Photo of Steven P. Balk,  MD, PhD

Steven P. Balk, MD, PhD

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Phone: (617) 735-2065
Fax: (617) 667-0610

Steven P. Balk, MD, PhD

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


  • Professor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • Staff Physician, Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center



  • Member, Center Scientific Council

Research Abstract

The major focus of the lab is on the molecular basis of prostate cancer development and progression. The androgen receptor, which is a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, plays a major role in prostate cancer. We have identified mutations in the androgen receptor that contribute to prostate cancer progression and are characterizing androgen receptor interacting proteins. We have also determined that the platelet derived growth factor receptor contributes to prostate cancer and are attempting to define other important growth factor-receptor interactions that may be useful therapeutic targets. Finally, efforts are underway to develop murine transgenic and gene knockout models of PCa. A second interest in the lab is a novel T cell population termed NK T cells and the MHC class I-like CD1d protein they recognize. These cells appear to have an important immunoregulatory function and we are determining the role they play in viral infections and anti-tumor


Publications from Harvard Catalyst Profiles

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  • Han D, Labaf M, Zhao Y, Owiredu J, Zhang S, Patel K, Venkataramani K, Steinfeld JS, Han W, Li M, Liu M, Wang Z, Besschetnova A, Patalano S, Mulhearn MJ, Macoska JA, Yuan X, Balk SP, Nelson PS, Plymate SR, Gao S, Siegfried KR, Liu R, Stangis MM, Foxa G, Czernik PJ, Williams BO, Zarringhalam K, Li X, Cai C. Androgen receptor splice variants drive castration-resistant prostate cancer metastasis by activating distinct transcriptional programs. J Clin Invest 2024. PubMed
  • Arai S, Gao Y, Yu Z, Xie L, Wang L, Zhang T, Nouri M, Chen S, Asara JM, Balk SP. A carboxy-terminal ubiquitylation site regulates androgen receptor activity. Commun Biol 2024; 7:25. PubMed
  • Besschetnova A, Han W, Liu M, Gao Y, Li M, Wang Z, Labaf M, Patalano S, Venkataramani K, Muriph RE, Macoska JA, Siegfried KR, Evans J, Balk SP, Gao S, Han D, Cai C. Demethylation of EHMT1/GLP Protein Reprograms Its Transcriptional Activity and Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression. Cancer Res Commun 2023; 3:1716-1730. PubMed
  • Iyer HS, Vaselkiv JB, Stopsack KH, Roscoe CJ, DeVille NV, Zhang Y, Penney KL, Balk SP, Fiorentino M, Hart JE, James P, De Vivo I, Mucci LA, Laden F, Rebbeck TR. Influence of neighborhood social and natural environment on prostate tumor histology in a cohort of male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol 2023. PubMed
  • Li M, Liu M, Han W, Wang Z, Han D, Patalano S, Macoska JA, Balk SP, He HH, Corey E, Gao S, Cai C. LSD1 inhibition disrupts super-enhancer driven oncogenic transcriptional programs in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2023. PubMed
  • Patterson JC, Varkaris A, Croucher PJP, Ridinger M, Dalrymple S, Nouri M, Xie F, Varmeh S, Jonas O, Whitman MA, Chen S, Rashed S, Makusha L, Luo J, Isaacs JT, Erlander MG, Einstein DJ, Balk SP, Yaffe MB. Plk1 Inhibitors and Abiraterone Synergistically Disrupt Mitosis and Kill Cancer Cells of Disparate Origin Independently of Androgen Receptor Signaling. Cancer Res 2023; 83:219-238. PubMed
  • Wang K, Ma F, Arai S, Wang Y, Varkaris A, Poluben L, Voznesensky O, Xie F, Zhang X, Yuan X, Balk SP. WNT5a Signaling through ROR2 Activates the Hippo Pathway to Suppress YAP1 Activity and Tumor Growth. Cancer Res 2023. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Figueiredo I, Lis RT, Coleman I, Gurel B, Bogdan D, Yuan W, Russo JW, Bright JR, Whitlock NC, Trostel SY, Ku AT, Patel RA, True LD, Welti J, Jimenez-Vacas JM, Nava Rodrigues D, Riisnaes R, Neeb A, Sprenger CT, Swain A, Wilkinson S, Karzai F, Dahut WL, Balk SP, Corey E, Nelson PS, Haffner MC, Plymate SR, de Bono JS, Sharp A. Assessment of Androgen Receptor splice variant-7 as a biomarker of clinical response in castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2022. PubMed
  • Sentana-Lledo D, Sartor O, Balk SP, Einstein DJ. Immune mechanisms behind prostate cancer in men of African ancestry: A review. Prostate 2022; 82:883-893. PubMed
  • Varghese B, Lynch L, Vriend LE, Draganov D, Clark JM, Kissick HT, Varghese S, Sanda MG, Dranoff G, Arredouani MS, Balk SP, Exley MA. Invariant NKT cell-augmented GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccine is effective in advanced prostate cancer model. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2022. PubMed
  • Ma F, Arai S, Wang K, Calagua C, Yuan AR, Poluben L, Gu Z, Russo JW, Einstein DJ, Ye H, He MX, Liu Y, Van Allen E, Sowalsky AG, Bhasin MK, Yuan X, Balk SP. Autocrine Canonical Wnt Signaling Primes Noncanonical Signaling through ROR1 in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res 2022; 82:1518-1533. PubMed
  • Han W, Liu M, Han D, Toure AA, Li M, Besschetnova A, Wang Z, Patalano S, Macoska JA, Lam HM, Corey E, He HH, Gao S, Balk SP, Cai C. Exploiting the tumor-suppressive activity of the androgen receptor by CDK4/6 inhibition in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Mol Ther 2022; 30:1628-1644. PubMed
  • Mendes AA, Lu J, Kaur HB, Zheng SL, Xu J, Hicks J, Weiner AB, Schaeffer EM, Ross AE, Balk SP, Taplin ME, Lack NA, Tekoglu E, Maynard JP, De Marzo AM, Antonarakis ES, Sfanos KS, Joshu CE, Shenderov E, Lotan TL. Association of B7-H3 expression with racial ancestry, immune cell density, and androgen receptor activation in prostate cancer. Cancer 2022. PubMed
  • Dong X, Xue H, Mo F, Lin YY, Lin D, Wong NKY, Sun Y, Wilkinson S, Ku AT, Hao J, Ci X, Wu R, Haegert A, Silver R, Taplin ME, Balk SP, Alumkal JJ, Sowalsky AG, Gleave M, Collins C, Wang Y. . Mol Cancer Res 2022. PubMed
  • Varkaris A, Stevens J, Ono Y, Balk SP, Bellmunt J. A Case of Prostate Cancer Harboring Androgen Receptor T878A Progesterone-Responsive Mutant Emerging After Abiraterone Acetate Treatment Responding to Darolutamide. JCO Precis Oncol 2022; 6:e2100091. PubMed
  • Liao Y, Chen CH, Xiao T, de la Peña Avalos B, Dray EV, Cai C, Gao S, Shah N, Zhang Z, Feit A, Xue P, Liu Z, Yang M, Lee JH, Xu H, Li W, Mei S, Pierre RS, Shu S, Fei T, Duarte M, Zhao J, Bradner JE, Polyak K, Kantoff PW, Long H, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M, Xu K. Inhibition of EZH2 transactivation function sensitizes solid tumors to genotoxic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022. PubMed
  • Westaby D, Jimenez-Vacas JM, Padilha A, Varkaris A, Balk SP, de Bono JS, Sharp A. Targeting the Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway: A Window of Opportunity for Prostate Cancer. Cancers (Basel) 2021. PubMed
  • Mostaghel EA, Marck BT, Kolokythas O, Chew F, Yu EY, Schweizer MT, Cheng HH, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Taplin ME, Sharifi N, Matsumoto AM, Nelson PS, Montgomery RB. Circulating and Intratumoral Adrenal Androgens Correlate with Response to Abiraterone in Men with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2021; 27:6001-6011. PubMed
  • Tewari AK, Cheung ATM, Crowdis J, Conway JR, Camp SY, Wankowicz SA, Livitz DG, Park J, Lis RT, Bosma-Moody A, He MX, AlDubayan SH, Zhang Z, McKay RR, Leshchiner I, Brown M, Balk SP, Getz G, Taplin ME, Van Allen EM. Molecular features of exceptional response to neoadjuvant anti-androgen therapy in high-risk localized prostate cancer. Cell Rep 2021; 36:109665. PubMed
  • Francini E, Ou FS, Rhoades J, Wolfe EG, O'Connor EP, Ha G, Gydush G, Kelleher KM, Bhatt RS, Balk SP, Sweeney CJ, Adalsteinsson VA, Taplin ME, Choudhury AD. Circulating Cell-Free DNA as Biomarker of Taxane Resistance in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancers (Basel) 2021. PubMed
  • Liang J, Wang L, Poluben L, Nouri M, Arai S, Xie L, Voznesensky OS, Cato L, Yuan X, Russo JW, Long HW, Brown M, Chen S, Balk SP. Androgen receptor splice variant 7 functions independently of the full length receptor in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett 2021; 519:172-184. PubMed
  • Calagua C, Ficial M, Jansen CS, Hirz T, Del Balzo L, Wilkinson S, Lake R, Ku AT, Voznesensky O, Sykes DB, Saylor PJ, Ye H, Signoretti S, Kissick H, Sowalsky AG, Balk SP, Einstein DJ. A Subset of Localized Prostate Cancer Displays an Immunogenic Phenotype Associated with Losses of Key Tumor Suppressor Genes. Clin Cancer Res 2021. PubMed
  • Morel KL, Sheahan AV, Burkhart DL, Baca SC, Boufaied N, Liu Y, Qiu X, Cañadas I, Roehle K, Heckler M, Calagua C, Ye H, Pantelidou C, Galbo P, Panja S, Mitrofanova A, Wilkinson S, Whitlock NC, Trostel SY, Hamid AA, Kibel AS, Barbie DA, Choudhury AD, Pomerantz MM, Sweeney CJ, Long HW, Einstein DJ, Shapiro GI, Dougan SK, Sowalsky AG, He HH, Freedman ML, Balk SP, Loda M, Labbé DP, Olson BM, Ellis L. EZH2 inhibition activates a dsRNA-STING-interferon stress axis that potentiates response to PD-1 checkpoint blockade in prostate cancer. 2021; 2:444-456. PubMed
  • Guo H, Wu Y, Nouri M, Spisak S, Russo JW, Sowalsky AG, Pomerantz MM, Wei Z, Korthauer K, Seo JH, Wang L, Arai S, Freedman ML, He HH, Chen S, Balk SP. Androgen receptor and MYC equilibration centralizes on developmental super-enhancer. Nat Commun 2021; 12:7308. PubMed
  • Einstein DJ, Arai S, Calagua C, Xie F, Voznesensky O, Capaldo BJ, Luffman C, Hecht JL, Balk SP, Sowalsky AG, Russo JW. Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Remains Dependent on Oncogenic Drivers Found in Primary Tumors. JCO Precis Oncol 2021. PubMed
  • He MX, Cuoco MS, Crowdis J, Bosma-Moody A, Zhang Z, Bi K, Kanodia A, Su MJ, Ku SY, Garcia MM, Sweet AR, Rodman C, DelloStritto L, Silver R, Steinharter J, Shah P, Izar B, Walk NC, Burke KP, Bakouny Z, Tewari AK, Liu D, Camp SY, Vokes NI, Salari K, Park J, Vigneau S, Fong L, Russo JW, Yuan X, Balk SP, Beltran H, Rozenblatt-Rosen O, Regev A, Rotem A, Taplin ME, Van Allen EM. Transcriptional mediators of treatment resistance in lethal prostate cancer. Nat Med 2021; 27:426-433. PubMed
  • Gao S, Chen S, Han D, Wang Z, Li M, Han W, Besschetnova A, Liu M, Zhou F, Barrett D, Luong MP, Owiredu J, Liang Y, Ahmed M, Petricca J, Patalano S, Macoska JA, Corey E, Chen S, Balk SP, He HH, Cai C. Chromatin binding of FOXA1 is promoted by LSD1-mediated demethylation in prostate cancer. Nat Genet 2020. PubMed
  • Zhang Z, Karthaus WR, Lee YS, Gao VR, Wu C, Russo JW, Liu M, Mota JM, Abida W, Linton E, Lee E, Barnes SD, Chen HA, Mao N, Wongvipat J, Choi D, Chen X, Zhao H, Manova-Todorova K, de Stanchina E, Taplin ME, Balk SP, Rathkopf DE, Gopalan A, Carver BS, Mu P, Jiang X, Watson PA, Sawyers CL. Tumor Microenvironment-Derived NRG1 Promotes Antiandrogen Resistance in Prostate Cancer. Cancer Cell 2020; 38:279-296.e9. PubMed
  • Arai S, Varkaris A, Nouri M, Chen S, Xie L, Balk SP. MARCH5 mediates NOXA-dependent MCL1 degradation driven by kinase inhibitors and integrated stress response activation. Elife 2020. PubMed
  • Gjyrezi A, Xie F, Voznesensky O, Khanna P, Calagua C, Bai Y, Kung J, Wu J, Corey E, Montgomery B, Mace S, Gianolio DA, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Giannakakou P, Bhatt RS. Taxane resistance in prostate cancer is mediated by decreased drug-target engagement. J Clin Invest 2020; 130:3287-3298. PubMed
  • Rafiei S, Fitzpatrick K, Liu D, Cai MY, Elmarakeby HA, Park J, Ricker C, Kochupurakkal BS, Choudhury AD, Hahn WC, Balk SP, Hwang JH, Van Allen EM, Mouw KW. ATM Loss Confers Greater Sensitivity to ATR Inhibition than PARP Inhibition in Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res 2020. PubMed
  • Russo JW, Nouri M, Balk SP. Androgen Receptor Interaction with Mediator Complex Is Enhanced in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer by CDK7 Phosphorylation of MED1. 2019; 9:1490-1492. PubMed
  • Cai C, Han D, Chen S, Han W, Gao S, Owiredu JN, Li M, Balk SP, He HH. ZBTB7A mediates the transcriptional repression activity of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2019. PubMed
  • Patterson JC, Joughin BA, Prota AE, Mühlethaler T, Jonas OH, Whitman MA, Varmeh S, Chen S, Balk SP, Steinmetz MO, Lauffenburger DA, Yaffe MB. VISAGE Reveals a Targetable Mitotic Spindle Vulnerability in Cancer Cells. Cell Syst 2019; 9:74-92.e8. PubMed
  • Cato L, de Tribolet-Hardy J, Lee I, Rottenberg JT, Coleman I, Melchers D, Houtman R, Xiao T, Li W, Uo T, Sun S, Kuznik NC, Göppert B, Ozgun F, van Royen ME, Houtsmuller AB, Vadhi R, Rao PK, Li L, Balk SP, Den RB, Trock BJ, Karnes RJ, Jenkins RB, Klein EA, Davicioni E, Gruhl FJ, Long HW, Liu XS, Cato ACB, Lack NA, Nelson PS, Plymate SR, Groner AC, Brown M. ARv7 Represses Tumor-Suppressor Genes in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancer Cell 2019; 35:401-413.e6. PubMed
  • Einstein DJ, Arai S, Balk SP. Targeting the androgen receptor and overcoming resistance in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 2019. PubMed
  • Sharp A, Coleman I, Yuan W, Sprenger C, Dolling D, Rodrigues DN, Russo JW, Figueiredo I, Bertan C, Seed G, Riisnaes R, Uo T, Neeb A, Welti J, Morrissey C, Carreira S, Luo J, Nelson PS, Balk SP, True LD, de Bono JS, Plymate SR. Androgen receptor splice variant-7 expression emerges with castration resistance in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest 2019; 129:192-208. PubMed
  • Hennigan ST, Trostel SY, Terrigino NT, Voznesensky OS, Schaefer RJ, Whitlock NC, Wilkinson S, Carrabba NV, Atway R, Shema S, Lake R, Sweet AR, Einstein DJ, Karzai F, Gulley JL, Chang P, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Ye H, Sowalsky AG. Low Abundance of Circulating Tumor DNA in Localized Prostate Cancer. JCO Precis Oncol 2019. PubMed
  • Poluben L, Puligandla M, Neuberg D, Bryke CR, Hsu Y, Shumeiko O, Yuan X, Voznesensky O, Pihan G, Adam M, Fraenkel E, Rasnic R, Linial M, Klymenko S, Balk SP, Fraenkel PG. Genomic Characteristics of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Patients Exposed to Ionizing Radiation following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. Am J Hematol 2018. PubMed
  • Russo JW, Gao C, Bhasin SS, Voznesensky OS, Calagua C, Arai S, Nelson PS, Montgomery B, Mostaghel EA, Corey E, Taplin ME, Ye H, Bhasin M, Balk SP. Downregulation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Accelerates Progression to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res 2018. PubMed
  • Chen S, Cai C, Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Ma F, Yuan X, Simon NI, Gray NS, Balk SP. BMX-Mediated Regulation of Multiple Tyrosine Kinases Contributes to Castration Resistance in Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res 2018; 78:5203-5215. PubMed
  • Russo JW, Liu X, Ye H, Calagua C, Chen S, Voznesensky O, Condulis J, Ma F, Taplin ME, Einstein DJ, Balk SP, Chen S. Phosphorylation of androgen receptor serine 81 is associated with its reactivation in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Lett 2018; 438:97-104. PubMed
  • Mostaghel EA, Zhang A, Hernandez S, Marck B, Zhang X, Tamae D, Biehl H, Tretiakova MS, Bartlett J, Burns JF, Dumpit RF, Ang LS, Matsumoto AM, Penning TM, Balk SP, Morrisey C, Corey E, True L, Nelson PS. Contribution of Adrenal Glands to Intra-tumor Androgens and Growth of Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2018. PubMed
  • Arai S, Jonas O, Whitman MA, Corey E, Balk SP, Chen S. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Increase MCL1 Degradation and in Combination with BCLXL/BCL2 Inhibitors Drive Prostate Cancer Apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res 2018. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Bhasin M, Van Allen EM, Loda M, Lis RT, Montaser-Kouhsari L, Calagua C, Ma F, Russo JW, Schaefer RJ, Voznesensky OS, Zhang Z, Bubley GJ, Montgomery B, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Taplin ME, Balk SP. Neoadjuvant-intensive androgen deprivation therapy selects for prostate tumor foci with diverse subclonal oncogenic alterations. Cancer Res 2018. PubMed
  • Xu X, Balk SP, Isaacs WB, Ma J. Calcium signaling: an underlying link between cardiac disease and carcinogenesis. Cell Biosci 2018; 8:39. PubMed
  • Exley MA, Wilson SB, Balk SP. Isolation and Functional Use of Human NKT Cells. Curr Protoc Immunol 2017; 119:14.11.1-14.11.20. PubMed
  • Calagua C, Russo J, Sun Y, Schaefer R, Lis R, Zhang Z, Mahoney KM, Bubley GJ, Loda M, Taplin ME, Balk SP, Ye H. Expression of PD-L1 in Hormone-naïve and Treated Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Abiraterone Acetate plus Prednisone and Leuprolide. Clin Cancer Res 2017. PubMed
  • Zang T, Taplin ME, Tamae D, Xie W, Mesaros C, Zhang Z, Bubley G, Montgomery B, Balk SP, Mostaghel EA, Blair IA, Penning TM. Testicular vs adrenal sources of hydroxy-androgens in prostate cancer. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2017; 24:393-404. PubMed
  • Exley MA, Friedlander P, Alatrakchi N, Vriend L, Yue S, Sasada T, Zeng W, Mizukami Y, Clark J, Nemer D, LeClair K, Canning C, Daley H, Dranoff G, Giobbie-Hurder A, Hodi FS, Ritz J, Balk SP. Adoptive Transfer of Invariant NKT Cells as Immunotherapy for Advanced Melanoma: A Phase I Clinical Trial. Clin Cancer Res 2017. PubMed
  • Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Association Between Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Prostate Cancer Resistance to Abiraterone and Enzalutamide. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35:2103-2105. PubMed
  • Mostaghel EA, Cho E, Zhang A, Alyamani M, Kaipainen A, Green S, Marck B, Sharifi N, Wright JL, Gulati R, True LD, Loda M, Matsumoto AM, Tamae D, Penning TN, Balk SP, Kantoff PW, Nelson PS, Taplin ME, Montgomery B. Association of Tissue Abiraterone Levels and SLCO Genotype with Intraprostatic Steroids and Pathologic Response in Men with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2017. PubMed
  • Patnaik A, Swanson KD, Csizmadia E, Solanki A, Landon-Brace N, Gehring MP, Helenius K, Olson BM, Pyzer AR, Wang LC, Elemento O, Novak J, Thornley TB, Asara JM, Montaser L, Timmons JJ, Morgan TM, Wang Y, Levantini E, Clohessy JG, Kelly K, Pandolfi PP, Rosenblatt JM, Avigan DE, Ye H, Karp JM, Signoretti S, Balk SP, Cantley LC. Cabozantinib Eradicates Advanced Murine Prostate Cancer by Activating Anti-Tumor Innate Immunity. 2017. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Kissick HT, Gerrin S, Schaefer R, Xia Z, Russo J, Arredouani MS, Bubley GJ, Sanda MG, Li W, Ye H, Balk SP. Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers Emerge Through Branched Evolution of Clonal Gleason Pattern 3 and 4. Clin Cancer Res 2017. PubMed
  • Han GC, Hwang J, Wankowicz SAM, Zhang Z, Liu D, Cibulskis C, Gaviola GC, Ghazikhanian V, McKay RR, Bubley GJ, Carter SL, Balk SP, Hahn WC, Taplin ME, Van Allen EM. Genomic Resistance Patterns to Second-Generation Androgen Blockade in Paired Tumor Biopsies of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. JCO Precis Oncol 2017. PubMed
  • Montgomery B, Tretiakova MS, Joshua AM, Gleave ME, Fleshner N, Bubley GJ, Mostaghel EA, Chi KN, Lin D, Sanda M, Novotny W, Wu K, Kantoff PW, Marck B, Plymate S, Balk SP, Nelson PS, Matsumoto AM, Lis RT, Kibel A, Haas GP, Krivoshik A, Hannah A, Taplin ME. Neoadjuvant Enzalutamide Prior to Prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res 2016. PubMed
  • Gao S, Gao Y, He HH, Han D, Han W, Avery A, Macoska JA, Liu X, Chen S, Ma F, Chen S, Balk SP, Cai C. Androgen Receptor Tumor Suppressor Function Is Mediated by Recruitment of Retinoblastoma Protein. Cell Rep 2016; 17:966-976. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, McKay RR, Werner L, Mostaghel EA, Lis RT, Voznesensky O, Zhang Z, Marck B, Matsumoto AM, Domachevsky L, Zukotynski KA, Bhasin MK, Bubley GJ, Montgomery B, Kantoff PW, Balk SP. A phase II trial of abiraterone combined with dutasteride for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2016. PubMed
  • Gerrin SJ, Sowalsky AG, Balk SP, Ye H. Mutation profiling indicates high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia as distant precursors of adjacent invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostate 2016. PubMed
  • Li Z, Alyamani M, Li J, Rogacki K, Abazeed M, Upadhyay SK, Balk SP, Taplin ME, Auchus RJ, Sharifi N. Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy. Nature 2016; 533:547-51. PubMed
  • Ma F, Ye H, He HH, Gerrin SJ, Chen S, Tanenbaum BA, Cai C, Sowalsky AG, He L, Wang H, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 drives WNT pathway activation in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest 2016. PubMed
  • Gao S, Ye H, Gerrin S, Wang H, Sharma A, Chen S, Patnaik A, Sowalsky AG, Voznesensky O, Han W, Yu Z, Mostaghel E, Nelson PS, Taplin ME, Balk SP, Cai C. ErbB2 Signaling Increases Androgen Receptor Expression in Abiraterone-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2016. PubMed
  • Liu X, Han W, Gulla S, Simon NI, Gao Y, Cai C, Yang H, Zhang X, Liu J, Balk SP, Chen S. Protein phosphatase 1 suppresses androgen receptor ubiquitylation and degradation. 2015. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Balk SP. Has the Time Arrived for Biomarker-Directed Therapy in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer? JAMA Oncol 2015. PubMed
  • Tamae D, Mostaghel E, Montgomery B, Nelson PS, Balk SP, Kantoff PW, Taplin ME, Penning TM. The DHEA-sulfate depot following P450c17 inhibition supports the case for AKR1C3 inhibition in high risk localized and advanced castration resistant prostate cancer. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2015. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Sager R, Schaefer RJ, Bratslavsky G, Pandolfi PP, Balk SP, Kotula L. Loss of Wave1 gene defines a subtype of lethal prostate cancer. 2015; 6:12383-91. PubMed
  • Hsieh CL, Botta G, Gao S, Li T, Van Allen EM, Treacy DJ, Cai C, He HH, Sweeney CJ, Brown M, Balk SP, Nelson PS, Garraway LA, Kantoff PW. PLZF, a tumor suppressor genetically lost in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, is a mediator of resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. Cancer Res 2015. PubMed
  • Chen EJ, Sowalsky AG, Gao S, Cai C, Voznesensky O, Schaefer R, Loda M, True LD, Ye H, Troncoso P, Lis RL, Kantoff PW, Montgomery RB, Nelson PS, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Taplin ME. Abiraterone treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer selects for progesterone responsive mutant androgen receptors. Clin Cancer Res 2015. PubMed
  • Plymate SR, Bhatt RS, Balk SP. Taxane resistance in prostate cancer mediated by AR-independent GATA2 regulation of IGF2. Cancer Cell 2015; 27:158-9. PubMed
  • Lu J, Lonergan PE, Nacusi LP, Wang L, Schmidt LJ, Sun Z, Van der Steen T, Boorjian SA, Kosari F, Vasmatzis G, Klee GG, Balk SP, Huang H, Wang C, Tindall DJ. The cistrome and gene signature of androgen receptor splice variants in castration resistant prostate cancer cells. J Urol 2015. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Xia Z, Wang L, Zhao H, Chen S, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Li W. Whole transcriptome sequencing reveals extensive unspliced mRNA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res 2015. PubMed
  • Cai C, He HH, Gao S, Chen S, Yu Z, Gao Y, Chen S, Chen MW, Zhang J, Ahmed M, Wang Y, Metzger E, Schüle R, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 has dual functions as a major regulator of androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Cell Rep 2014; 9:1618-27. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Montgomery B, Logothetis CJ, Bubley GJ, Richie JP, Dalkin BL, Sanda MG, Davis JW, Loda M, True LD, Troncoso P, Ye H, Lis RT, Marck BT, Matsumoto AM, Balk SP, Mostaghel EA, Penning TM, Nelson PS, Xie W, Jiang Z, Haqq CM, Tamae D, Tran N, Peng W, Kheoh T, Molina A, Kantoff PW. Intense androgen-deprivation therapy with abiraterone acetate plus leuprolide acetate in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer: results of a randomized phase II neoadjuvant study. J Clin Oncol 2014. PubMed
  • Chin YR, Yuan X, Balk SP, Toker A. PTEN-deficient tumors depend on AKT2 for maintenance and survival. 2014. PubMed
  • Yu Z, Cai C, Gao S, Simon NI, Shen HC, Balk SP. Galeterone prevents androgen receptor binding to chromatin and enhances degradation of mutant androgen receptor. Clin Cancer Res 2014. PubMed
  • Yuan X, Cai C, Chen S, Chen S, Yu Z, Balk SP. Androgen receptor functions in castration-resistant prostate cancer and mechanisms of resistance to new agents targeting the androgen axis. Oncogene 2014. PubMed
  • Sun T, Wang X, He HH, Sweeney CJ, Liu SX, Brown M, Balk S, Lee GS, Kantoff PW. MiR-221 promotes the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of HECTD2 and RAB1A. Oncogene 2014. PubMed
  • Hsieh CL, Fei T, Chen Y, Li T, Gao Y, Wang X, Sun T, Sweeney CJ, Lee GS, Chen S, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M, Kantoff PW. Enhancer RNAs participate in androgen receptor-driven looping that selectively enhances gene activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014. PubMed
  • Balk SP. Androgen receptor functions in prostate cancer development and progression. Asian J. Androl. 2014. PubMed
  • Yu Z, Chen S, Sowalsky AG, Voznesensky OS, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Cai C, Balk SP. Rapid induction of androgen receptor splice variants by androgen deprivation in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2014; 20:1590-600. PubMed
  • Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Lange P, Lin DW, Taplin ME, Balk S, Ellis W, Kantoff P, Marck B, Tamae D, Matsumoto AM, True LD, Vessella R, Penning T, Hunter Merrill R, Gulati R, Montgomery B. Targeted androgen pathway suppression in localized prostate cancer: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32:229-37. PubMed
  • Liu F, Zhang X, Weisberg E, Chen S, Hur W, Wu H, Zhao Z, Wang W, Mao M, Cai C, Simon NI, Sanda T, Wang J, Look AT, Griffin JD, Balk SP, Liu Q, Gray NS. Discovery of a selective irreversible BMX inhibitor for prostate cancer. ACS Chem Biol 2013. PubMed
  • Wang H, He L, Ma F, Regan MM, Balk SP, Richardson AL, Yuan X. SOX9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) expression and Wnt/β-catenin activation in breast cancer. J Biol Chem 2013; 288:6478-87. PubMed
  • Cai C, Wang H, He HH, Chen S, He L, Ma F, Mucci L, Wang Q, Fiore C, Sowalsky AG, Loda M, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP, Yuan X. ERG induces androgen receptor-mediated regulation of SOX9 in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest 2013; 123:1109-22. PubMed
  • Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Clonal progression of prostate cancers from Gleason grade 3 to grade 4. Cancer Res 2013; 73:1050-5. PubMed
  • Xu K, Wu ZJ, Groner AC, He HH, Cai C, Lis RT, Wu X, Stack EC, Loda M, Liu T, Xu H, Cato L, Thornton JE, Gregory RI, Morrissey C, Vessella RL, Montironi R, Magi-Galluzzi C, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M. EZH2 oncogenic activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells is Polycomb-independent. Science 2012; 338:1465-9. PubMed
  • Shen HC, Shanmugasundaram K, Simon NI, Cai C, Wang H, Chen S, Balk SP, Rigby AC. In silico discovery of androgen receptor antagonists with activity in castration resistant prostate cancer. Mol Endocrinol 2012; 26:1836-46. PubMed
  • Lynch L, Nowak M, Varghese B, Clark J, Hogan AE, Toxavidis V, Balk SP, O'Shea D, O'Farrelly C, Exley MA. Adipose tissue invariant NKT cells protect against diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorder through regulatory cytokine production. Immunity 2012; 37:574-87. PubMed
  • Wang H, Xu Y, Fang Z, Chen S, Balk SP, Yuan X. Doxycycline regulated induction of AKT in murine prostate drives proliferation independently of p27 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor downregulation. PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e41330. PubMed
  • Exley MA, Wilson B, Balk SP. Isolation and functional use of human NKT cells. Curr Protoc Immunol 2010; Chapter 14:Unit 14.11. PubMed
  • Jiang X, Chen S, Asara JM, Balk SP. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway activation in PTEN deficient prostate cancer cells is independent of receptor tyrosine kinases and mediated by the p110{beta} and p110{delta} catalytic subunits. J Biol Chem 2010; 285:14980-9. PubMed
  • Porcelli S, Brenner MB, Greenstein JL, Terhorst C, Balk SP, Bleicher PA. Pillars Article: Recognition of Cluster of Differentiation 1 Antigens by Human CD4-CD8- CytolyticT Lymphocyte. Nature. 1989. 341: 447-450. J Immunol 2010; 184:3306-9. PubMed
  • Nowak M, Lynch L, Yue S, Ohta A, Sitkovsky M, Balk SP, Exley MA. The A2aR adenosine receptor controls cytokine production in iNKT cells. Eur J Immunol 2010; 40:682-7. PubMed
  • Yue SC, Nowak M, Shaulov-Kask A, Wang R, Yue D, Balk SP, Exley MA. Direct CD1d-mediated stimulation of APC IL-12 production and protective immune response to virus infection in vivo. J Immunol 2010; 184:268-76. PubMed
  • Nowak M, Arredouani MS, Tun-Kyi A, Schmidt-Wolf I, Sanda MG, Balk SP, Exley MA. Defective NKT cell activation by CD1d+ TRAMP prostate tumor cells is corrected by interleukin-12 with alpha-galactosylceramide. PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e11311. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Regan MM, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ, Duggan SE, Werner L, Beer TM, Ryan CW, Mathew P, Tu SM, Denmeade SR, Oh WK, Sartor O, Mantzoros CS, Rittmaster R, Kantoff PW, Balk SP. Phase II study of androgen synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride in asymptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:7099-105. PubMed
  • Lu B, Maqsodi B, Yang W, McMaster GK, Perner S, Regan M, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Rubin M, Sanda MG. Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer specimens by a novel assay using branched DNA. Urology 2009; 74:1156-61. PubMed
  • Sartor O, Nakabayashi M, Taplin ME, Ross RW, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Oh WK. Activity of dutasteride plus ketoconazole in castration-refractory prostate cancer after progression on ketoconazole alone. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2009; 7:E90-2. PubMed
  • Chen S, Kesler CT, Paschal BM, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and activity are regulated by an association with protein phosphatase 1. J Biol Chem 2009; 284:25576-84. PubMed
  • Cai C, Wang H, Xu Y, Chen S, Balk SP. Reactivation of androgen receptor-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG gene expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2009; 69:6027-32. PubMed
  • Wang Q, Li W, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Xu K, Yu J, Chen Z, Beroukhim R, Wang H, Lupien M, Wu T, Regan MM, Meyer CA, Carroll JS, Manrai AK, Jänne OA, Balk SP, Mehra R, Han B, Chinnaiyan AM, Rubin MA, True L, Fiorentino M, Fiore C, Loda M, Kantoff PW, Liu XS, Brown M. Androgen receptor regulates a distinct transcription program in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cell 2009; 138:245-56. PubMed
  • Cai C, Portnoy DC, Wang H, Jiang X, Chen S, Balk SP. Androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells is suppressed by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2. Cancer Res 2009; 69:5202-9. PubMed
  • Shen HC,Balk SP. Development of androgen receptor antagonists with promising activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Cell 2009; 15:461-3. PubMed
  • Sun T, Wang Q, Balk S, Brown M, Lee GS, Kantoff P. The role of microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2009; 69:3356-63. PubMed
  • Yuan X,Balk SP. Mechanisms mediating androgen receptor reactivation after castration. Urol Oncol 2009; 27:36-41. PubMed
  • Hur W,Velentza A,Kim S,Flatauer L,Jiang X,Valente D,Mason DE,Suzuki M,Larson B,Zhang J,Zagorska A,Didonato M,Nagle A,Warmuth M,Balk SP,Peters EC,Gray NS. Clinical stage EGFR inhibitors irreversibly alkylate Bmx kinase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:5916-9. PubMed
  • Song W,van der Vliet HJ,Tai YT,Prabhala R,Wang R,Podar K,Catley L,Shammas MA,Anderson KC,Balk SP,Exley MA,Munshi NC. Generation of antitumor invariant natural killer T cell lines in multiple myeloma and promotion of their functions via lenalidomide: a strategy for immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:6955-62. PubMed
  • Kaur R,Yuan X,Lu ML,Balk SP. Increased PAK6 expression in prostate cancer and identification of PAK6 associated proteins. Prostate 2008; 68:1510-6. PubMed
  • Hodgson MC,Shen HC,Hollenberg AN,Balk SP. Structural basis for nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment by antagonist-liganded androgen receptor. Mol Cancer Ther 2008; 7:3187-94. PubMed
  • Bhatt RS, Landis DM, Zimmer M, Torregrossa J, Chen S, Sukhatme VP, Iliopoulos O, Balk S, Bubley GJ. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha: effect on radiation sensitivity and differential regulation by an mTOR inhibitor. BJU Int 2008; 102:358-63. PubMed
  • Bao BY,Chuang BF,Wang Q,Sartor O,Balk SP,Brown M,Kantoff PW,Lee GS. Androgen receptor mediates the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B15 and B17 genes. Prostate 2008; 68:839-48. PubMed
  • Exley MA,Hou R,Shaulov A,Tonti E,Dellabona P,Casorati G,Akbari O,Akman HO,Greenfield EA,Gumperz JE,Boyson JE,Balk SP,Wilson SB. Selective activation, expansion, and monitoring of human iNKT cells with a monoclonal antibody specific for the TCR alpha-chain CDR3 loop. Eur J Immunol 2008; 38:1756-66. PubMed
  • van der Vliet HJ,Wang R,Yue SC,Koon HB,Balk SP,Exley MA. Circulating myeloid dendritic cells of advanced cancer patients result in reduced activation and a biased cytokine profile in invariant NKT cells. J Immunol 2008; 180:7287-93. PubMed
  • Taplin ME, Manola J, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Bubley GJ, Smith M, Barb D, Mantzoros C, Gelmann EP, Balk SP. A phase II study of mifepristone (RU-486) in castration-resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones. BJU Int 2008; 101:1084-9. PubMed
  • Wang H, Leav I, Ibaragi S, Wegner M, Hu GF, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in human fetal prostate epithelium and enhances prostate cancer invasion. Cancer Res 2008; 68:1625-30. PubMed
  • Balk SP, Knudsen KE. AR, the cell cycle, and prostate cancer. Nucl Recept Signal 2008; 6:e001. PubMed
  • Barb D, Neuwirth A, Mantzoros CS, Balk SP. Adiponectin signals in prostate cancer cells through Akt to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Endocr Relat Cancer 2007; 14:995-1005. PubMed
  • Jiang X, Borgesi RA, McKnight NC, Kaur R, Carpenter CL, Balk SP. Activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Bmx/Etk mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:32689-98. PubMed
  • van der Vliet HJ, Koon HB, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Exploiting regulatory T-cell populations for the immunotherapy of cancer. J Immunother 2007; 30:591-5. PubMed
  • Hodgson MC, Astapova I, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Activity of androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide in prostate cancer cells is independent of NCoR and SMRT corepressors. Cancer Res 2007; 67:8388-95. PubMed
  • Li H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Gaziano JM, Pollak M, Stampfer MJ, Ma J. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) gene polymorphisms, circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels and prostate cancer. Prostate 2007; 67:1354-61. PubMed
  • van Dervliet HJ, Koon HB, Yue SC, Uzunparmak B, Seery V, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Effects of the administration of high-dose interleukin-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:2100-8. PubMed
  • Cai C, Chen SY, Zheng Z, Omwancha J, Lin MF, Balk SP, Shemshedini L. Androgen regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclasealpha1 mediates prostate cancer cell proliferation. Oncogene 2007; 26:1606-15. PubMed
  • Masiello D, Mohi MG, McKnight NC, Smith B, Neel BG, Balk SP, Bubley GJ. Combining an mTOR Antagonist and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 2007; 6:195-201. PubMed
  • Wang H, McKnight NC, Zhang T, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in normal prostate basal cells and regulates androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67:528-36. PubMed
  • Reddy GK, Balk SP. Clinical utility of microarray-derived genetic signatures in predicting outcomes in prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2006; 5:187-9. PubMed
  • Chen S, Xu Y, Yuan X, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and stabilization in prostate cancer by cyclin-dependent kinase 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103:15969-74. PubMed
  • van der Vliet HJ, Balk SP, Exley MA. Natural killer T cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:5921-3. PubMed
  • Yuan X, Li T, Wang H, Zhang T, Barua M, Borgesi RA, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP. Androgen receptor remains critical for cell-cycle progression in androgen-independent CWR22 prostate cancer cells. Am J Pathol 2006; 169:682-96. PubMed
  • Xu Y, Chen SY, Ross KN, Balk SP. Androgens induce prostate cancer cell proliferation through mammalian target of rapamycin activation and post-transcriptional increases in cyclin D proteins. Cancer Res 2006; 66:7783-92. PubMed
  • Ilyinskii PO, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA. CD1d mediates T-cell-dependent resistance to secondary infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in vitro and immune response to EMCV infection in vivo. J Virol 2006; 80:7146-58. PubMed
  • Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, Golub TR, Rubin MA, Penning TM, Febbo PG, Balk SP. Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2006; 66:2815-25. PubMed
  • Chen SY, Wulf G, Zhou XZ, Rubin MA, Lu KP, Balk SP. Activation of beta-catenin signaling in prostate cancer by peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1-mediated abrogation of the androgen receptor-beta-catenin interaction. Mol Cell Biol 2006; 26:929-39. PubMed