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Edward E. Whang, MD


  • Gold JS, Al Natour RH, Saund MS, Yoon C, Sharma AM, Huang Q, Boosalis VA, Whang EE.Population-Based Outcome of Stage IA-IIA Resected Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Who Should Get Adjuvant Treatment?.Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Jan 24.
  • Lin CI, Whang EE, Lorch JH, Ruan DT.Autophagic activation potentiates the antiproliferative effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in medullary thyroid cancer.Surgery. 2012 Dec;152(6):1142-9.
  • Lin CI, Whang EE, Moalem J, Ruan DT.Strategic combination therapy overcomes tyrosine kinase coactivation in adrenocortical carcinoma.Surgery. 2012 Dec;152(6):1045-50.
  • Lin CI, Du J, Shen WT, Whang EE, Donner DB, Griff N, He F, Moore FD, Clark OH, Ruan DT.Mitogen-inducible gene-6 is a multifunctional adaptor protein with tumor suppressor-like activity in papillary thyroid cancer.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E554-65.
  • Lin CI, Whang EE, Donner DB, Du J, Lorch J, He F, Jiang X, Price BD, Moore FD, Ruan DT.Autophagy induction with RAD001 enhances chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity through Met inhibition in papillary thyroid cancer.Mol Cancer Res. 2010 Sep;8(9):1217-26.
  • Cho NL, Lin CI, Whang EE, Carothers AM, Moore FD, Ruan DT.Sulindac reverses aberrant expression and localization of beta-catenin in papillary thyroid cancer cells with the BRAFV600E mutation.Thyroid. 2010 Jun;20(6):615-22.
  • Abramson MA, Pandharipande P, Ruan D, Gold JS, Whang EE.Radical resection for T1b gallbladder cancer: a decision analysis.Hpb : The Official Journal Of The International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association. 2009 Dec;11(8):656-63.
  • Ito H, Abramson M, Ito K, Swanson E, Cho N, Ruan DT, Swanson RS, Whang EE.Surgery and Staging of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A 14-Year Experience.J Gastrointest Surg. 2010 May;14(5):891-8.
  • Lin CI, Whang EE, Abramson MA, Jiang X, Price BD, Donner DB, Moore FD, Ruan DT.Autophagy: a new target for advanced papillary thyroid cancer therapy.Surgery. 2009 Dec;146(6):1208-14.
  • Lin CI, Whang EE, Donner DB, Jiang X, Price BD, Carothers AM, Delaine T, Leffler H, Nilsson UJ, Nose V, Moore FD, Ruan DT.Galectin-3 targeted therapy with a small molecule inhibitor activates apoptosis and enhances both chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity in papillary thyroid cancer.Mol Cancer Res. 2009 Oct;7(10):1655-62.
  • Lin CI,Whang EE,Abramson MA,Donner DB,Bertagnolli MM,Moore FD Jr,Ruan DT.Galectin-3 regulates apoptosis and doxorubicin chemoresistance in papillary thyroid cancer cells.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Feb 6;379(2):626-31.
  • Irani JL,Cutler CS,Whang EE,Clancy TE,Russell S,Swanson RS,Ashley SW,Zinner MJ,Raut CP.Severe acute gastrointestinal graft-vs-host disease: an emerging surgical dilemma in contemporary cancer care.Arch Surg. 2008 Nov;143(11):1041-5; discussion 1046.
  • Abramson MA,Swanson EW,Whang EE.Surgical resection versus palliative chemoradiotherapy for the management of pancreatic cancer with local venous invasion: a decision analysis.J Gastrointest Surg. 2009 Jan;13(1):26-34.
  • Irani JL,Ashley SW,Brooks DC,Osteen RT,Raut CP,Russell S,Swanson RS,Whang EE,Zinner MJ,Clancy TE.Distal pancreatectomy is not associated with increased perioperative morbidity when performed as part of a multivisceral resection.J Gastrointest Surg. 2008 Dec;12(12):2177-82.
  • Ito K,Ito H,Whang EE.Timing of cholecystectomy for biliary pancreatitis: do the data support current guidelines?.J Gastrointest Surg. 2008 Dec;12(12):2164-70.
  • Rocha FG, Sundback CA, Krebs NJ, Leach JK, Mooney DJ, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE.The effect of sustained delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor on angiogenesis in tissue-engineered intestine.Biomaterials. 2008 Jul;29(19):2884-90.
  • Liau SS, Whang E.HMGA1 is a molecular determinant of chemoresistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 1;14(5):1470-7.
  • Ito K, Ito H, Tavakkolizadeh A, Whang EE.Is ductal evaluation always necessary before or during surgery for biliary pancreatitis?.Am J Surg. 2008 Apr;195(4):463-6.
  • Ito K, Perez A, Ito H, Whang EE.Pancreatic pseudocysts: is delayed surgical intervention associated with adverse outcomes?.J Gastrointest Surg. 2007 Oct;11(10):1317-21.
  • Liau SS, Jazag A, Ito K, Whang EE.Overexpression of HMGA1 promotes anoikis resistance and constitutive Akt activation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.Br J Cancer. 2007 Mar 26;96(6):993-1000.
  • Liau SS, Jazag A, Whang EE.HMGA1 is a determinant of cellular invasiveness and in vivo metastatic potential in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Cancer Res. 2006 Dec 15;66(24):11613-22.
  • Liau SS, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of HMGA1 promotes chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.J Gastrointest Surg. 2006 Nov;10(9):1254-62; discussion 1263.
  • Matros E, Bailey G, Clancy T, Zinner M, Ashley S, Whang E, Redston M.Cytokeratin 20 expression identifies a subtype of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with decreased overall survival.Cancer. 2006 Feb 1;106(3):693-702.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Waseem T, Ashley SW, Whang EE.RNA interference demonstrates a novel role for integrin-linked kinase as a determinant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell gemcitabine chemoresistance.Clin Cancer Res. 2005 May 1;11(9):3433-8.
  • Duxbury MS, Ashley SW, Whang EE.RNA interference: A mammalian SID-1 homologue enhances siRNA uptake and gene silencing efficacy in human cells.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jun 3;331(2):459-463.
  • Moore KA, Ito H, Clancy TE, Burgess A, Zinner MJ, Whang EE.Impact of menopausal status on the behavior of pancreatic cystic neoplasms in women.Curr Surg. 2005 Mar-Apr;62(2):258-61.
  • Perez A, Duxbury M, Rocha FG, Ramsanahie AP, Farivar RS, Varnholt H, Ito H, Wong H, Rounds J, Zinner MJ, Whang EE, Ashley SW.Glucagon-like peptide 2 is an endogenous mediator of postresection intestinal adaptation.JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2005 Mar-Apr;29(2):97-101.
  • Duxbury MS, Matros E, Clancy T, Bailey G, Doff M, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Maitra A, Redston M, Whang EE.CEACAM6 is a novel biomarker in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PanIN lesions.Ann Surg. 2005 Mar;241(3):491-6.
  • Ito H, Clancy TE, Osteen RT, Swanson RS, Bueno R, Sugarbaker DJ, Ashley SW, Zinner MJ, Whang EE.Adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia: what is the optimal surgical approach?.J Am Coll Surg. 2004 Dec;199(6):880-6.
  • Ito H, Duxbury M, Benoit E, Clancy TE, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Prostaglandin E2 enhances pancreatic cancer invasiveness through an Ets-1-dependent induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2.Cancer Res. 2004 Oct 15;64(20):7439-46.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Retrovirally mediated RNA interference targeting the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase: A novel therapeutic strategy in pancreatic cancer.Surgery. 2004 Aug;136(2):261-9.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Ligation of EphA2 by Ephrin A1-Fc inhibits pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular invasiveness.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 6;320(4):1096-102.
  • Rocha FG, Whang EE.Intestinal tissue engineering: from regenerative medicine to model systems.J Surg Res. 2004 Aug;120(2):320-5.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Overexpression of CEACAM6 promotes insulin-like growth factor I-induced pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular invasiveness.Oncogene. 2004 Jul 29;23(34):5834-42.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.siRNA directed against c-Src enhances pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell gemcitabine chemosensitivity.J Am Coll Surg. 2004 Jun;198(6):953-9.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Waseem T, Ashley SW, Whang EE.A novel role for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 as a determinant of gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.Cancer Res. 2004 Jun 1;64(11):3987-93.
  • Ito H, Duxbury M, Benoit E, Farivar RS, Gardner-Thorpe J, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Fibronectin-induced COX-2 mediates MMP-2 expression and invasiveness of rhabdomyosarcoma.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 May 28;318(2):594-600.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Focal adhesion kinase gene silencing promotes anoikis and suppresses metastasis of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.Surgery. 2004 May;135(5):555-62.
  • Duxbury MS, Grikscheit TC, Gardner-Thorpe J, Rocha FG, Ito H, Perez A, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE.Lymphangiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine.Transplantation. 2004 Apr 27;77(8):1162-6.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Ashley SW, Whang EE.CEACAM6 as a novel target for indirect type 1 immunotoxin-based therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 May 7;317(3):837-43.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Inhibition of SRC tyrosine kinase impairs inherent and acquired gemcitabine resistance in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 1;10(7):2307-18.
  • Duxbury MS, Whang EE.RNA interference: a practical approach.J Surg Res. 2004 Apr;117(2):339-44.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Ashley SW, Whang EE.c-Src-dependent cross-talk between CEACAM6 and alphavbeta3 integrin enhances pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Apr 23;317(1):133-41.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Ashley SW, Whang EE.CEACAM6 cross-linking induces caveolin-1-dependent, Src-mediated focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation in BxPC3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.J Biol Chem. 2004 May 28;279(22):23176-82.
  • Ito H, Matros E, Brooks DC, Osteen RT, Zinner MJ, Swanson RS, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Treatment outcomes associated with surgery for gallbladder cancer: a 20-year experience.J Gastrointest Surg. 2004 Feb;8(2):183-90.
  • Gardner-Thorpe J, Ito H, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Ribosomal protein P2: a potential molecular target for antisense therapy of human malignancies.Anticancer Res. 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6C):4549-60.
  • Ito H, Osteen RT, Bleday R, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Appendiceal adenocarcinoma: long-term outcomes after surgical therapy.Dis Colon Rectum. 2004 Apr;47(4):474-80.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.EphA2: a determinant of malignant cellular behavior and a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Oncogene. 2004 Feb 19;23(7):1448-56.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.CEACAM6 gene silencing impairs anoikis resistance and in vivo metastatic ability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.Oncogene. 2004 Jan 15;23(2):465-73.
  • Duxbury MS, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Inhibition of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular invasiveness by blebbistatin: a novel myosin II inhibitor.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jan 23;313(4):992-7.
  • Farivar RS, Gardner-Thorpe J, Ito H, Arshad H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.The efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on human pancreatic cancer cell lines.J Surg Res. 2003 Dec;115(2):219-25.
  • Gardner-Thorpe J, Grikscheit TC, Ito H, Perez A, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE.Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine.Tissue Eng. 2003 Dec;9(6):1255-61.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.RNA interference targeting the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase enhances pancreatic adenocarcinoma chemosensitivity to gemcitabine.Oncogene. 2004 Feb 26;23(8):1539-48.
  • Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.RNA interference targeting focal adhesion kinase enhances pancreatic adenocarcinoma gemcitabine chemosensitivity.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Nov 21;311(3):786-92.
  • Ito H, Perez A, Brooks DC, Osteen RT, Zinner MJ, Moore FD, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Surgical treatment of small bowel cancer: a 20-year single institution experience.J Gastrointest Surg. 2003 Nov;7(7):925-30.
  • Whang EE, Perez A, Ito H, Mello MM, Ashley SW, Zinner MJ.Work hours reform: perceptions and desires of contemporary surgical residents.J Am Coll Surg. 2003 Oct;197(4):624-30.
  • Duxbury MS, Waseem T, Ito H, Robinson MK, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Ghrelin promotes pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular proliferation and invasiveness.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Sep 19;309(2):464-8.
  • Ito H, Gardner-Thorpe J, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Inhibition of tyrosine kinase Src suppresses pancreatic cancer invasiveness.Surgery. 2003 Aug;134(2):221-6.
  • Ramsanahie A, Duxbury MS, Grikscheit TC, Perez A, Rhoads DB, Gardner-Thorpe J, Ogilvie J, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE.Effect of GLP-2 on mucosal morphology and SGLT1 expression in tissue-engineered neointestine.Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):G1345-52.
  • Gardner-Thorpe J, Ito H, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Autoantibody-mediated inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth in an athymic (nude) mouse model.Pancreas. 2003 Aug;27(2):180-9.
  • Grikscheit TC, Ochoa ER, Ramsanahie A, Alsberg E, Mooney D, Whang EE, Vacanti JP.Tissue-engineered large intestine resembles native colon with appropriate in vitro physiology and architecture.Ann Surg. 2003 Jul;238(1):35-41.
  • Perez A, Saltzman JR, Carr-Locke DL, Brooks DC, Osteen RT, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Benign nonampullary duodenal neoplasms.J Gastrointest Surg. 2003 May-Jun;7(4):536-41.
  • Whang EE, Mello MM, Ashley SW, Zinner MJ.Implementing resident work hour limitations: lessons from the New York State experience.Ann Surg. 2003 Apr;237(4):449-55.
  • Perez A, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Brooks DC, Whang EE.What is the value of telerobotic technology in gastrointestinal surgery?.Surg Endosc. 2003 May;17(5):811-3.
  • Tavakkolizadeh A, Berger UV, Stephen AE, Kim BS, Mooney D, Hediger MA, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE.Tissue-engineered neomucosa: morphology, enterocyte dynamics, and SGLT1 expression topography.Transplantation. 2003 Jan 27;75(2):181-5.
  • Secor SM, Lane JS, Whang EE, Ashley SW, Diamond J.Luminal nutrient signals for intestinal adaptation in pythons.Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Dec;283(6):G1298-309.
  • Ramsanahie AP, Perez A, Duensing AU, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Glucagon-like peptide 2 enhances intestinal epithelial restitution.J Surg Res. 2002 Sep;107(1):44-9.
  • Perez A, Whang EE, Brooks DC, Moore FD, Hughes MD, Sica GT, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Banks PA.Is severity of necrotizing pancreatitis increased in extended necrosis and infected necrosis?.Pancreas. 2002 Oct;25(3):229-33.
  • Perez A, Grikscheit TC, Blumberg RS, Ashley SW, Vacanti JP, Whang EE.Tissue-engineered small intestine: ontogeny of the immune system.Transplantation. 2002 Sep 15;74(5):619-23.
  • Tavakkolizadeh A, Whang EE.Understanding and augmenting human intestinal adaptation: a call for more clinical research.JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2002 Jul-Aug;26(4):251-5.
  • Gardner-Thorpe J, Ito H, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Differential display of expressed genes in pancreatic cancer cells.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Apr 26;293(1):391-5.
  • Jasleen J, Ashley SW, Shimoda N, Zinner MJ, Whang EE.Glucagon-like peptide 2 stimulates intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro.Dig Dis Sci. 2002 May;47(5):1135-40.
  • Ashley SW, Perez A, Pierce EA, Brooks DC, Moore FD, Whang EE, Banks PA, Zinner MJ.Necrotizing pancreatitis: contemporary analysis of 99 consecutive cases.Ann Surg. 2001 Oct;234(4):572-9; discussion 579-80.
  • Whang EE, Shen KR.Intestinal adaptation: a new era.JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001 Mar-Apr;25(2):100.
  • Tavakkolizadeh A, Berger UV, Shen KR, Levitsky LL, Zinner MJ, Hediger MA, Ashley SW, Whang EE, Rhoads DB.Diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal SGLT-1 function, V(max), and mRNA expression topography.Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Feb;280(2):G209-15.
  • Tavakkolizadeh A, Shen R, Jasleen J, Soybel DI, Jacobs DO, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Effect of growth hormone on intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter activity.JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001 Jan-Feb;25(1):18-22.
  • Secor SM, Whang EE, Lane JS, Ashley SW, Diamond J.Luminal and systemic signals trigger intestinal adaptation in the juvenile python.Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Dec;279(6):G1177-87.
  • Tavakkolizadeh A, Shen R, Abraham P, Kormi N, Seifert P, Edelman ER, Jacobs DO, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Glucagonlike peptide 2 (glp-2) promotes intestinal recovery following chemotherapy-induced enteritis.Curr Surg. 2000 Sep 1;57(5):502.
  • Whang EE, Danial T, Dunn JC, Ashley SW, Reber HA, Lewin TJ, Tompkins RK.The spectrum of mucin-producing adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.Pancreas. 2000 Aug;21(2):147-51.
  • Tavakkolizadeh A, Shen R, Abraham P, Kormi N, Seifert P, Edelman ER, Jacobs DO, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE.Glucagon-like peptide 2: a new treatment for chemotherapy-induced enteritis.J Surg Res. 2000 Jun 1;91(1):77-82.
  • Ko CY, Whang EE, Longmire WP, McFadden DW.Improving the Surgeon's participation in research: is It a problem of training or priority?.J Surg Res. 2000 Jun 1;91(1):5-8.
  • Jasleen J, Shimoda N, Shen ER, Tavakkolizadeh A, Whang EE, Jacobs DO, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW.Signaling mechanisms of glucagon-like peptide 2-induced intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.J Surg Res. 2000 May 1;90(1):13-8.
  • Hines OJ, Whang EE, Bilchik AJ, Zinner MJ, Welton ML, Lane J, McFadden DW, Ashley SW.Role of Na+-glucose cotransport in jejunal meal-induced absorption.Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Jan;45(1):1-6.
  • Lane JS, Whang EE, Rigberg DA, Hines OJ, Kwan D, Zinner MJ, McFadden DW, Diamond J, Ashley SW.Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog.Am J Physiol. 1999 Mar;276(3 Pt 1):G789-94.
  • Ko CY, Whang EE, Karamanoukian R, Longmire WP, McFadden DW.What is the best method of surgical training?: A report of America's leading senior surgeons.Arch Surg. 1998 Aug;133(8):900-5.
  • Whang EE, Hines OJ, Reeve JR, Grandt D, Moser JA, Bilchik AJ, Zinner MJ, McFadden DW, Ashley SW.Antisecretory mechanisms of peptide YY in rat distal colon.Dig Dis Sci. 1997 Jun;42(6):1121-7.
  • Whang EE, Dunn JC, Mahanty H, McFadden DW, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW.Endotoxin inhibitor prevents sepsis-induced alterations in intestinal ion transport.Am J Surg. 1996 Oct;172(4):341-4.
  • Whang EE, Dunn JC, Joffe H, Mahanty H, Zinner MJ, McFadden DW, Ashley SW.Enterocyte functional adaptation following intestinal resection.J Surg Res. 1996 Feb 1;60(2):370-4.
  • Whang EE, Dunn JC, Liu CD, Newton T, Zinner MJ, McFadden DW, Ashley SW.Amiloride inhibits meal-stimulated colonic absorption.J Surg Res. 1996 Feb 1;60(2):303-6.
  • Liu CD, Hines OJ, Whang EE, Balasubramaniam A, Newton TR, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, McFadden DW.A novel synthetic analog of peptide YY, BIM-43004, given intraluminally, is proabsorptive.J Surg Res. 1995 Jul;59(1):80-4.
  • Hines OJ, Bilchik AJ, Ashley SW, Whang EE, Liu CD, Zinner MJ, McFadden DW.Amino acids mediate postprandial jejunal proabsorption.J Surg Res. 1995 Jan;58(1):81-5.
  • Liu CD, Hines OJ, Whang EE, Laird EC, Skotzko MJ, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW, McFadden DW.Pancreatic peptide YY mRNA levels increase during adaptation after small intestinal resection.J Surg Res. 1995 Jan;58(1):6-11.
  • Hines OJ, Bilchik AJ, McFadden DW, Skotzko MJ, Whang EE, Zinner MJ, Ashley SW.Up-regulation of Na+,K+ adenosine triphosphatase after massive intestinal resection.Surgery. 1994 Aug;116(2):401-7; discussion 408.