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David H. Sachs, MD


  • Tena A, Sachs DH.Stem cells: immunology and immunomodulation.Dev Ophthalmol. 2014;53:122-32.
  • Peraino JS, Zhang H, Rajasekera PV, Wei M, Madsen JC, Sachs DH, Huang CA, Wang Z.Diphtheria toxin-based bivalent human IL-2 fusion toxin with improved efficacy for targeting human CD25(+) cells.J Immunol Methods. 2014 Mar;405:57-66.
  • Sachs DH, Kawai T, Sykes M.Induction of tolerance through mixed chimerism.Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Jan;4(1):a015529.
  • Liang F, Wamala I, Scalea J, Tena A, Cormack T, Pratts S, Duran-Struuck R, Elias N, Hertl M, Huang CA, Sachs DH.Increased levels of anti-non-Gal IgG following pig-to-baboon bone marrow transplantation correlate with failure of engraftment.Xenotransplantation.;20(6):458-68.
  • Wamala I, Matar AJ, Farkash E, Wang Z, Huang CA, Sachs DH.Recombinant anti-monkey CD3 immunotoxin depletes peripheral lymph node T lymphocytes more effectively than rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in naïve baboons.Transpl Immunol. 2013 Dec;29(1-4):60-3.
  • Peraino JS, Schenk M, Li G, Zhang H, Farkash EA, Sachs DH, Huang CA, Duran-Struuck R, Wang Z.Development of a diphtheria toxin-based recombinant porcine IL-2 fusion toxin for depleting porcine CD25+ cells.J Immunol Methods. 2013 Dec 15;398-399:33-43.
  • Kawai T, Sachs DH, Sykes M, Cosimi AB, .HLA-mismatched renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression.N Engl J Med. 2013 May 9;368(19):1850-2.
  • Shimatsu Y, Yamada K, Horii W, Hirakata A, Sakamoto Y, Waki S, Sano J, Saitoh T, Sahara H, Shimizu A, Yazawa H, Sachs DH, Nunoya T.Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates.Xenotransplantation. 2013 Apr 14.
  • Matar AJ, Crepeau RL, Pathiraja V, Robson S, Fishman JA, Spitzer TR, Sachs DH, Huang CA, Duran-Struuck R.Effects of mobilization regimens in donors on outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation in miniature Swine.Comp Med. 2012;62(6):487-94.
  • Peraino JS, Schenk M, Zhang H, Li G, Hermanrud CE, Neville DM, Sachs DH, Huang CA, Duran-Struuck R, Wang Z.A truncated diphtheria toxin based recombinant porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin.J Immunol Methods. 2013 Mar 5.
  • Weiner J, Scalea J, Ishikawa Y, Okumi M, Griesemer A, Hirakata A, Etter J, Gillon B, Moran S, Shimizu A, Yamada K, Sachs DH.Tolerogenicity of donor major histocompatibility complex-matched skin grafts in previously tolerant Massachusetts general hospital miniature swine.Transplantation. 2012 Dec 27;94(12):1192-9.
  • Duran-Struuck R, Matar A, Crepeau R, Gusha A, Schenk M, Hanekamp I, Pathiraja V, Spitzer TR, Sachs DH, Huang CA.Lack of antidonor alloantibody does not indicate lack of immune sensitization: studies of graft loss in a haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation Swine model.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012 Nov;18(11):1629-37.
  • Crepeau R, Matar A, Spitzer TR, Robson S, Pathiraja V, Sachs DH, Huang CA, Duran-Struuck R.Edema and tetraparesis in a miniature pig after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.Comp Med. 2012 Aug;62(4):298-302.
  • Matar AJ, Pathiraja V, Wang Z, Duran-Struuck R, Gusha A, Crepeau R, Tasaki M, Sachs DH, Huang CA.Effect of pre-existing anti-diphtheria toxin antibodies on T cell depletion levels following diphtheria toxin-based recombinant anti-monkey CD3 immunotoxin treatment.Transpl Immunol. 2012 Aug;27(1):52-4.
  • Peraino JS, Hermanrud CE, Springett L, Zhang H, Li G, Srinivasan S, Gusha A, Sachs DH, Huang CA, Wang Z.Expression and characterization of recombinant soluble porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules: mapping the epitope of an anti-porcine CD3 monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15.Cell Immunol.;276(1-2):162-7.
  • Lutton BV, Cho PS, Hirsh EL, Ferguson KK, Teague AG, Hanekamp JS, Chi N, Goldman SN, Messina DJ, Houser S, Yeap BY, Popma SH, Sachs DH, Huang CA.Approaches to avoid immune responses induced by repeated subcutaneous injections of allogeneic umbilical cord tissue-derived cells.Transplantation. 2010 Sep 15;90(5):494-501.
  • Tena A, Vallabhajosyula P, Hawley RJ, Griesemer A, Yamada K, Sachs DH.Quantification of baboon thymopoiesis in porcine thymokidney xenografts by the signal-joining T-cell receptor excision circle assay.Transplantation. 2011 Mar 27;91(6):639-44.
  • Spitzer TR, Sykes M, Tolkoff-Rubin N, Kawai T, McAfee SL, Dey BR, Ballen K, Delmonico F, Saidman S, Sachs DH, Cosimi AB.Long-term follow-up of recipients of combined human leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow and kidney transplantation for multiple myeloma with end-stage renal disease.Transplantation. 2011 Mar 27;91(6):672-6.
  • LoCascio SA, Morokata T, Chittenden M, Preffer FI, Dombkowski DM, Andreola G, Crisalli K, Kawai T, Saidman SL, Spitzer TR, Tolkoff-Rubin N, Cosimi AB, Sachs DH, Sykes M.Mixed chimerism, lymphocyte recovery, and evidence for early donor-specific unresponsiveness in patients receiving combined kidney and bone marrow transplantation to induce tolerance.Transplantation. 2010 Dec 27;90(12):1607-15.
  • Hirakata A, Okumi M, Griesemer AD, Shimizu A, Nobori S, Tena A, Moran S, Arn S, Boyd RL, Sachs DH, Yamada K.Reversal of age-related thymic involution by an LHRH agonist in miniature swine.Transpl Immunol. 2010 Oct;24(1):76-81.
  • Nadazdin O, Abrahamian G, Boskovic S, Smith RN, Schoenfeld DA, Madsen JC, Colvin RB, Sachs DH, Cosimi AB, Kawai T.Stem Cell Mobilization and Collection for Induction of Mixed Chimerism and Renal Allograft Tolerance in Cynomolgus Monkeys.J Surg Res. 2010 Mar 19.
  • Weiner J, Yamada K, Ishikawa Y, Moran S, Etter J, Shimizu A, Smith RN, Sachs DH.Prolonged survival of GalT-KO swine skin on baboons.Xenotransplantation. 2010 Mar;17(2):147-52.
  • Duran-Struuck R, Cho PS, Teague AG, Fishman B, Fishman AS, Hanekamp JS, Moran SG, Wikiel KJ, Ferguson KK, Lo DP, Duggan M, Arn JS, Billiter B, Horner B, Houser S, Yeap BY, Westmoreland SV, Spitzer TR, McMorrow IM, Sachs DH, Bronson RT, Huang CA.Myelogenous leukemia in adult inbred MHC-defined miniature swine: A model for human myeloid leukemias.Veterinary Immunology And Immunopathology. 2010 Jun 15;135(3-4):243-56.
  • Mulder A, Kardol MJ, Arn JS, Eijsink C, Franke ME, Schreuder GM, Haasnoot GW, Doxiadis II, Sachs DH, Smith DM, Claas FH.Human monoclonal HLA antibodies reveal interspecies crossreactive swine MHC class I epitopes relevant for xenotransplantation.Mol Immunol. 2010 Jan;47(4):809-15.
  • Hanekamp JS, Okumi M, Tena A, Arn S, Yamada K, Sachs DH.Cytoplasmic inheritance of transplantation antigens in animals produced by nuclear transfer.Transplantation. 2009 Jul 15;88(1):30-7.
  • Meltzer AJ,Weiss MJ,Veillette GR,Sahara H,Ng CY,Cochrane ME,Houser SL,Sachs DH,Rosengard BR,Madsen JC,Wain JC,Allan JS.Repetitive gastric aspiration leads to augmented indirect allorecognition after lung transplantation in miniature swine.Transplantation. 2008 Dec 27;86(12):1824-9.
  • Shimizu A, Hisashi Y, Kuwaki K, Tseng YL, Dor FJ, Houser SL, Robson SC, Schuurman HJ, Cooper DK, Sachs DH, Yamada K, Colvin RB.Thrombotic Microangiopathy Associated with Humoral Rejection of Cardiac Xenografts from {alpha}1,3-Galactosyltransferase Gene-Knockout Pigs in Baboons.Am J Pathol. 2008 Jun;172(6):1471-81.
  • Kawai T, Cosimi AB, Spitzer TR, Tolkoff-Rubin N, Suthanthiran M, Saidman SL, Shaffer J, Preffer FI, Ding R, Sharma V, Fishman JA, Dey B, Ko DS, Hertl M, Goes NB, Wong W, Williams WW, Colvin RB, Sykes M, Sachs DH.HLA-mismatched renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression.N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 24;358(4):353-61.
  • Okumi M, Fishbein JM, Griesemer AD, Gianello PR, Hirakata A, Nobori S, Moran S, Samelson-Jones E, Shimizu A, Sachs DH, Yamada K.Role of persistence of antigen and indirect recognition in the maintenance of tolerance to renal allografts.Transplantation. 2008 Jan 27;85(2):270-80.
  • Cho PS, Messina DJ, Hirsh EL, Chi N, Goldman SN, Lo DP, Harris IR, Popma SH, Sachs DH, Huang CA.Immunogenicity of umbilical cord tissue derived cells.Blood. 2008 Jan 1;111(1):430-8.
  • Cho PS, Lo DP, Wikiel KJ, Rowland HC, Coburn RC, McMorrow IM, Goodrich JG, Arn JS, Billiter RA, Houser SL, Shimizu A, Yang YG, Sachs DH, Huang CA.Establishment of transplantable porcine tumor cell lines derived from MHC-inbred miniature swine.Blood. 2007 Dec 1;110(12):3996-4004.
  • Hongo D, Hadidi S, Damrauer S, Garrigue V, Kraft D, Sachs DH, Nikolic B, Sykes M.Porcine thymic grafts protect human thymocytes from HIV-1-induced destruction.J Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 15;196(6):900-10.
  • Sachs DH, Yamada K, Robson SC, Fishman JA, Shimizu A, Colvin RB, Sykes M.GalT-KO pigs: is the cup half empty or half full?.Transplantation. 2007 Jul 15;84(1):12-4.
  • Shaffer J, Villard J, Means TK, Alexander S, Dombkowski D, Dey BR, McAfee S, Ballen KK, Saidman S, Preffer FI, Sachs DH, Spitzer TR, Sykes M.Regulatory T-cell recovery in recipients of haploidentical nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation with a humanized anti-CD2 mAb, MEDI-507, with or without fludarabine.Exp Hematol. 2007 Jul;35(7):1140-52.
  • Dey BR, Shaffer J, Yee AJ, McAfee S, Caron M, Power K, Ting DT, Colby C, Preffer F, Ballen K, Attar E, Saidman S, Tarbell N, Sachs D, Sykes M, Spitzer TR.Comparison of outcomes after transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells versus bone marrow following an identical nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen.Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007 Jul;40(1):19-27.
  • Kozlowski LT, Giovino GA, Edwards B, Difranza J, Foulds J, Hurt R, Niaura R, Sachs DP, Selby P, Dollar KM, Bowen D, Cummings KM, Counts M, Fox B, Sweanor D, Ahern F.Advice on using over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy-patch, gum, or lozenge-to quit smoking.Addict Behav. 2007 Oct;32(10):2140-50.
  • Horner BM, Cina RA, Wikiel KJ, Lima B, Ghazi A, Lo DP, Yamada K, Sachs DH, Huang CA.Predictors of organ allograft tolerance following hematopoietic cell transplantation.Am J Transplant. 2006 Dec;6(12):2894-902.
  • Koyama I, Nadazdin O, Boskovic S, Ochiai T, Smith RN, Sykes M, Sogawa H, Murakami T, Strom TB, Colvin RB, Sachs DH, Benichou G, Cosimi AB, Kawai T.Depletion of CD8 memory T cells for induction of tolerance of a previously transplanted kidney allograft.Am J Transplant. 2007 May;7(5):1055-61.
  • Papeta N, Chen T, Vianello F, Gererty L, Malik A, Mok YT, Tharp WG, Bagley J, Zhao G, Stevceva L, Yoon V, Sykes M, Sachs D, Iacomini J, Poznansky MC.Long-term survival of transplanted allogeneic cells engineered to express a T cell chemorepellent.Transplantation. 2007 Jan 27;83(2):174-83.
  • Fudaba Y, Spitzer TR, Shaffer J, Kawai T, Fehr T, Delmonico F, Preffer F, Tolkoff-Rubin N, Dey BR, Saidman SL, Kraus A, Bonnefoix T, McAfee S, Power K, Kattleman K, Colvin RB, Sachs DH, Cosimi AB, Sykes M.Myeloma Responses and Tolerance Following Combined Kidney and Nonmyeloablative Marrow Transplantation: In Vivo and In Vitro Analyses.Am J Transplant. 2006 Sep;6(9):2121-33.
  • Shoji T, Muniappan A, Guenther DA, Wain JC, Houser SL, Hoerbelt R, Benjamin LC, Hasse RS, Bravard MA, Sachs DH, Madsen JC, Allan JS.Long-term acceptance of porcine pulmonary allografts without chronic rejection.Transplant Proc. 2005 Jan-Feb;37(1):72-4.
  • Dor FJ, Kuwaki K, Tseng YL, Shimizu A, Houser SL, Yamada K, Hawley RJ, Patience C, Awwad M, Fishman JA, Robson SC, Sachs DH, Schuurman HJ, Cooper DK.Potential of aspirin to inhibit thrombotic microangiopathy in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pig hearts after transplantation in baboons.Transplant Proc. 2005 Jan-Feb;37(1):489-90.
  • Schroeder C, Allan JS, Nguyen BN, Wu G, Zhang T, Azimzadeh AM, Madsen JC, Schuurman HJ, Sachs DH, Pierson RN.Hyperacute rejection is attenuated in GalT knockout swine lungs perfused ex vivo with human blood.Transplant Proc. 2005 Jan-Feb;37(1):512-3.
  • Lee PW, Cina RA, Randolph MA, Goodrich J, Rowland H, Arellano R, Kim HB, Sachs DH, Huang CA.Stable multilineage chimerism across full MHC barriers without graft-versus-host disease following in utero bone marrow transplantation in pigs.Exp Hematol. 2005 Mar;33(3):371-9.
  • Yamada K, Yazawa K, Shimizu A, Iwanaga T, Hisashi Y, Nuhn M, O'Malley P, Nobori S, Vagefi PA, Patience C, Fishman J, Cooper DK, Hawley RJ, Greenstein J, Schuurman HJ, Awwad M, Sykes M, Sachs DH.Marked prolongation of porcine renal xenograft survival in baboons through the use of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout donors and the cotransplantation of vascularized thymic tissue.Nat Med. 2005 Jan;11(1):32-4.
  • Mueller NJ, Kuwaki K, Knosalla C, Dor FJ, Gollackner B, Wilkinson RA, Arn S, Sachs DH, Cooper DK, Fishman JA.Early weaning of piglets fails to exclude porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus.Xenotransplantation. 2005 Jan;12(1):59-62.
  • Mueller NJ, Kuwaki K, Dor FJ, Knosalla C, Gollackner B, Wilkinson RA, Sachs DH, Cooper DK, Fishman JA.Reduction of consumptive coagulopathy using porcine cytomegalovirus-free cardiac porcine grafts in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation.Transplantation. 2004 Nov 27;78(10):1449-53.
  • Daly A, McAfee S, Dey B, Colby C, Schulte L, Yeap B, Sackstein R, Tarbell NJ, Sachs D, Sykes M, Spitzer TR.Nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation: Infectious complications in 65 recipients of HLA-identical and mismatched transplants.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2003 Jun;9(6):373-82.
  • Spitzer TR, McAfee SL, Dey BR, Colby C, Hope J, Grossberg H, Preffer F, Shaffer J, Alexander SI, Sachs DH, Sykes M.Nonmyeloablative haploidentical stem-cell transplantation using anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody (MEDI-507)-based conditioning for refractory hematologic malignancies.Transplantation. 2003 May 27;75(10):1748-51.
  • Dey BR, McAfee S, Colby C, Sackstein R, Saidman S, Tarbell N, Sachs DH, Sykes M, Spitzer TR.Impact of prophylactic donor leukocyte infusions on mixed chimerism, graft-versus-host disease, and antitumor response in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2003 May;9(5):320-9.
  • Wu A, Yamada K, Neville DM, Awwad M, Wain JC, Shimizu A, Gojo S, Kitamura H, Colvin RB, Cooper DK, Sykes M, Sachs DH.Xenogeneic thymus transplantation in a pig-to-baboon model.Transplantation. 2003 Feb 15;75(3):282-91.
  • Bhler LH, Spitzer TR, Sykes M, Sachs DH, Delmonico FL, Tolkoff-Rubin N, Saidman SL, Sackstein R, McAfee S, Dey B, Colby C, Cosimi AB.Induction of kidney allograft tolerance after transient lymphohematopoietic chimerism in patients with multiple myeloma and end-stage renal disease.Transplantation. 2002 Nov 27;74(10):1405-9.
  • Mapara MY, Kim YM, Wang SP, Bronson R, Sachs DH, Sykes M.Donor lymphocyte infusions mediate superior graft-versus-leukemia effects in mixed compared to fully allogeneic chimeras: a critical role for host antigen-presenting cells.Blood. 2002 Sep 1;100(5):1903-9.
  • Heinz M, Huang CA, Emery DW, Giovino MA, LeGuern A, Kurilla-Mahon B, Theodore P, Arn JS, Sykes M, Mulligan R, Down JD, Sachs DH, Goodell MA.Use of CD9 expression to enrich for porcine hematopoietic progenitors.Exp Hematol. 2002 Jul;30(7):809-15.
  • Schmidtko J, Wang R, Wu CL, Mauiyyedi S, Harris NL, Della Pelle P, Brousaides N, Zagachin L, Ferry JA, Wang F, Kawai T, Sachs DH, Cosimi BA, Colvin RB.Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder associated with an Epstein-Barr-related virus in cynomolgus monkeys.Transplantation. 2002 May 15;73(9):1431-9.
  • Bhler L, Awwad M, Treter S, Chang Q, Basker M, Alwayn IP, Teranishi K, Ericsson T, Moran K, Harper D, Kurilla-Mahon B, Huang CA, Sackstein R, Sykes M, White-Scharf ME, Sachs DH, Down JD, Cooper DK.Pig hematopoietic cell chimerism in baboons conditioned with a nonmyeloablative regimen and CD154 blockade.Transplantation. 2002 Jan 15;73(1):12-22.
  • Dey BR, McAfee S, Sackstein R, Colby C, Saidman S, Weymouth D, Poliquin C, Vanderklish J, Sachs DH, Sykes M, Spitzer TR.Successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancy following autologous stem cell transplantation.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2001;7(11):604-12.
  • Bhler L, Basker M, Alwayn IP, Goepfert C, Kitamura H, Kawai T, Gojo S, Kozlowski T, Ierino FL, Awwad M, Sachs DH, Sackstein R, Robson SC, Cooper DK.Coagulation and thrombotic disorders associated with pig organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation in nonhuman primates.Transplantation. 2000 Nov 15;70(9):1323-31.
  • Spitzer TR, McAfee S, Sackstein R, Colby C, Toh HC, Multani P, Saidman S, Weyouth DW, Preffer F, Poliquin C, Foley A, Cox B, Andrews D, Sachs DH, Sykes M.Intentional induction of mixed chimerism and achievement of antitumor responses after nonmyeloablative conditioning therapy and HLA-matched donor bone marrow transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancies.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2000;6(3A):309-20.
  • Huang CA, Fuchimoto Y, Scheier-Dolberg R, Murphy MC, Neville DM, Sachs DH.Stable mixed chimerism and tolerance using a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen in a large-animal model.J Clin Invest. 2000 Jan;105(2):173-81.
  • Haller GW, Esnaola N, Yamada K, Wu A, Shimizu A, Hansen A, Ferrara VR, Allison KS, Colvin RB, Sykes M, Sachs DH.Thymic transplantation across an MHC class I barrier in swine.J Immunol. 1999 Oct 1;163(7):3785-92.
  • Spitzer TR, Delmonico F, Tolkoff-Rubin N, McAfee S, Sackstein R, Saidman S, Colby C, Sykes M, Sachs DH, Cosimi AB.Combined histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-matched donor bone marrow and renal transplantation for multiple myeloma with end stage renal disease: the induction of allograft tolerance through mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism.Transplantation. 1999 Aug 27;68(4):480-4.
  • Sykes M, Preffer F, McAfee S, Saidman SL, Weymouth D, Andrews DM, Colby C, Sackstein R, Sachs DH, Spitzer TR.Mixed lymphohaemopoietic chimerism and graft-versus-lymphoma effects after non-myeloablative therapy and HLA-mismatched bone-marrow transplantation.Lancet. 1999 May 22;353(9166):1755-9.
  • Zhao Y, Swenson K, Sergio JJ, Arn JS, Sachs DH, Sykes M.Skin graft tolerance across a discordant xenogeneic barrier.Nat Med. 1996 Nov;2(11):1211-6.
  • Sachs DH, Sykes M, Greenstein JL, Cosimi AB.Tolerance and xenograft survival.Nat Med. 1995 Sep;1(9):969.
  • Kawai T, Cosimi AB, Colvin RB, Powelson J, Eason J, Kozlowski T, Sykes M, Monroy R, Tanaka M, Sachs DH.Mixed allogeneic chimerism and renal allograft tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys.Transplantation. 1995 Jan 27;59(2):256-62.
  • Latinne D, Vitiello DM, Sachs DH, Sykes M.Tolerance to discordant xenografts. I. Sharing of human natural antibody determinants on miniature swine bone marrow cells and endothelial cells.Transplantation. 1994 Jan;57(2):238-45.
  • Smith CV, Suzuki T, Guzzetta PC, Nakajima K, Sundt TM, Mixon A, Spitzer TR, Eckhaus MA, Sachs DH.Bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine: IV. Development of myeloablative regimens that allow engraftment across major histocompatibility barriers.Transplantation. 1993 Sep;56(3):541-9.
  • Sachs DH, Smith CV, Emery DW, LeGuern C, Bodine D, Nienhuis A, Sykes M.Induction of specific tolerance to MHC-disparate allografts through genetic engineering.Exp Nephrol. 1993 Mar-Apr;1(2):128-33.
  • Sykes M, Sachs DH, Nienhuis AW, Pearson DA, Moulton AD, Bodine DM.Specific prolongation of skin graft survival following retroviral transduction of bone marrow with an allogeneic major histocompatibility complex gene.Transplantation. 1993 Jan;55(1):197-202.
  • Sharabi Y, Aksentijevich I, Sundt TM, Sachs DH, Sykes M.Specific tolerance induction across a xenogeneic barrier: production of mixed rat/mouse lymphohematopoietic chimeras using a nonlethal preparative regimen.J Exp Med. 1990 Jul 1;172(1):195-202.