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Nancy Krieger, PhD


  • Krieger N, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Beckfield J, Kiang MV.50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US-born Black and White Americans, 1959-2008.Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Aug(4):1294-313.
  • Krieger N.History, Biology, and Health Inequities: Emergent Embodied Phenotypes and the Illustrative Case of the Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor.Am J Public Health. 2012 Nov 15.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD.Temporal trends in the black/white breast cancer case ratio for estrogen receptor status: disparities are historically contingent, not innate.Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Mar;22(3):511-4.
  • Sembajwe G, Quinn M, Kriebel D, Stoddard A, Krieger N, Barbeau E.The influence of sociodemographic characteristics on agreement between self-reports and expert exposure assessments.Am J Ind Med. 2010 Oct;53(10):1019-31.
  • Okechukwu C, Krieger N, Sorensen G, Li Y, Barbeau E.Testing hypothesized psychosocial mediators: lessons learned in the MassBUILT study.Health Education and Behavior..
  • Krieger N, Carney D, Lancaster K, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Banaji M.Combining Explicit and Implicit Measures of Racial Discrimination in Health Research.Am J Public Health. 2010 Aug;100(8):1485-92.
  • Krieger N, Birn AE.Health reform battles in the USA.Lancet. 2010 Mar 27;375(9720):1081; author reply 1081-2.
  • Okechukwu CA, Krieger N, Chen J, Sorensen G, Li Y, Barbeau EM.The association of workplace hazards and smoking in a U.S. multiethnic working-class population.Public Health Rep.;125(2):225-33.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD.Decline in US Breast Cancer Rates After the Women's Health Initiative: Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Differentials.Am J Public Health. 2010 Apr;100(S1):S132-S139.
  • Shariff-Marco S, Gee GC, Breen N, Willis G, Reeve BB, Grant D, Ponce NA, Krieger N, Landrine H, Williams DR, Alegria M, Mays VM, Johnson TP, Brown ER.A mixed-methods approach to developing a self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination measure for use in multiethnic health surveys.Ethn Dis. 2009;19(4):447-53.
  • Beckfield J,Krieger N.Epi + demos + cracy: Linking Political Systems and Priorities to the Magnitude of Health Inequities--Evidence, Gaps, and a Research Agenda.Epidemiol Rev. 2009;31:152-77. Review.
  • Okechukwu CA,Krieger N,Sorensen G,Li Y,Barbeau EM.MassBuilt: effectiveness of an apprenticeship site-based smoking cessation intervention for unionized building trades workers.Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Aug;20(6):887-94.
  • Rehkopf DH,Berkman LF,Coull B,Krieger N.The non-linear risk of mortality by income level in a healthy population: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mortality follow-up cohort, 1988-2001.BMC Public Health. 2008;8:383.
  • Krieger N.Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective.Am J Public Health. 2008 Sep;98(9 Suppl):S20-5.
  • Davey Smith G,Krieger N.Tackling health inequities.BMJ. 2008;337:a1526.
  • Krieger N,Chen JT,Ware JH,Kaddour A.Race/ethnicity and breast cancer estrogen receptor status: impact of class, missing data, and modeling assumptions.Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Dec;19(10):1305-18.
  • Chen JT,Coull BA,Waterman PD,Schwartz J,Krieger N.Methodologic implications of social inequalities for analyzing health disparities in large spatiotemporal data sets: an example using breast cancer incidence data (Northern and Southern California, 1988--2002).Stat Med. 2008 Sep 10;27(20):3957-83.
  • Krieger N.Hormone therapy and the rise and perhaps fall of US breast cancer incidence rates: critical reflections.Int J Epidemiol. 2008 Jun;37(3):627-37.
  • Chae DH, Takeuchi DT, Barbeau EM, Bennett GG, Lindsey J, Krieger N.Unfair Treatment, Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Ethnic Identification, and Smoking Among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American Study.Am J Public Health. 2008 Mar;98(3):485-92.
  • Krieger N.Proximal, distal, and the politics of causation: what's level got to do with it?.Am J Public Health. 2008 Feb;98(2):221-30.
  • Krieger N.Commentary: ways of asking and ways of living: reflections on the 50th anniversary of Morris' ever-useful Uses of Epidemiology.Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Dec;36(6):1173-80.
  • Bates LM, Acevedo-Garcia D, AlegrÝa M, Krieger N.Immigration and generational trends in body mass index and obesity in the United States: results of the National Latino and Asian American Survey, 2002-2003.Am J Public Health. 2008 Jan;98(1):70-7.
  • Krieger N.Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.Epidemiology. 2007 Nov;18(6):658-63.
  • Quinn MM, Sembajwe G, Stoddard AM, Kriebel D, Krieger N, Sorensen G, Hartman C, Naishadham D, Barbeau EM.Social disparities in the burden of occupational exposures: results of a cross-sectional study.Am J Ind Med. 2007 Dec;50(12):861-75.
  • Barbeau EM, Hartman C, Quinn MM, Stoddard AM, Krieger N.Methods for recruiting white, black, and hispanic working-class women and men to a study of physical and social hazards at work: the United for Health study.Int J Health Serv. 2007;37(1):127-44.
  • Melchior M, Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Krieger N, Zins M, Bonenfant S, Goldberg M.Lifelong socioeconomic trajectory and premature mortality (35-65 years) in France: findings from the GAZEL Cohort Study.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006 Nov;60(11):937-44.
  • Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Coull BA, Cohen B, Ostrem M, Krieger N.Mapping and measuring social disparities in premature mortality: the impact of census tract poverty within and across Boston neighborhoods, 1999-2001.J Urban Health. 2006 Nov;83(6):1063-84.
  • Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N.Comparing individual- and area-based socioeconomic measures for the surveillance of health disparities: A multilevel analysis of Massachusetts births, 1989-1991.Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Nov 1;164(9):823-34.
  • Rehkopf DH, Haughton LT, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Krieger N.Monitoring socioeconomic disparities in death: comparing individual-level education and area-based socioeconomic measures.Am J Public Health. 2006 Dec;96(12):2135-8.
  • Krieger N.A century of census tracts: health & the body politic (1906-2006).J Urban Health. 2006 May;83(3):355-61.
  • Krieger N, Waterman PD, Hartman C, Bates LM, Stoddard AM, Quinn MM, Sorensen G, Barbeau EM.Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination--a study of Black, Latino, and White low-income women and men workers in the United States.Int J Health Serv. 2006;36(1):51-85.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Yin R, Coull BA.Race/ethnicity and changing US socioeconomic gradients in breast cancer incidence: California and Massachusetts, 1978-2002 (United States).Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Mar;17(2):217-26.
  • Krieger N.Stormy Weather: Race, Gene Expression, and the Science of Health Disparities.Am J Public Health. 2005 Dec;95(12):2155-60.
  • Stoddard AM, Krieger N, Barbeau EM, Bennett GG, Fay ME, Sorensen G, Emmons K.Methods and baseline characteristics of two group-randomized trials with multiracial and multiethnic working-class samples.Prev Chronic Dis. 2005 Oct;2(4):A10.
  • Krieger N, L÷wy I, Aronowitz R, Bigby J, Dickersin K, Garner E, GaudilliŔre JP, Hinestrosa C, Hubbard R, Johnson PA, Missmer SA, Norsigian J, Pearson C, Rosenberg CE, Rosenberg L, Rosenkrantz BG, Seaman B, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Thornton J, Weisz G.Hormone replacement therapy, cancer, controversies, and women's health: historical, epidemiological, biological, clinical, and advocacy perspectives.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Sep;59(9):740-8.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull BA, Selby JV.Lifetime socioeconomic position and twins' health: an analysis of 308 pairs of United States women twins.PLoS Med. 2005 Jul;2(7):e162.
  • Krieger N, Smith K, Naishadham D, Hartman C, Barbeau EM.Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.Soc Sci Med. 2005 Oct;61(7):1576-96.
  • Melchior M, Goldberg M, Krieger N, Kawachi I, Menvielle G, Zins M, Berkman LF.Occupational class, occupational mobility and cancer incidence among middle-aged men and women: a prospective study of the French GAZEL cohort*.Cancer Causes Control. 2005 Jun;16(5):515-24.
  • Melchior M, Krieger N, Kawachi I, Berkman LF, Niedhammer I, Goldberg M.Work factors and occupational class disparities in sickness absence: findings from the GAZEL cohort study.Am J Public Health. 2005 Jul;95(7):1206-12.
  • Krieger N, Barbeau EM, Soobader MJ.Class matters: U.S. versus U.K. measures of occupational disparities in access to health services and health status in the 2000 U.S. National Health Interview Survey.Int J Health Serv. 2005;35(2):213-36.
  • Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N.The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors' ability to practice harm reduction: a qualitative study.Soc Sci Med. 2005 Aug;61(3):673-84.
  • Krieger N.Embodiment: a conceptual glossary for epidemiology.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 May;59(5):350-5.
  • Krieger N.Defining and investigating social disparities in cancer: critical issues.Cancer Causes Control. 2005 Feb;16(1):5-14.
  • Krieger N, Emmons KM, White KB.Cancer disparities: developing a multidisciplinary research agenda - preface.Cancer Causes Control. 2005 Feb;16(1):1-3.
  • Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N.Racial disparities in context: a multilevel analysis of neighborhood variations in poverty and excess mortality among black populations in Massachusetts.Am J Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):260-5.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV.Painting a truer picture of US socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project.Am J Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):312-23.
  • Mustillo S, Krieger N, Gunderson EP, Sidney S, McCreath H, Kiefe CI.Self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and Black-White differences in preterm and low-birthweight deliveries: the CARDIA Study.Am J Public Health. 2004 Dec;94(12):2125-31.
  • Krieger N.Data, "race," and politics: a commentary on the epidemiological significance of California's Proposition 54.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Aug;58(8):632-3.
  • Krieger N, Davey Smith G."Bodies count," and body counts: social epidemiology and embodying inequality.Epidemiol Rev. 2004;26:92-103.
  • Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N.Characterizing perceived police violence: implications for public health.Am J Public Health. 2004 Jul;94(7):1109-18.
  • Barbeau EM, Krieger N, Soobader MJ.Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000.Am J Public Health. 2004 Feb;94(2):269-78.
  • Krieger N.Latin American social medicine: the quest for social justice and public health.Am J Public Health. 2003 Dec;93(12):1989-91.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV.Race/ethnicity, gender, and monitoring socioeconomic gradients in health: a comparison of area-based socioeconomic measures--the public health disparities geocoding project.Am J Public Health. 2003 Oct;93(10):1655-71.
  • Krieger N, Northridge M, Gruskin S, Quinn M, Kriebel D, Davey Smith G, Bassett M, Rehkopf DH, Miller C,.Assessing health impact assessment: multidisciplinary and international perspectives.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Sep;57(9):659-62.
  • Krieger N.Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections--and why does it matter?.Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Aug;32(4):652-7.
  • Krieger N.Place, space, and health: GIS and epidemiology.Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):384-5.
  • Krieger N.Postmenopausal hormone therapy.N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 5;348(23):2363-4; author reply 2363.
  • Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV.Monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and violence: geocoding and choice of area-based socioeconomic measures--the public health disparities geocoding project (US).Public Health Rep. 2003 May-Jun;118(3):240-60.
  • Krieger N, Strong EF, Makosky C, Weuve J.Breast cancer, birth cohorts, and Epstein-Barr virus: methodological issues in exploring the "hygiene hypothesis" in relation to breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and stomach cancer.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 May;12(5):405-11.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R.Choosing area based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birth weight and childhood lead poisoning: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US).J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Mar;57(3):186-99.
  • Krieger N.Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective.Am J Public Health. 2003 Feb;93(2):194-9.
  • Wise LA, Krieger N, Zierler S, Harlow BL.Lifetime socioeconomic position in relation to onset of perimenopause.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002 Nov;56(11):851-60.
  • Krieger N.A glossary for social epidemiology.Epidemiol Bull. 2002 Mar;23(1):7-11.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R.Geocoding and monitoring of US socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: does the choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter?: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project.Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Sep 1;156(5):471-82.
  • Krieger N, Waterman P, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R.Zip code caveat: bias due to spatiotemporal mismatches between zip codes and US census-defined geographic areas--the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project.Am J Public Health. 2002 Jul;92(7):1100-2.
  • Krieger N.The ostrich, the albatross, and public health: an ecosocial perspective--or why an explicit focus on health consequences of discrimination and deprivation is vital for good science and public health practice.Public Health Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct;116(5):419-23.
  • Chen JT, Krieger N, Van Den Eeden SK, Quesenberry CP.Different slopes for different folks: socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in asthma and hay fever among 173,859 U.S. men and women.Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Apr;110 Suppl 2:211-6.
  • Krieger N.Is breast cancer a disease of affluence, poverty, or both? The case of African American women.Am J Public Health. 2002 Apr;92(4):611-3.
  • Krieger N, Gruskin S.Frameworks matter: ecosocial and health and human rights perspectives on disparities in women's health--the case of tuberculosis.J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2001 Fall;56(4):137-42.
  • Allsworth JE, Zierler S, Krieger N, Harlow BL.Ovarian function in late reproductive years in relation to lifetime experiences of abuse.Epidemiology. 2001 Nov;12(6):676-81.
  • Wise LA, Zierler S, Krieger N, Harlow BL.Adult onset of major depressive disorder in relation to early life violent victimisation: a case-control study.Lancet. 2001 Sep 15;358(9285):881-7.
  • Krieger N.A glossary for social epidemiology.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001 Oct;55(10):693-700.
  • Rich-Edwards J, Krieger N, Majzoub J, Zierler S, Lieberman E, Gillman M.Maternal experiences of racism and violence as predictors of preterm birth: rationale and study design.Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2001 Jul;15 Suppl 2:124-35.
  • Krieger N.Historical roots of social epidemiology: socioeconomic gradients in health and contextual analysis.Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Aug;30(4):899-900.
  • Krieger N.Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective.Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Aug;30(4):668-77.
  • Krieger N, Williams DR.Changing to the 2000 standard million: are declining racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health real progress or statistical illusion?.Am J Public Health. 2001 Aug;91(8):1209-13.
  • Krieger N, Waterman P, Lemieux K, Zierler S, Hogan JW.On the wrong side of the tracts? Evaluating the accuracy of geocoding in public health research.Am J Public Health. 2001 Jul;91(7):1114-6.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Selby JV.Class inequalities in women's health: combined impact of childhood and adult social class--a study of 630 US women.Public Health. 2001 May;115(3):175-85.
  • Krieger N.Socioeconomic data in cancer registries.Am J Public Health. 2001 Jan;91(1):156-7.
  • Krieger N.Commentary: Society, biology and the logic of social epidemiology.Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Feb;30(1):44-6.
  • Krieger N.Counting accountably: implications of the new approaches to classifying race/ethnicity in the 2000 census.Am J Public Health. 2000 Nov;90(11):1687-9.
  • Krieger N.Epidemiology and social sciences: towards a critical reengagement in the 21st century.Epidemiol Rev. 2000;22(1):155-63.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Ebel G.Can we monitor socioeconomic inequalities in health? A survey of U.S. health departments' data collection and reporting practices.Public Health Rep. 1997 Nov-Dec;112(6):481-91.
  • Krieger N, Chen JT, Selby JV.Comparing individual-based and household-based measures of social class to assess class inequalities in women's health: a methodological study of 684 US women.J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Oct;53(10):612-23.
  • Krieger N, Quesenberry C, Peng T, Horn-Ross P, Stewart S, Brown S, Swallen K, Guillermo T, Suh D, Alvarez-Martinez L, Ward F.Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1988-92 (United States).Cancer Causes Control. 1999 Dec;10(6):525-37.
  • Krieger N, Sidney S, Coakley E.Racial discrimination and skin color in the CARDIA study: implications for public health research. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults.Am J Public Health. 1998 Sep;88(9):1308-13.
  • Krieger N, Okamoto A, Selby JV.Adult female twins' recall of childhood social class and father's education: a validation study for public health research.Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Apr 1;147(7):704-8.
  • Krieger N, van den Eeden SK, Zava D, Okamoto A.Race/ethnicity, social class, and prevalence of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers: a study of white, black, and Asian women in the San Francisco bay area.Ethn Dis. 1997 Spring-Summer;7(2):137-49.
  • Krieger N, Zierler S.The need for epidemiologic theory.Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):212-4.
  • Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE.Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines.Annu Rev Public Health. 1997;18:341-78.
  • Zierler S, Krieger N.Reframing women's risk: social inequalities and HIV infection.Annu Rev Public Health. 1997;18:401-36.
  • Krieger N, Sidney S.Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA Study of young black and white adults.Am J Public Health. 1996 Oct;86(10):1370-8.
  • Krieger N.Inequality, diversity, and health: thoughts on "race/ethnicity" and "gender".J Am Med Womens Assoc. 1996 Aug-Oct;51(4):133-6.
  • Krieger N, Moss N.Accounting for the public's health: an introduction to selected papers from a U.S. conference on "measuring social inequalities in health".Int J Health Serv. 1996;26(3):383-90.
  • Krieger N, Fee E.Measuring social inequalities in health in the United States: a historical review, 1900-1950.Int J Health Serv. 1996;26(3):391-418.
  • Hahn RA, Eaker ED, Barker ND, Teutsch SM, Sosniak WA, Krieger N.Poverty and death in the United States.Int J Health Serv. 1996;26(4):673-90.
  • Krieger N, Zierler S.What explains the public's health?--A call for epidemiologic theory.Epidemiology. 1996 Jan;7(1):107-9.
  • Lee PR, Moss N, Krieger N.Measuring social inequalities in health. Report on the Conference of the National Institutes of Health.Public Health Rep. 1995 May-Jun;110(3):302-5.
  • Krieger N.Epidemiology and the web of causation: has anyone seen the spider?.Soc Sci Med. 1994 Oct;39(7):887-903.
  • Krieger N, Wolff MS, Hiatt RA, Rivera M, Vogelman J, Orentreich N.Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black, and Asian women.J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Apr 20;86(8):589-99.
  • Krieger N, Fee E.Man-made medicine and women's health: the biopolitics of sex/gender and race/ethnicity.Int J Health Serv. 1994;24(2):265-83.
  • Krieger N.Overcoming the absence of socioeconomic data in medical records: validation and application of a census-based methodology.Am J Public Health. 1992 May;82(5):703-10.
  • Krieger N.Women and social class: a methodological study comparing individual, household, and census measures as predictors of black/white differences in reproductive history.J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Mar;45(1):35-42.
  • Krieger N.Social class and the black/white crossover in the age-specific incidence of breast cancer: a study linking census-derived data to population-based registry records.Am J Epidemiol. 1990 May;131(5):804-14.
  • Krieger N.Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure?.Soc Sci Med. 1990;30(12):1273-81.
  • Krieger N.Exposure, susceptibility, and breast cancer risk: a hypothesis regarding exogenous carcinogens, breast tissue development, and social gradients, including black/white differences, in breast cancer incidence.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1989 Jul;13(3):205-23.
  • Bassett MT, Krieger N.Social class and black-white differences in breast cancer survival.Am J Public Health. 1986 Dec;76(12):1400-3.