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Xandra O. Breakefield, PhD


  • El Andaloussi S, Mäger I, Breakefield XO, Wood MJ.Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 Apr 15.
  • Prabhakar S, Taherian M, Gianni D, Conlon TJ, Fulci G, Brockmann J, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO, Brenner GJ.Regression of schwannomas induced by adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of caspase-1.Hum Gene Ther. 2013 Feb;24(2):152-62.
  • Tremblay JP, Xiao X, Aartsma-Rus A, Barbas C, Blau HM, Bogdanove AJ, Boycott K, Braun S, Breakefield XO, Bueren JA, Buschmann M, Byrne BJ, Calos M, Cathomen T, Chamberlain J, Chuah M, Cornetta K, Davies KE, Dickson JG, Duchateau P, Flotte TR, Gaudet D, Gersbach CA, Gilbert R, Glorioso J, Herzog RW, High KA, Huang W, Huard J, Joung JK, Liu D, Liu D, Lochmüller H, Lustig L, Martens J, Massie B, Mavilio F, Mendell JR, Nathwani A, Ponder K, Porteus M, Puymirat J, Samulski J, Takeda S, Thrasher A, VandenDriessche T, Wei Y, Wilson JM, Wilton SD, Wolfe JH, Gao G.Translating the genomics revolution: the need for an international gene therapy consortium for monogenic diseases.Mol Ther. 2013 Feb;21(2):266-8.
  • Bolukbasi MF, Mizrak A, Ozdener GB, Madlener S, Ströbel T, Erkan EP, Fan JB, Breakefield XO, Saydam O.miR-1289 and "Zipcode"-like Sequence Enrich mRNAs in Microvesicles.Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2012;1:e10.
  • Shao H, Chung J, Balaj L, Charest A, Bigner DD, Carter BS, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R, Lee H.Protein typing of circulating microvesicles allows real-time monitoring of glioblastoma therapy.Nat Med. 2012 Dec;18(12):1835-40.
  • Mizrak A, Bolukbasi MF, Ozdener GB, Brenner GJ, Madlener S, Erkan EP, Ströbel T, Breakefield XO, Saydam O.Genetically Engineered Microvesicles Carrying Suicide mRNA/Protein Inhibit Schwannoma Tumor Growth.Mol Ther. 2012 Aug 21.
  • Breakefield XO.Refocus the recombinant DNA advisory committee.Nat Med. 2012 Jul;18(7):1007.
  • Erkan EP, Breakefield XO, Saydam O.miRNA signature of schwannomas: Possible role(s) of "tumor suppressor" miRNAs in benign tumors.Oncotarget. 2011 Mar 30.
  • Bowers WJ, Breakefield XO, Sena-Esteves M.Genetic Therapy for the Nervous System.Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Mar 23.
  • Balaj L, Lessard R, Dai L, Cho YJ, Pomeroy SL, Breakefield XO, Skog J.Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences.Nat Commun. 2011 Feb;2:180.
  • Smits M, Mir SE, Nilsson RJ, van der Stoop PM, Niers JM, Marquez VE, Cloos J, Breakefield XO, Krichevsky AM, Noske DP, Tannous BA, Würdinger T.Down-regulation of miR-101 in endothelial cells promotes blood vessel formation through reduced repression of EZH2.PLoS ONE. 2011;6(1):e16282.
  • Saydam O, Senol O, Würdinger T, Mizrak A, Ozdener GB, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Yi M, Stephens RM, Krichevsky AM, Saydam N, Brenner GJ, Breakefield XO.miRNA-7 attenuation in Schwannoma tumors stimulates growth by upregulating three oncogenic signaling pathways.Cancer Res. 2011 Feb 1;71(3):852-61.
  • Saydam O, Ozdener GB, Senol O, Mizrak A, Prabhakar S, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Breakefield XO, Brenner GJ.A novel imaging-compatible sciatic nerve schwannoma model.J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Jan 30;195(1):75-7.
  • Breakefield XO, Sena-Esteves M.Healing genes in the nervous system.Neuron. 2010 Oct 21;68(2):178-81.
  • Chen P, Burdette AJ, Porter JC, Ricketts JC, Fox SA, Nery FC, Hewett JW, Berkowitz LA, Breakefield XO, Caldwell KA, Caldwell GA.The early-onset torsion dystonia-associated protein, torsinA, is a homeostatic regulator of endoplasmic reticulum stress response.Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Sep 15;19(18):3502-15.
  • Grandi P, Fernandez J, Szentirmai O, Carter R, Gianni D, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO.Targeting HSV-1 virions for specific binding to epidermal growth factor receptor-vIII-bearing tumor cells.Cancer Gene Ther. 2010 Sep;17(9):655-63.
  • Cao S, Hewett JW, Yokoi F, Lu J, Buckley AC, Burdette AJ, Chen P, Nery FC, Li Y, Breakefield XO, Caldwell GA, Caldwell KA.Chemical enhancement of torsinA function in cell and animal models of torsion dystonia.Dis Model Mech.;3(5-6):386-96.
  • Chen C, Skog J, Hsu CH, Lessard RT, Balaj L, Wurdinger T, Carter BS, Breakefield XO, Toner M, Irimia D.Microfluidic isolation and transcriptome analysis of serum microvesicles.Lab Chip. 2010 Feb 21;10(4):505-11.
  • Saydam O, Shen Y, Würdinger T, Senol O, Boke E, James MF, Tannous BA, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Yi M, Stephens RM, Fraefel C, Gusella JF, Krichevsky AM, Breakefield XO.Downregulated microRNA-200a in meningiomas promotes tumor growth by reducing E-cadherin and activating the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Nov;29(21):5923-40.
  • Tannous BA,Christensen AP,Pike L,Wurdinger T,Perry KF,Saydam O,Jacobs AH,Garcia-Anoveros J,Weissleder R,Sena-Esteves M,Corey DP,Breakefield XO.Mutant sodium channel for tumor therapy.Mol Ther. 2009 May;17(5):810-9.
  • Skog J,Wurdinger T,van Rijn S,Meijer DH,Gainche L,Sena-Esteves M,Curry WT Jr,Carter BS,Krichevsky AM,Breakefield XO.Glioblastoma microvesicles transport RNA and proteins that promote tumour growth and provide diagnostic biomarkers.Nat Cell Biol. 2008 Dec;10(12):1470-6.
  • Wurdinger T,Tannous BA,Saydam O,Skog J,Grau S,Soutschek J,Weissleder R,Breakefield XO,Krichevsky AM.miR-296 regulates growth factor receptor overexpression in angiogenic endothelial cells.Cancer Cell. 2008 Nov 4;14(5):382-93.
  • Nery FC,Zeng J,Niland BP,Hewett J,Farley J,Irimia D,Li Y,Wiche G,Sonnenberg A,Breakefield XO.TorsinA binds the KASH domain of nesprins and participates in linkage between nuclear envelope and cytoskeleton.J Cell Sci. 2008 Oct 15;121(Pt 20):3476-86.
  • Maguire CA,Meijer DH,LeRoy SG,Tierney LA,Broekman ML,Costa FF,Breakefield XO,Stemmer-Rachamimov A,Sena-Esteves M.Preventing growth of brain tumors by creating a zone of resistance.Mol Ther. 2008 Oct;16(10):1695-702.
  • Shah K, Hingtgen S, Kasmieh R, Figueiredo JL, Garcia-Garcia E, Martinez-Serrano A, Breakefield X, Weissleder R.Bimodal viral vectors and in vivo imaging reveal the fate of human neural stem cells in experimental glioma model.J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 23;28(17):4406-13.
  • Schubert M, Breakefield X, Federoff H, Frederickson RM, Lowenstein PR.Gene delivery to the nervous system.Mol Ther. 2008 Apr;16(4):640-6.
  • de Oliveira AP, Glauser DL, Laimbacher AS, Strasser R, Schraner EM, Wild P, Ziegler U, Breakefield XO, Ackermann M, Fraefel C.Live visualization of herpes simplex virus type 1 compartment dynamics.J Virol. 2008 May;82(10):4974-90.
  • Hewett JW, Nery FC, Niland B, Ge P, Tan P, Hadwiger P, Tannous BA, Sah DW, Breakefield XO.siRNA knock-down of mutant torsinA restores processing through secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells.Hum Mol Genet. 2008 May 15;17(10):1436-45.
  • Cortes ML, Oehmig A, Saydam O, Sanford JD, Perry KF, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO.Targeted integration of functional human ATM cDNA into genome mediated by HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vector.Mol Ther. 2008 Jan;16(1):81-8.
  • Oehmig A, Corts ML, Perry KF, Sena-Esteves M, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO.Integration of active human beta-galactosidase gene (100 kb) into genome using HSV/AAV amplicon vector.Gene Ther. 2007 Jul;14(14):1078-91.
  • Badr CE, Hewett JW, Breakefield XO, Tannous BA.A highly sensitive assay for monitoring the secretory pathway and ER stress.PLoS ONE. 2007;2(6):e571.
  • Hewett JW, Tannous B, Niland BP, Nery FC, Zeng J, Li Y, Breakefield XO.Mutant torsinA interferes with protein processing through the secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Apr 24;104(17):7271-6.
  • Prabhakar S, Messerli SM, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Liu TC, Rabkin S, Martuza R, Breakefield XO.Treatment of Implantable NF2 Schwannoma Tumor Models with Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus G47Delta.Cancer Gene Ther. 2007 May;14(5):460-7.
  • Bahn E, Siegert S, Pfander T, Kramer ML, Schulz-Schaeffer WJ, Hewett JW, Breakefield XO, Hedreen JC, Rostsy KM.TorsinB expression in the developing human brain.Brain Res. 2006 Oct 20;1116(1):112-9.
  • Corts ML, Oehmig A, Perry KF, Sanford JD, Breakefield XO.Expression of human ATM mutated cDNA in Atm-deficient mouse brain mediated by HSV-1 amplicon vector.Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 1;141(3):1247-56.
  • Shah K, Breakefield XO.HSV Amplicon Vectors for Cancer Therapy.Curr Gene Ther. 2006 Jun;6(3):361-70. Review.
  • Tannous BA, Grimm J, Perry KF, Chen JW, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO.Metabolic biotinylation of cell surface receptors for in vivo imaging.Nat Methods. 2006 May;3(5):391-6.
  • McKee TD, Grandi P, Mok W, Alexandrakis G, Insin N, Zimmer JP, Bawendi MG, Boucher Y, Breakefield XO, Jain RK.Degradation of fibrillar collagen in a human melanoma xenograft improves the efficacy of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus vector.Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1;66(5):2509-13.
  • Messerli SM, Prabhakar S, Tang Y, Mahmood U, Weissleder R, Bronson R, Martuza R, Rabkin S, Breakefield XO.Treatment of schwannomas with an oncolytic recombinant herpes simplex virus in murine models of neurofibromatosis type 2.Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Jan;17(1):20-30.
  • Brown AB, Mahmood U, Cortes ML, Tang Y, Dai G, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Prabhakar S, Leishear K, Onda H, Kwiatkowski D, Weissleder R, Breakefield X.Magnetic resonance imaging and characterization of spontaneous lesions in a transgenic mouse model of tuberous sclerosis as a model for endothelial cell-based transgene delivery.Hum Gene Ther. 2005 Dec;16(12):1367-76.
  • Shah K, Tung CH, Chang CH, Slootweg E, O'Loughlin T, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R.In Vivo Imaging of HIV Protease Activity in Amplicon Vector-transduced Gliomas.Cancer Res. 2004 Jan 1;64(1):273-8.
  • Brown AB, Yang W, Schmidt NO, Carroll R, Leishear KK, Rainov NG, Black PM, Breakefield XO, Aboody KS.Intravascular delivery of neural stem cell lines to target intracranial and extracranial tumors of neural and non-neural origin.Hum Gene Ther. 2003 Dec 10;14(18):1777-85.
  • Yoshimura S, Teramoto T, Whalen MJ, Irizarry MC, Takagi Y, Qiu J, Harada J, Waeber C, Breakefield XO, Moskowitz MA.FGF-2 regulates neurogenesis and degeneration in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury in mice.J Clin Invest. 2003 Oct;112(8):1202-10.
  • Shah K, Tang Y, Breakefield X, Weissleder R.Real-time imaging of TRAIL-induced apoptosis of glioma tumors in vivo.Oncogene. 2003 Oct 9;22(44):6865-72.
  • Augood SJ, Hollingsworth Z, Albers DS, Yang L, Leung J, Breakefield XO, Standaert DG.Dopamine transmission in DYT1 dystonia.Adv Neurol. 2004;94:53-60.
  • Bragg DC, Slater DJ, Breakefield XO.TorsinA and early-onset torsion dystonia.Adv Neurol. 2004;94:87-93.
  • Augood SJ, Keller-McGandy CE, Siriani A, Hewett J, Ramesh V, Sapp E, DiFiglia M, Breakefield XO, Standaert DG.Distribution and ultrastructural localization of torsinA immunoreactivity in the human brain.Brain Res. 2003 Oct 3;986(1-2):12-21.
  • Tang Y, Shah K, Messerli SM, Snyder E, Breakefield X, Weissleder R.In vivo tracking of neural progenitor cell migration to glioblastomas.Hum Gene Ther. 2003 Sep 1;14(13):1247-54.
  • Bakowska JC, Di Maria MV, Camp SM, Wang Y, Allen PD, Breakefield XO.Targeted transgene integration into transgenic mouse fibroblasts carrying the full-length human AAVS1 locus mediated by HSV/AAV rep(+) hybrid amplicon vector.Gene Ther. 2003 Sep;10(19):1691-702.
  • Corts ML, Bakkenist CJ, Di Maria MV, Kastan MB, Breakefield XO.HSV-1 amplicon vector-mediated expression of ATM cDNA and correction of the ataxia-telangiectasia cellular phenotype.Gene Ther. 2003 Aug;10(16):1321-7.
  • Hampl JA, Camp SM, Mydlarz WK, Hampl M, Ichikawa T, Chiocca EA, Louis DN, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO.Potentiated gene delivery to tumors using herpes simplex virus/Epstein-Barr virus/RV tribrid amplicon vectors.Hum Gene Ther. 2003 May 1;14(7):611-26.
  • Wang S, Petravicz J, Breakefield XO.Single HSV-amplicon vector mediates drug-induced gene expression via dimerizer system.Mol Ther. 2003 Jun;7(6):790-800.
  • Simon DK, Friedman J, Breakefield XO, Jankovic J, Brin MF, Provias J, Bressman SB, Charness ME, Tarsy D, Johns DR, Tarnopolsky MA.A heteroplasmic mitochondrial complex I gene mutation in adult-onset dystonia.Neurogenetics. 2003 Aug;4(4):199-205.
  • Davidson BL, Breakefield XO.Viral vectors for gene delivery to the nervous system.Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003 May;4(5):353-64.
  • Hewett J, Ziefer P, Bergeron D, Naismith T, Boston H, Slater D, Wilbur J, Schuback D, Kamm C, Smith N, Camp S, Ozelius LJ, Ramesh V, Hanson PI, Breakefield XO.TorsinA in PC12 cells: localization in the endoplasmic reticulum and response to stress.J Neurosci Res. 2003 Apr 15;72(2):158-68.
  • Lam P, Hui KM, Wang Y, Allen PD, Louis DN, Yuan CJ, Breakefield XO.Dynamics of transgene expression in human glioblastoma cells mediated by herpes simplex virus/adeno-associated virus amplicon vectors.Hum Gene Ther. 2002 Dec 10;13(18):2147-59.
  • Saeki Y, Breakefield XO, Chiocca EA.Improved HSV-1 amplicon packaging system using ICP27-deleted, oversized HSV-1 BAC DNA.Methods Mol Med. 2003;76:51-60.
  • Sandler VM, Wang S, Angelo K, Lo HG, Breakefield XO, Clapham DE.Modified herpes simplex virus delivery of enhanced GFP into the central nervous system.J Neurosci Methods. 2002 Dec 15;121(2):211-9.
  • Spear MA, Schuback D, Miyata K, Grandi P, Sun F, Yoo L, Nguyen A, Brandt CR, Breakefield XO.HSV-1 amplicon peptide display vector.J Virol Methods. 2003 Jan;107(1):71-9.
  • McLean PJ, Kawamata H, Shariff S, Hewett J, Sharma N, Ueda K, Breakefield XO, Hyman BT.TorsinA and heat shock proteins act as molecular chaperones: suppression of alpha-synuclein aggregation.J Neurochem. 2002 Nov;83(4):846-54.
  • Klein C, Liu L, Doheny D, Kock N, Mller B, de Carvalho Aguiar P, Leung J, de Leon D, Bressman SB, Silverman J, Smith C, Danisi F, Morrison C, Walker RH, Velickovic M, Schwinger E, Kramer PL, Breakefield XO, Brin MF, Ozelius LJ.Epsilon-sarcoglycan mutations found in combination with other dystonia gene mutations.Ann Neurol. 2002 Nov;52(5):675-9.
  • Pal PK, Leung J, Hedrich K, Samii A, Lieberman A, Nausieda PA, Calne DB, Breakefield XO, Klein C, Stoessl AJ.[18F]-Dopa positron emission tomography imaging in early-stage, non-parkin juvenile parkinsonism.Mov Disord. 2002 Jul;17(4):789-94.
  • Kann M, Jacobs H, Mohrmann K, Schumacher K, Hedrich K, Garrels J, Wiegers K, Schwinger E, Pramstaller PP, Breakefield XO, Ozelius LJ, Vieregge P, Klein C.Role of parkin mutations in 111 community-based patients with early-onset parkinsonism.Ann Neurol. 2002 May;51(5):621-5.
  • Sena-Esteves M, Hampl JA, Camp SM, Breakefield XO.Generation of stable retrovirus packaging cell lines after transduction with herpes simplex virus hybrid amplicon vectors.J Gene Med. 2002 May-Jun;4(3):229-39.
  • Wang Y, Camp SM, Niwano M, Shen X, Bakowska JC, Breakefield XO, Allen PD.Herpes simplex virus type 1/adeno-associated virus rep(+) hybrid amplicon vector improves the stability of transgene expression in human cells by site-specific integration.J Virol. 2002 Jul;76(14):7150-62.
  • Ziefer P, Leung J, Razzano T, Shalish C, LeDoux MS, Lorden JF, Ozelius L, Breakefield XO, Standaert DG, Augood SJ.Molecular cloning and expression of rat torsinA in the normal and genetically dystonic (dt) rat.Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002 May 30;101(1-2):132-5.
  • Costantini LC, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO, Isacson O.Herpes simplex virus/adeno-associated virus hybrid vectors for gene transfer to neurons. Preparation and use.Methods Mol Med. 2002;69:461-79.
  • Pramstaller PP, Kis B, Eskelson C, Hedrich K, Scherer M, Schwinger E, Breakefield XO, Kramer PL, Ozelius LJ, Klein C.Phenotypic variability in a large kindred (Family LA) with deletions in the parkin gene.Mov Disord. 2002 Mar;17(2):424-6.
  • Opal P, Tintner R, Jankovic J, Leung J, Breakefield XO, Friedman J, Ozelius L.Intrafamilial phenotypic variability of the DYT1 dystonia: from asymptomatic TOR1A gene carrier status to dystonic storm.Mov Disord. 2002 Mar;17(2):339-45.
  • Hsich G, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO.Critical issues in gene therapy for neurologic disease.Hum Gene Ther. 2002 Mar 20;13(5):579-604.
  • Wang Y, Mukherjee S, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO, Allen PD.Herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicon vector-mediated gene transfer to muscle.Hum Gene Ther. 2002 Jan 20;13(2):261-73.
  • Spear MA, Breakefield XO, Beltzer J, Schuback D, Weissleder R, Pardo FS, Ladner R.Isolation, characterization, and recovery of small peptide phage display epitopes selected against viable malignant glioma cells.Cancer Gene Ther. 2001 Jul;8(7):506-11.
  • Hedrich K, Kann M, Lanthaler AJ, Dalski A, Eskelson C, Landt O, Schwinger E, Vieregge P, Lang AE, Breakefield XO, Ozelius LJ, Pramstaller PP, Klein C.The importance of gene dosage studies: mutational analysis of the parkin gene in early-onset parkinsonism.Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Aug 1;10(16):1649-56.
  • Sharma N, Hewett J, Ozelius LJ, Ramesh V, McLean PJ, Breakefield XO, Hyman BT.A close association of torsinA and alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies: a fluorescence resonance energy transfer study.Am J Pathol. 2001 Jul;159(1):339-44.
  • Saeki Y, Fraefel C, Ichikawa T, Breakefield XO, Chiocca EA.Improved helper virus-free packaging system for HSV amplicon vectors using an ICP27-deleted, oversized HSV-1 DNA in a bacterial artificial chromosome.Mol Ther. 2001 Apr;3(4):591-601.
  • Jacobs A, Tjuvajev JG, Dubrovin M, Akhurst T, Balatoni J, Beattie B, Joshi R, Finn R, Larson SM, Herrlinger U, Pechan PA, Chiocca EA, Breakefield XO, Blasberg RG.Positron emission tomography-based imaging of transgene expression mediated by replication-conditional, oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant vectors in vivo.Cancer Res. 2001 Apr 1;61(7):2983-95.
  • Lam PY, Breakefield XO.Potential of gene therapy for brain tumors.Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Apr;10(7):777-87.
  • Jacobs A, Dubrovin M, Hewett J, Sena-Esteves M, Tan CW, Slack M, Sadelain M, Breakefield XO, Tjuvajev JG.Functional coexpression of HSV-1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein: implications for noninvasive imaging of transgene expression.Neoplasia. 1999 Jun;1(2):154-61.
  • Aghi M, Kramm CM, Breakefield XO.Folylpolyglutamyl synthetase gene transfer and glioma antifolate sensitivity in culture and in vivo.J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Jul 21;91(14):1233-41.
  • Herrlinger U, Kramm CM, Aboody-Guterman KS, Silver JS, Ikeda K, Johnston KM, Pechan PA, Barth RF, Finkelstein D, Chiocca EA, Louis DN, Breakefield XO.Pre-existing herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immunity decreases, but does not abolish, gene transfer to experimental brain tumors by a HSV-1 vector.Gene Ther. 1998 Jun;5(6):809-19.
  • Johnston KM, Jacoby D, Pechan PA, Fraefel C, Borghesani P, Schuback D, Dunn RJ, Smith FI, Breakefield XO.HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors extend transgene expression in human glioma cells.Hum Gene Ther. 1997 Feb 10;8(3):359-70.
  • Zimmer C, Wright SC, Engelhardt RT, Johnson GA, Kramm C, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R.Tumor cell endocytosis imaging facilitates delineation of the glioma-brain interface.Exp Neurol. 1997 Jan;143(1):61-9.
  • Davar G, Shalish C, Blumenfeld A, Breakfield XO.Exclusion of p75NGFR and other candidate genes in a family with hereditary sensory neuropathy type II.Pain. 1996 Sep;67(1):135-9.
  • Wei MX, Tamiya T, Chase M, Boviatsis EJ, Chang TK, Kowall NW, Hochberg FH, Waxman DJ, Breakefield XO, Chiocca EA.Experimental tumor therapy in mice using the cyclophosphamide-activating cytochrome P450 2B1 gene.Hum Gene Ther. 1994 Aug;5(8):969-78.
  • Davar G, Kramer MF, Garber D, Roca AL, Andersen JK, Bebrin W, Coen DM, Kosz-Vnenchak M, Knipe DM, Breakefield XO.Comparative efficacy of expression of genes delivered to mouse sensory neurons with herpes virus vectors.J Comp Neurol. 1994 Jan 1;339(1):3-11.