene in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer.N Engl J Med. 1995 May 25;332(21):1393-8.
  • Gross GG, Schwartz VL, Stevens C, Ebert EC, Blumberg RS, Balk SP.Distribution of dominant T cell receptor beta chains in human intestinal mucosa.J Exp Med. 1994 Oct 1;180(4):1337-44.
  • Balk SP, Burke S, Polischuk JE, Frantz ME, Yang L, Porcelli S, Colgan SP, Blumberg RS.Beta 2-microglobulin-independent MHC class Ib molecule expressed by human intestinal epithelium.Science. 1994 Jul 8;265(5169):259-62.
  • Brooks EG, Balk SP, Aupeix K, Colonna M, Strominger JL, Groh-Spies V.Human T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta + CD4-CD8- T cells express oligoclonal TCRs, share junctional motifs across TCR V beta-gene families, and phenotypically resemble memory T cells.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15;90(24):11787-91.
  • Porcelli S, Yockey CE, Brenner MB, Balk SP.Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by human peripheral blood CD4-8- alpha/beta T cells demonstrates preferential use of several V beta genes and an invariant TCR alpha chain.J Exp Med. 1993 Jul 1;178(1):1-16.
  • Davis TH, Yockey CE, Balk SP.Detection of clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements by polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis.Am J Pathol. 1993 Jun;142(6):1841-7.
  • Blumberg RS, Yockey CE, Gross GG, Ebert EC, Balk SP.Human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes are derived from a limited number of T cell clones that utilize multiple V beta T cell receptor genes.J Immunol. 1993 Jun 1;150(11):5144-53.
  • Blumberg RS, Terhorst C, Bleicher P, McDermott FV, Allan CH, Landau SB, Trier JS, Balk SP.Expression of a nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecule, CD1D, by human intestinal epithelial cells.J Immunol. 1991 Oct 15;147(8):2518-24.
  • Balk SP, Bleicher PA, Terhorst C.Isolation and expression of cDNA encoding the murine homologues of CD1.J Immunol. 1991 Jan 15;146(2):768-74.
  • Bleicher PA, Balk SP, Hagen SJ, Blumberg RS, Flotte TJ, Terhorst C.Expression of murine CD1 on gastrointestinal epithelium.Science. 1990 Nov 2;250(4981):679-82.
  • Balk SP, Bleicher PA, Terhorst C.Isolation and characterization of a cDNA and gene coding for a fourth CD1 molecule.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jan;86(1):252-6.